Climate change is a pressing issue that has the potential to directly impact the Ngami people, who heavily rely on natural resources for their livelihoods. The Okavango Delta, where the Ngami people reside, is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. According to Prof. Joseph Elizeri Mbaiwa of the Okavango Research Institute, climate change poses a significant threat to the functioning of the delta and, consequently, the well-being of the Ngami people.
Speaking of food security and climate change, Mbaiwa pointed out the Okavango region is among those in Botswana with the highest rates of poverty, followed by Kgalagadi. In the event that the temperatures rise more, it will become impossible for rural communities to walk outside and harvest enough food.
One of the key indicators of climate change in Botswana, including the Okavango region, is the changing precipitation patterns and rising temperatures. As a semi-arid country, Botswana already faces water scarcity issues hence the need to get down to brass tacks. Climate change exacerbates this problem, making water an even scarcer commodity. This is particularly concerning for the Ngami people, as the Okavango Delta supports their livelihoods through tourism, water supply, fishing, and farming. The tourism industry, in particular, heavily relies on water for various purposes such as bathrooms, laundry, irrigated gardens, and swimming pools. Without adequate water resources, the tourism industry would suffer, impacting the income and employment opportunities of the Ngami people.
Moreover, extreme temperatures resulting from climate change can have adverse effects on tourists’ health and their overall experience in the delta. Uncomfortable experiences due to extreme temperatures can deter tourists from visiting the region, further impacting the tourism industry and the livelihoods of the Ngami people. The vulnerability of all aspects related to climate change, including water scarcity and extreme temperatures, is high due to the low degree of reversibility they pose.
Another significant threat posed by climate change to the Ngami people is the socioeconomic impact, particularly in terms of unemployment and poverty. The Okavango region has one of the highest poverty rates in Botswana. Rising temperatures and changing weather patterns can make it increasingly difficult for rural communities to harvest enough food, exacerbating the already dire situation of poverty and food insecurity. The lack of adequate food resources can lead to malnutrition, illnesses, and loss of life among the Ngami people.
The impact of climate change on the Ngami people is not limited to their livelihoods and socioeconomic well-being. The Okavango River, which is a vital resource for the Ngamiland region, is also affected by climate change. Decreasing water levels and floods in the Okavango River have a direct impact on the availability of resources such as fish and water lilies, which the Ngami people depend on for their sustenance. The drying up of the Thamalakane River in Maun, a town in the region, further exacerbates the decline in fishing opportunities and the overall impact on the ecosystem. “The Thamalakane River in Maun is becoming dry, so it means fishing is going to go down and most of animals in the delta will also be affected,” said Mbaiwa.
The consequences of climate change on the Ngami people extend beyond their immediate community. Tourism is the second-largest economic sector in Botswana, with a significant portion of it concentrated in the northern part of the country, including the Okavango region. If water levels continue to drop due to climate change, it will have a detrimental impact on the country’s tourism industry as a whole. This highlights the interconnectedness of climate change and its effects on various sectors of the economy.
Unfortunately, the tourism sector in Botswana, including the Ngami region, has not been adequately prepared for the impacts of climate change. Research conducted by Prof. Wame L. Hambira of the Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources reveals that tourism operators are often unaware of the potential consequences of climate change on their main source of capital, which is the natural environment. This lack of awareness hinders their ability to adequately prepare for and mitigate the impacts of climate change.
“From the researches that we conducted we noticed that they were not aware of the impact of climate change and how it would operate their main source of capital which is the nature itself. They were just concentrating on the profits and how they are managed, if they are not aware of the impact that means that they will not prepare adequately for the consequences,” said Hambira.
To address the challenges posed by climate change, it is crucial to raise awareness across all sectors, including tourism. While much research has focused on agriculture, water, and energy sectors, the tourism sector, which is a significant contributor to the country’s economy, should not be neglected. By increasing awareness and understanding of the impacts of climate change, tourism operators can better prepare for the consequences and implement sustainable practices to mitigate its effects.
In conclusion, climate change poses a direct threat to the Ngami people and their way of life. The Okavango Delta, upon which they depend for their livelihoods, is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Water scarcity, extreme temperatures, and changing weather patterns directly affect the tourism industry, employment opportunities, and food security of the Ngami people. It is imperative to raise awareness and take proactive measures to address the challenges posed by climate change in order to protect the well-being and future of the Ngami people and Climate change is a pressing issue that has the potential to directly impact the Ngami people, who heavily rely on natural resources for their livelihoods. The Okavango Delta, where the Ngami people reside, is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
BPC Signs PPA with Sekaname Energy
The Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) has taken a significant step towards diversifying its energy mix by signing a power purchase agreement with Sekaname Energy for the production of power from coal bed methane in Mmashoro village. This agreement marks a major milestone for the energy sector in Botswana as the country transitions from a coal-fired power generation system to a new energy mix comprising coal, gas, solar, and wind.
The CEO of BPC, David Kgoboko, explained that the Power Purchase Agreement is for a 6MW coal bed methane proof of concept project to be developed around Mmashoro village. This project aligns with BPC’s strategic initiatives to increase the proportion of low-carbon power generation sources and renewable energy in the energy mix. The use of coal bed methane for power generation is an exciting development as it provides a hybrid solution with non-dispatchable sources of generation like solar PV. Without flexible base-load generation, the deployment of non-dispatchable solar PV generation would be limited.
Kgoboko emphasized that BPC is committed to enabling the development of a gas supply industry in Botswana. Sekaname Energy, along with other players in the coal bed methane exploration business, is a key and strategic partner for BPC. The successful development of a gas supply industry will enable the realization of a secure and sustainable energy mix for the country.
The Minister of Minerals & Energy, Lefoko Moagi, expressed his support for the initiative by the private sector to develop a gas industry in Botswana. The country has abundant coal reserves, and the government fully supports the commercial extraction of coal bed methane gas for power generation. The government guarantees that BPC will purchase the generated electricity at reasonable tariffs, providing cash flow to the developers and enabling them to raise equity and debt funding for gas extraction development.
Moagi highlighted the benefits of developing a gas supply industry, including diversified primary energy sources, economic diversification, import substitution, and employment creation. He commended Sekaname Energy for undertaking a pilot project to prove the commercial viability of extracting coal bed methane for power generation. If successful, this initiative would unlock the potential of a gas production industry in Botswana.
Sekaname Energy CEO, Peter Mmusi, emphasized the multiple uses of natural gas and its potential to uplift Botswana’s economy. In addition to power generation, natural gas can be used for gas-to-liquids, compressed natural gas, and fertilizer production. Mmusi revealed that Sekaname has already invested $57 million in exploration and infrastructure throughout its resource area. The company plans to spend another $10-15 million for the initial 6MW project and aims to invest over $500 million in the future for a 90MW power plant. Sekaname’s goal is to assist BPC in becoming a net exporter of power within the region and to contribute to Botswana’s transition to cleaner energy production.
In conclusion, the power purchase agreement between BPC and Sekaname Energy for the production of power from coal bed methane in Mmashoro village is a significant step towards diversifying Botswana’s energy mix. This project aligns with BPC’s strategic initiatives to increase the proportion of low-carbon power generation sources and renewable energy. The government’s support for the development of a gas supply industry and the commercial extraction of coal bed methane will bring numerous benefits to the country, including economic diversification, import substitution, and employment creation. With the potential to become a net exporter of power and a cleaner energy producer, Botswana is poised to make significant strides in its energy sector.
UDC deadlock: Boko, Ndaba, Reatile meet
It is not clear as to when, but before taking a festive break in few weeks’ time UDC leaders would have convened to address the ongoing deadlock surrounding constituency allocation in the negotiations for the 2024 elections. The leaders, Duma Boko of the UDC, Mephato Reggie Reatile of the BPF, and Ndaba Gaolathe of the AP, are expected to meet and discuss critical matters and engage in dialogue regarding the contested constituencies.
The negotiations hit a stalemate when it came to allocating constituencies, prompting the need for the leaders to intervene. Representatives from the UDC, AP, and BPF were tasked with negotiating the allocation, with Dr. Patrick Molotsi and Dr. Philip Bulawa representing the UDC, and Dr. Phenyo Butale and Wynter Mmolotsi representing the AP.
The leaders’ meeting is crucial in resolving the contentious issue of constituency allocation, which has caused tension among UDC members and potential candidates for the 2024 elections. After reaching an agreement, the leaders will engage with the members of each constituency to gauge their opinions and ensure that the decisions made are favored by the rank and file. This approach aims to avoid unnecessary costs and conflicts during the general elections.
One of the main points of contention is the allocation of Molepolole South, which the BNF is adamant about obtaining. In the 2019 elections, the UDC was the runner-up in Molepolole South, securing the second position in seven out of eight wards. Other contested constituencies include Metsimotlhabe, Kgatleng East and West, Mmadinare, Francistown East, Shashe West, Boteti East, and Lerala Maunatlala.
The criteria used for constituency allocation have also become a point of dispute among the UDC member parties. The issue of incumbency is particularly contentious, as the criterion for constituency allocation suggests that current holders of UDC’s council and parliamentary seats should be given priority for re-election without undergoing primary elections. Disadvantaged parties argue that this approach limits democratic competition and hinders the emergence of potentially more capable candidates.
Another disputed criterion is the allocation based on the strength and popularity of a party in specific areas. Parties argue that this is a subjective criterion that leads to disputes and favoritism, as clear metrics for strength and visibility cannot be defined. The BNF, in particular, questions the demands of the new entrants, the BPF and AP, as they lack a traceable track record to support their high expectations.
The unity and cohesion of the UDC are at stake, with the BPF and AP expressing dissatisfaction and considering withdrawing from the negotiations. Therefore, it is crucial for the leaders to expedite their meeting and find a resolution to these disputes.
In the midst of these negotiations, the BNF has already secured 15 constituencies within the UDC coalition. While the negotiations are still ongoing, BNF Chairman Dr. Molotsi revealed that they have traditionally held these constituencies and are expecting to add more to their tally. The constituencies include Gantsi North, Gantsi South, Kgalagadi North, Kgalagadi South, Good Hope – Mmathethe, Kanye North, Kanye South, Lobatse, Molepolole North, Gaborone South, Gaborone North, Gaborone Bonnignton North, Takatokwane, Letlhakeng, and Tlokweng.
The resolution of the contested constituencies will test the ability of the UDC to present a united front in the 2024 National Elections will depend on the decisions made by the three leaders. It is essential for them to demonstrate maturity and astuteness in resolving the constituency allocation deadlock and ensuring the cohesion of the UDC.
Repeat flight-risk suspect pays the piper
In Botswana, the Constitution Section 5 (3) (b) provides that conditions of bail are necessary to ensure that an accused appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial. These conditions may include restrictions on interfering with state witnesses, the payment of a certain amount, the provision of sureties, the submission of travel documents, reporting to the police regularly, and appearing for all court mentions or proceedings. Failure to abide by these conditions can result in the revocation of bail. Robert Seditseng, a murder accused who has been detained since 2016, is currently facing the consequences of not adhering to his bail conditions – therefore paying the piper.
Despite numerous unsuccessful bail applications over the past five years, Gaborone High Court judge Michael Leburu denied Seditseng bail this week. Seditseng had requested to be set free before his trial starts on April 12th, but his freedom will now depend on the verdict. He is charged with the murder of his girlfriend, Siscah Mutukee, on June 22nd, 2016, in Charleshill.
Judge Leburu ruled that Seditseng is not a candidate for bail due to being a flight risk, as he has previously absconded from court. Defense lawyer David Ndlovu pleaded with the court to consider the time Seditseng has already spent in prison, but Leburu questioned whether there was any guarantee that Seditseng would not abscond again, given that he had done so twice before.
An affidavit from Investigations officer (IO), Constable Kedibonye Botsalo, supports the view that Seditseng is not a suitable candidate for bail due to his tendency to abscond when granted bail. The affidavit explains that Seditseng was initially denied bail by the magistrate court due to ongoing investigations and the possibility of tampering with evidence. However, a concession was later made by the prosecution, and Seditseng was granted conditional bail by the lower court.
The court documents reveal that Seditseng failed to appear before court on March 7th, 2016, without providing any explanation. As a result, a warrant for his arrest was issued. The case proceeded without him on several occasions until he finally appeared before court on July 13th, 2017. On that day, Seditseng’s bail was revoked due to his inability to provide valid reasons for his absences.
On October 4th, 2017, Seditseng was granted bail for the second time. However, he was once again absent from court on October 31st, 2017, without providing any reasons. He continued to be absent from court on five subsequent occasions until his arrest and appearance before court on August 30th, 2018.
During a period of nine months, Seditseng absconded from court without providing any reasons for his actions. This repeated pattern of absconding demonstrates a clear disregard for the bail conditions and raises concerns about his willingness to appear for trial.
Given Seditseng’s history of absconding and the potential risk of him doing so again, Judge Leburu’s decision to deny him bail is justified. The purpose of bail is to ensure the accused’s presence at trial, and Seditseng has repeatedly shown a lack of commitment to fulfilling this obligation. It is crucial to prioritize the safety of the community and the integrity of the justice system by keeping flight-risk suspects like Seditseng in custody until their trial is concluded.
In conclusion, the denial of bail to repeat flight-risk suspect Robert Seditseng is a necessary measure to ensure his appearance at trial. His history of absconding from court and failure to provide valid reasons for his actions demonstrate a disregard for the bail conditions and raise concerns about his willingness to face justice. By denying him bail, the court is prioritizing the safety of the community and upholding the integrity of the justice system.