U.S. Government’s Department of State last week criticized Botswana government for decreasing efforts in fighting human trafficking; saying the situation recently resulted with conducive environment for trafficking people in and out of the country.
In the new “Trafficking In Persons June 2023” report released last week, the U.S. Government’s Department of State noted that its latest investigations reveals that in Botswana traffickers exploit unemployed women, individuals from rural areas, agricultural workers, and children in sex and labor trafficking.
According to the US government recent investigations traffickers exploit Batswana girls and women in sex trafficking in brothels, bars, and in the streets. “Traffickers use social media and other online platforms to post false employment opportunities to recruit and exploit girls in sex trafficking. Some parents in low-income rural communities send their children to live and work for wealthier relatives or acquaintances in cities or in agriculture and cattle farming in remote areas; traffickers abuse this cultural practice to exploit children in sex and labor trafficking.”
The US government indicated that its investigations in Botswana found that some families in Botswana subject young Batswana domestic workers to conditions indicative of labor trafficking and added that some trafficked individuals are denied education and basic necessities, not paid salaries, confined and verbally, physically, or sexually abused. “Owners of private cattle farms and ranches in Botswana’s rural west, particularly in Ghanzi district, exploit adults and children from the San community in labor trafficking. Most cattle farm owners are white farmers from South Africa, whose relationships with local government officials allow them to avoid inspection.” The US government noted that Botswana’s laws allow for conviction of political prisoners, and the government may have subjected such prisoners to unlawful forced labor for private gain, including to private contractors outside of prisons. “Traffickers exploit Batswana adults and children in labor trafficking, including domestic servitude and agricultural work, in other African countries, including Cameroon, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.”
The US government noted that recent reports indicate that at Dukwi refugee camp traffickers exploit child refugees in sex trafficking. Botswana hosts more than 900 refugees and asylum-seekers, primarily located in Dukwi Refugee Camp. The US government stated that the refugees are vulnerable to sex and labor trafficking. “Reports indicate traffickers exploit child refugees in sex trafficking around the camp with foreign truck drivers transiting Botswana often as the customers. The refugees are generally required to live within the camps with restricted movement and limited access to educated and livelihood opportunities, increasing their vulnerability to sex and labor trafficking.”
The US Government reveals that traffickers intercept and exploit Central African economic migrants transiting Botswana to South Africa. “Traffickers, including organized networks, transport some child sex trafficking victims from neighboring countries, including South Africa, Zimbabwe, and DRC, as well as Nigeria and East African countries, through Botswana en route to exploitation in South Africa. Traffickers exploit foreign nationals, including children, from other African countries and South Asia, in
According to the US government human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Botswana, and traffickers exploit victims from Botswana abroad, “The Government of Botswana does not fully meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so. These efforts included investigating slightly more trafficking crimes; continuing to refer all identified victims to services; increasing cooperation with foreign governments to investigate and prosecute cross-border trafficking crimes; and seeking trafficking survivors’ input in drafting a new National Anti-human trafficking Policy (NAP). However, the government did not demonstrate overall increasing efforts compared with the previous reporting period, even considering the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, if any, on its anti-trafficking capacity.”
“The government did not initiate any new prosecutions or convict any traffickers. The government did not amend the anti-trafficking law to remove sentencing provisions that allow fines in lieu of imprisonment. The government identified fewer trafficking victims and remained without formal procedures to identify and refer victims to care, hindering overall protection efforts. The government continued to rely on civil society to provide most victim services and did not report providing adequate in-kind or financial support for these efforts. Government efforts to regulate labor recruitment agencies remained minimal, increasing Batswana migrant workers’ vulnerability to trafficking. Therefore Botswana was downgraded to Tier 2 Watch List.”
Commenting on prosecution of accused in human trafficking, the US government stated that “Botswana government decreased anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts. The 2014 Anti-Human Trafficking Act criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and defined trafficking broadly to include all child labor. The law prescribed penalties of up to 25 years’ imprisonment, a fine of 500,000 pula ($39,250), or both, which were sufficiently stringent; however, by allowing for a fine in lieu of imprisonment, with regard to sex trafficking, these penalties were not commensurate with those for other serious crimes, such as rape.”
According to “Trafficking In Persons June 2023” report during the 2023 reporting period Botswana government investigated only four human trafficking cases and that the government did not convict any traffickers. “The government did not convict any traffickers, compared with four convictions in the previous reporting period. Observers reported the protracted nature of the judicial system and the lack of qualified interpreters hindered authorities’ ability to efficiently prosecute trafficking crimes. The government did not report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of government employees complicit in human trafficking crimes. Observers continued to report the government largely permitted child labor in agriculture, in some cases forced, to continue without oversight. In previous years, observers reported low-level officials, including police officers and labor inspectors, may have ignored trafficking crimes, including by providing advance notice to farm owners before labor inspections,” reads the report in part.
According to the report law enforcement agencies such as Botswana Police Service still lacks understanding of human trafficking. “The Botswana Police Service (BPS) training academy continued to include a human trafficking module in its curriculum to educate recruits and in its in-service training for officers on the anti-trafficking law, victim identification, and investigation of human trafficking cases. The DPP conducted two trainings for Batswana government officials on various human rights topics, including human trafficking. Despite trainings, observers reported some officials continued to lack an understanding of human trafficking, which may have led to cases going unidentified.”
Recent figures shared in the report shows that government identified 14 trafficking victims, compared with 31 victims identified in the previous reporting period. Of the 14 victims identified, traffickers exploited 10 in labor trafficking, and four in unspecified forms of trafficking; 13 were adults (nine men and four women) and one was a girl; all 14 victims were foreign nationals from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Zambia.
The report shows that Botswana government has decreased protection efforts for victims of human trafficking. “Observers reported the lack of available shelters resulted in victims temporarily staying in hotels or police stations, hindering the provision of overall protection services. Observers reported protection services available to trafficking victims remained limited and short-term, and government officials often quickly returned victims to their home communities without additional services. The government did not have a formal policy of providing long-term shelter, residency, or legal alternatives to removal to countries in which foreign trafficking victims would face retribution or hardship.”
The report noted that in Botswana there is lack of formal identification of victims of human trafficking among vulnerable populations. “Due to a lack of formal identification procedures, authorities may have detained or deported some unidentified trafficking victims among vulnerable populations, particularly individuals in commercial sex or undocumented migrants.”
The report stated that Botswana government decreased efforts to prevent trafficking. The Anti-Human Trafficking Committee (AHTC), chaired by the Ministry of Justice (MOJ), coordinated the government’s anti-trafficking efforts and met regularly and according to the report Botswana government did not report the amount of funding allocated to anti-trafficking efforts, compared with 1.19 million pula ($93,410) to support district councils’ anti-trafficking efforts and 622,980 pula ($48,900) for national coordination and capacity building in the previous reporting period. “The AHTC continued to implement the 2018-2022 NAP, which expired during the reporting period. In 2021, the MOJ, in partnership with the AHTC, civil society stakeholders, and trafficking survivors, began drafting an updated NAP; however, the government did not report finalizing the updated NAP.”
In the report the US government revealed that during the previous reporting period, Botswana government drafted amendments to the 2014 anti-trafficking act to increase the penalties for trafficking crimes. “However, the amendments remained pending parliament’s review for the second consecutive reporting period. The government, in partnership with an international organization, previously drafted implementing regulations for the 2014 anti-trafficking act to make it easier for judges and prosecutors to use and submitted them to the Anti-Human Trafficking Committee (AHTC); the implementing regulations remained pending the AHTC’s approval for the third consecutive reporting period.”
According to the US, the government required licensure and standards for labor recruiters under the Employment Act and added that however, it remained without procedures to screen for potential trafficking indicators in the labor recruitment process. “Without means for enforcement, the government relies on recruitment agencies to proactively screen and self-report; the government did not report recruitment agencies making such efforts. Moreover, Botswana law do not prohibit labor recruitment practices that traffickers commonly exploit, including charging of recruitment fees, confiscation of workers’ passports, unilateral contract switching, and withholding of wages.
It has emerged that in previous years, Botswana government collaborated with an international organization to identify fraudulent recruitment agencies operating within the country and the government did not report making such efforts during the reporting period.
The US government noted that its observers in Botswana found that labor inspectors overseeing working conditions in the country conducted inspections, primarily in the agriculture sector. “However, the government did not report training labor inspectors on human trafficking or efforts to report potential trafficking crimes identified during inspections to law enforcement. Labor inspectors continued to lack adequate resources to conduct routine inspections throughout the country, including in informal sectors where children remained especially vulnerable to trafficking.”
The newly elected Botswana Movement for Democracy (BMD) Executive Committee led by Pastor Reverend Thuso Tiego has declared their disapproval of homosexuality saying it is anti-Christianity and Botswana culture.
Speaking at a Media Briefing this past week, BMD President Tiego said Botswana has been a country that respects culture hence endorsing homosexuality will be catastrophic.
“Our young generation grew up being taught about types of families, if homosexuality is passed, at what age will our children be introduced to homosexuality?” he rhetorically asked.
He continued: “If we are going to allow homosexuality then the next day, another person will come and say he wants to practice bestiality. What are we going to do because we have already allowed for this one (homosexuality) and at the end it will be a total mess.” Bestiality is sexual relations between a human being and an animal
This according to Tiego will give those people an opportunity thus disrupting known Botswana beliefs. He however dismissed any notion that the decision to condemn homosexuality should not be linked to the top two of the committee who are men of cloth. “This is a decision by the whole committee which respects the culture of Botswana and it should not be perceived that because we are clergymen we are influencing them, but even if we do, politics and religion are inter-related.”
Of late the church and the human rights organization have been up in arms because of the high court decision to allow for same sex marriages. Ministries ganged up, petitioned parliament and threatened to vote out any legislator who will support the idea. The ruling party, BDP which was to table the amendment in the constitution, ended up deferring it.
BMD President further revealed that he is aware of what really led to the split of the party and he is on course to transform as they approach 2024 elections.
“There are so many factors that led to split of party amongst others being leadership disputes, personal egos and ambitions, toxic factionalism and ideological difference just to mention a few, but we are transforming the party and I am confident that we will do well in the coming elections.
In addition, Tiego is hopeful that they will take the government as they feel it is time to rebrand Botswana politics and bring in fresh blood of leaders.
He further hinted that they are coming with positive transformation as they eye to better the lives of Batswana.
“When we assume government, we promise to be transparent, free and fair electoral processes and encourage pluralism as way of getting back to our roots of being a democratic country as it seems like the current government has forgotten about that important aspect,” Tiego explained.
Reeling under the increasing barrage of stinging international sanctions, the isolated North Korean regime is reportedly up to its old trickery, this time in a more complicated web of murky operations that have got the authorities of five southern African countries at sixes and sevens as they desperately try to tighten their dragnet around Pyongyang’s spectral network of illicit ivory and rhino horn trade.
It is an intricate network of poaching for elephant tusks and rhino horns that spans Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe, with the main sources of the contraband being Botswana and South Africa.
The syndicate running the illegal trafficking of the poached contraband is suspected to be controlled by two shadowy North Korean government operatives with close links to one Han Tae-song, a disgraced North Korean career diplomat who, while serving as the second secretary at his country’s embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe, was expelled in 1992 after he was fingered as the mastermind behind a similar illegal ring that was busted by the country’s authorities.
This disturbing tale of malfeasance by North Korean state actors is as real as it gets.
Recent reports indicate that authorities in the source countries are jointly battling to plug holes created by the shadowy syndicate which allegedly has on its payroll, park rangers, border officials and cross-border truck drivers.
Even more disturbing are allegations that some wildlife officials are conniving in misrepresenting numbers of retrieved rhino horns and ivory from poachers and getting kickbacks for their involvement in the pilfering of ivory and rhino horns from government stockpiles especially in South Africa.
In a shocking and well-orchestrated movie-style heist in South Africa, thieves in June this year made off with 51 rhino horns after breaking into a very secure government stockpile facility of the North West Parks Board (NWPB).
While some suspects from South Africa and Malawi were nabbed in a government sting operation, none of the rhino horns – 14 of which were very large specimens that can fetch serious money on the black market – were recovered.
A report of the heist said the police were lethargic by eight hours in responding to an emergency alert of the robbery which was described by North West police spokesperson Brigadier Sabata Mokgwabone as “… a case of business robbery…”
Thabang Moko, a security analyst in Pretoria says the military precision in the burglary, delays in police response, and failure to recover the stolen rhino horns is dubious. “This development lends credence to suspicions that some government officials could be part of a shadowy syndicate run by foreign buyers of rhino horns and ivory,” Moko says.
It is understood that in light of the rhino horns heist in North West, South Africa’s Minister of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, Barbara Creecy on 1 August, shared her concerns to her counterparts in Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique calling for greater regional cooperation to combat the illegal wildlife trafficking which she believes is being masterminded by the Far East’s buyers of the ill-gotten horns and ivory.
It is believed that foreign kingpins involved in perpetuating the illegal trade are mainly North Koreans vying against Vietnamese and Cambodian buyers in the quest for dominance of the illicit trade in rhino horns and ivory sourced from southern Africa.
Creecy’s concerns, which she also shared to South Africa’s state-run broadcaster SABC, echoed Moko’s worries that the North West heist may have been an inside job.
According to Creecy, there was a need for the International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol)’s greater involvement in joint investigations by affected countries as there were indications of ‘local knowledge’ of the North West job and that syndicates, “Higher up the value chain actually recruit park rangers to the illegal ivory trade network.”
Botswana’s Environment and Tourism Minister Philda Kereng is on national record admitting that poaching was a source of headaches to her government, especially considering that the daring poachers were making successful incursions into secure areas protected by the Botswana Defence Force (BDF).
This came after poachers gunned down two white rhinos at the BDF-protected Khama Rhino Sanctuary in August 2022 despite Kereng putting the time frame of the killings between October and November 2022.
Kereng hinted at the existence of Asian controlled syndicates and acknowledged that the surge in poaching in Botswana is driven by the “increased demand for rhino horn on the international market” where in Asia rhino horns are believed to be potent in traditional medicines and for their imagined therapeutic properties.
Botswana has in the past recorded an incident of a group of an all-Asian reconnaissance advance team teams being nabbed by the country’s intelligence service in the Khama Rhino Sanctuary.
Masquerading as tourists, the group, with suspected links to North Korea and China, was discovered to be collecting crucial data for poachers.
Also according to reliable information at hand, an undisclosed number of wildlife parks rangers were arrested between September 2022 and January this year, after information surfaced that they connived in the smuggling of rhino horns and ivory from Botswana.
One of the rangers reportedly admitted getting paid to falsify information on recovered horns and ivory which were smuggled out of the country through its vast and porous eastern border with South Africa, and making their way to their final destination in Mozambique via back roads and farmlands in South Africa and Zimbabwe.
“We are aware that in the past year, some rhino horns and ivory illegally obtained from Botswana through poaching activities and shady deals by some elements within our wildlife and national parks department, have found their way out of the country and end up in Mozambique’s coastal ports for shipment to the Far East,” a Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) source says.
Independent investigations reveal that two North Korean buyers, one of them only identified as Yi Kang-dae [confirmed to be an intelligence official in the country’s state security apparatus], acting on behalf of the disgraced Han Tae-song, financed the entire operation on two occasions between 2022 and 2023, to move at least 18 rhino horns and 19 elephant tusks from Botswana, including pay-offs – mostly to border patrol and customs officials for safe passage – along the knotty conduit across South Africa’s north western lands, then across south-eastern Zimbabwe into Mozambique.
According to a trusted cross-border transport operator in Zimbabwe, the rhino horns and elephant tusks were illegally handed over to smugglers in Mozambique at an obscure illegal crossing point 15km north of Zimbabwe’s Forbes Border Post in November 2022 and February this year.
The end buyers in Mozambique? “It is quite an embarrassment for us, but we have solid evidence that two North Korean buyers, one of them who is linked to a former notorious diplomat from that country who has been in the past involved in such illegal activities in Zimbabwe, oversaw the loading of rhino horns and ivory onto a China-bound ship from one of our ports,” a top government source in Maputo said before declining to divulge more information citing ongoing investigations.
Yi Kang-dae and his accomplice’s whereabouts are presently unclear to Mozambican authorities whose dragnet reportedly recently netted some key actors of the network. Han Tae-song currently serves as North Korea’s ambassador to the United Nations in Switzerland.
North Korean diplomats have in the past used Mozambique as a final transit point for the shipment of rhino horns to the Far East.
In May 2015, Mozambican authorities nabbed two North Koreans, one of them a Pretoria-based diplomat and political counsellor identified as Pak Chol-jun after they were caught in possession of 4.5kg of rhino horn pieces and US$100,000 cash.
Pak’s accomplice, Kim Jong-su, a Taekwondo instructor also based in South Africa, was fingered as a North Korean spy and returned to North Korea under suspicious circumstances on the heels of Pak’s expulsion from South Africa in November 2016.
A security source in Zimbabwe closely following current developments says there is a big chance that Han Tae-song may have revived the old smuggling network he ran while posted in Zimbabwe in the 90s.
“The biting international sanctions against North Korea in the past decade may have prompted Han to reawaken his network which has been dormant for some time,” the source says. “There is no telling if the shady network is dead now given that Han’s two front men have not been nabbed in Mozambique. More joint vigilance is needed to destroy the operation at the source and at the end of the line.”
North Korean diplomats have, as early as October 1976, been fingered for engaging in illegal activities ranging from possession of and trade in ivory pieces, trade in diamonds and gold, the manufacture and distribution of counterfeit currencies, pharmaceuticals, and the sale on the black market, of a paraphernalia of drugs, cigarettes, alcohol and other trinkets on the back of protracted and biting international sanctions against the reclusive state for its gross human rights abuses against its own people and flagrant nuclear tests.
These illegal activities, according to a US Congressional Research Service (CRS) report, have raked in at least US$500m annually for the Pyongyang regime. Other global studies estimate that North Korea’s illegal earnings from the black market are around $1bn annually, and are being channelled towards the country’s nuclear weapons programme, while ordinary North Koreans continue to die of mass starvation.
In February 2014, Botswana, citing systematic human rights violations, severed ties with North Korea with the former’s president Mokgweetsi Masisi (then vice president) calling North Korea an ‘evil nation’ on 23 September 2016, at a United Nations General Assembly forum in Washington, USA.
Botswana has close to 132,000 elephants, more than any of its four neighbouring countries, namely Angola, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, according to a 2022 Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA) Elephant Survey.
The rhino population in Botswana has significantly dwindled, with poaching a leading cause of the decimation of the country’s rhinos. Despite dehorning and relocating its diminishing rhino population from the extensive Okavango Delta to undisclosed sanctuaries, Botswana has since 2018, lost 138 rhinos to poachers.
The sharp spike in rhino poaching in Botswana came after the country’s government made a controversial decision to disarm park rangers in early 2018.
In a statement delivered in November 2022 to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) CoP-19 in Panama, the Botswana government instead blamed the surge in poaching to a shift of foreign-sponsored organised poaching organisations from South Africa to Botswana.
“This increase in rhino poaching in Botswana coincided with a decline of rhino poaching in South Africa from 2018 to 2020, suggesting a displacement of the poaching syndicates from South Africa to Botswana,” the statement reads. “The recent decline in rhino poaching in Botswana (2021 and 2022, relative to 2020) coincides with the increase in rhino poaching in Namibia and South Africa, further suggesting displacement of the poaching syndicates across the sub-region.”
According to the Botswana government, as of 13 November 2022 the country has secreted its shrinking rhinos (only 285 white rhinos and 23 black rhinos) in undisclosed locations within the country’s borders.
South Africa has close to 15,000 rhinos. Between January and June 2022 alone, poachers killed 260 rhinos in South Africa for their horns. The country is home to the majority of Africa’s white rhinos, a species whose existence remains under threat of extinction due to poaching.
The major threat posed by foreign state actors including those from North Korea, to southern Africa’s rhino and elephant population remains grim as the bulk of the rhino horns and elephant tusks reportedly continue finding their way to the Far East, where China is being used as the major distribution centre.