The mining sector is the mainstay of the economy of Botswana. Botswana is often argued to be a model success story for the African continent due to its natural resource governance and long-term, sustainable growth, however, Botswana is underperforming due to government policy incoherence.
The 2022 Botswana Minerals Policy presented by the Minister of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security, Lefoko Moagi in Parliament finally addressed the critical questions on the mineral policy and how mining sustainability can be achieved.
“The Government is committed to the development of the country’s mineral deposits, evident by the introduction of the minerals policy,” said Moagi. He highlighted that the policy provides, in a compact and easily accessible manner, strategic direction on management and development of the country’s finite mineral resources.
He says the policy was developed taking into account the emerging issues such as beneficiation and value addition, citizen economic empowerment and local participation and the use of technology to produce man made mineral products.
The policy objectives are that; it is intended to maximise national benefits from minerals development while providing a competitive environment for investors. The Government is to ensure adherence to the environmental and other related policies for sustainability in accordance with the best international practices.
The six chapter document continues that the Minerals Policy provides a framework for minerals development in light of challenges such as the dependency of Botswana’s economy on minerals, more especially diamonds.
Another challenge is the increasing competition for investors with other countries as more and more mining jurisdictions improve their policies and mineral potential; the need for maximization and equitable distribution of benefits such as revenues, employment generation, and local supply of goods and services and the heightened consumer sensitivity to the issues of climate change, the environment and ethics.
The policy maintains among others the principle of ensuring protection of the environment and public safety. It reads; “Mining operations can have significant negative impacts on the environment and public safety unless appropriate avoidance or mitigation measures are taken. The Government will establish and enforce safeguards that are consistent with responsible mining, taking into account the interests of stakeholders in accordance with internationally accepted best practices.”
Very little research has been carried out on the environmental impacts of mining in the country. The few studies available mainly concentrate on the economic benefits. Greenhouse gas emissions at mining operations currently account for about 10% of global emissions.
The policy statement on the matter of the environment is that “the government will promote adherence to best industry practice on environmental issues in the minerals development process to protect the environment and ensure sustainable use of the resources.”
The objective of the policy statement is to ensure environmental, economic and social considerations are integrated effectively in decisions on mineral issues and the implementation of the policy.
Moagi highlighted that to achieve the objective, the government will ensure adherence to the polluter pays principle. Mining operations will also be undertaken in accordance with the approved Environmental Management System consistent with the best international industry standards.
Operators will undertake rehabilitation and mitigation of environmental damage arising from their operations as well as application of responsible mine closure, decommissioning and rehabilitation plans.
When debating the policy Nata/Gweta Member of Parliament Polson Majaga said the Minerals Policy was overdue, indicating that it was time Botswana maximised benefits from the mineral sector because the country is rich in mineral resources.
Bobonong MP Taolo Lucas advised that going forward, it should be ensured that the country benefits more in terms of financial shares from mining partnerships because the minerals are from Botswana. Adding that there should be a law that enforcing mines to give government or citizen-owned companies at least 25 per cent stake in all mines in Botswana. This arising from minerals resources from Botswana benefiting foreign investors more than the locals and government, citing the 50/50 stake agreement between DeBeers government saying the financial gains favour DeBeers than the government.
The Botswana Mineral Accounts Technical Report of 2018-2019 by the Botswana Geoscience Institute policy messages for the government of Botswana drawn from the report were that; ‘the legislation or mineral policy should ensure that sustainable mining is core since environmental and climate change issues were on the rise.’
The report advised that Botswana needs to explore diversification in two-fold: being diversification in Mining: “Growth of the industrial minerals have proved to add significant value to the mining revenue basket. Diversifying mining from diamonds will not only add value but will cushion and promote mining sustainability as well as cushion the nation from global external shocks.
Second, Research to promote a forward backward linkage among different sectors to identify sectors that can stimulate economic performance are needed, especially with many strategies implemented by the government yet observing a slow pace of economic transformation.
The report added that research needs to be done to assess the future for diamond mining in Botswana and the Botswana mining tax policy needs to accommodate downstream beneficiation to urge companies not to export raw materials.
Botswana produces diamonds, coal, soda ash, copper, nickel, silver, gold, industrial minerals and semi-precious stones. Other known deposits are uranium, iron ore, coal -bed-methane and platinum group metals (PGM).There are also known occurrences of other industrial minerals in Botswana such as talc, slate, and phosphate.
African Scientists and Experts Call for the adoption of a Harm Reduction in approach in Public Health Strategies and Tobacco Control. Media have a critical role to play in accelerating Harm Reduction efforts by informing and sensitizing cigarette smokers on the availability and benefits of alternative, potentially lower risk products to cigarretes. Traditional cessation and smoking prevention norms are not the only ways that smokers who cannot or donâ€™tâ€™ want to quit can make healthier choices that cause less harm to themselves and those around them.
This was said during the 2nd Harm Reduction Exchange conference for African journalists held in Nairobi, Kenya on the 1st of December 2022. Speaking at the Harm Reduction Exchange Conference, Integra Africa Principal Dr. Tendai Mhizha emphasized the role that journalists and media houses should play in handling misinformation and disinformation in tobacco harm reduction discourse that is actually perpetuating the death and disease caused by people continuing to smoke combustible cigarettes. â€śThere has been a lot of disinformation surrounding the topic of nicotine and the alleged negative effects that e-cigarettes have on public health.
This has led to policies that disfavour risk reduces products and narratives that completely deny their benefits. The media have the difficult responsibility to curb the scourge of disinformation and misinformation on harm reduction just like on other socio-political stances that are prescriptive and do not uphold consumersâ€™ right to healthier lifestyle choices,â€ť Dr Mhizha said.
The Harm Reduction Exchange cast a spotlight on alternative ways to reduce harm among tobacco smokers. Held under the theme Harm Reduction: Making a difference in Africa, the conference focused on the progress being made through harm reduction strategies in all fields related to public health such as drug and alcohol abuse, excessive sugar consumption, skin lightening and other addictive and behavioral practices. A wide array of harm reduction strategies and initiatives that are deployed towards reducing unnecessary deaths through non-communicable diseases were presented and discussed.
It applies to areas where there is a need to reduce the harm associated with a practice or consumption of a substance that is overused in society leading to increased morbidity and mortality. â€śInnovative Harm Reduction initiatives will help to keep more Africans alive. Tobacco Harm Reduction initiatives, including the use of popular e-cigarettes, nicotine patches and chewing gums, have continued to generate a lot of misunderstanding in both the public health community and in the media. However, there is evidence that the use of potentially less harmful alternatives than cigarettes for those who are not willing or cannot give up smoking with currently approved methods may be a solution, not necessarily the best for everyone but by far better than continuous smoking.
Tobacco Harm Reduction was introduced to mitigate the damage caused by cigarette smokingâ€”the most dangerous form of tobacco use, and the leading cause of preventable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. â€śNicotine has an addictive potential but plays a minor role in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Across the world, there is growing interest among experts in novel approaches towards tobacco control and there is an ongoing discussion that reducing the negative effects of smoking can be also achieved by tobacco harm reduction,â€ť Dr. Kgosi Letlape, an ophthalmologist and President of Africa Medical Association and the president of the Association of Medical Councils of Africa, said.
Tobacco cessation is a key factor in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Abstinence from tobacco smoking is one of the primary goals for health promotion and management globally but it is unachievable in a huge amount of cases. This task remains unaccomplished despite extensive public campaigns on the health dangers of tobacco smoking. Thus, the development of novel strategies to reduce smoking is imperative. Moreover, the use of innovations in smoking products has been currently adopted by several smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking.
â€śThe Harm Reduction approach prevents drug-related deaths and overdose fatalities and is the only way out for addicts. In the same way these alternative technologies can reduce tobacco harm and accelerate the journey to a smoke-free world as they reduce exposure to toxicants,â€ť Bernice Apondi, A Policy Manager at Voices of Community Action and Leadership Kenya (VOCAL-Kenya), said.
During the Harm Reduction Exchange, journalists drawn from Southern, West and East African countries, including: Nigeria, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Eswatini, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe debated and set forth several resolutions in regards to the present and future as well as the challenges and progress made in Harm Reduction,and science-led regulation.
The Harm Reduction Exchange brought together high-level policy makers, physicians, scientists and health policy experts with media stakeholders from Africa in a lively mix of speeches, presentations, and panel discussions. The key note speakers included Prof Abdoul Aziz Kasse, Ms Bernice Opondi, Joseph Magero, Jonathan Fell, Chimwemwe Ngoma, Clive Bates, Dr. Kgosi Letlape, Dr. Vivian Manyeki and Dr. Tendai Mhizha.
Over 2,000 civil servants in the public sector have been interdicted for a variety of reasons, the majority of which are criminal in nature.
According to reports, some officers have been under interdiction for more than two years because such matters are still being investigated. Information reachingÂ WeekendPostÂ shows that local government, particularly councils, has the highest number of suspended officers.
In its annual report, the Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) revealed that councils lead in corrupt activities throughout the country, and dozens of council employees are being investigated for alleged corrupt activities. It is also reported that disciplined forces, including the Botswana Defence Force (BDF), police, and prisons, and the Directorate of Intelligence and Security (DIS) have suspended a significant number of officers.
The Ministry of Education and Skills Development has also recorded a good number of teachers who have implicated in love relationships with students, while some are accused of impregnating students both in primary and secondary school. Regional education officers have been tasked to investigate such matters and are believed to be far from completion as some students are dragging their feet in assisting the investigations to be completed.
This year, Mmadinare Senior Secondary reportedly had the highest number of pregnancies, especially among form five students who were later forcibly expelled from school. Responding to this publicationâ€™s queries, Permanent Secretary to the Office of the President Emma Peloetletse said, â€śas you might be aware, I am currently addressing public servants across the length and breadth of our beautiful republic. Due to your detailed enquiry, I am not able to respond within your schedule,â€ť she said.
She said some of the issues raised need verification of facts, some are still under investigation while some are still before the courts of law.
Meanwhile, it is close to six months since the Police Commissioner Keabetwe Makgophe, Director General of the Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) Tymon Katlholo and the Deputy Director of the DIS Tefo Kgothane were suspended from their official duties on various charges.
Efforts to solicit comment from trade unions were futile at the time of going to press.
Some suspended officers who opted for anonymity claimed that they have close to two years while on suspension. One stated that the investigations that led him to be suspended have not been completed.
â€śIt is heartbreaking that at this time the investigations have not been completed,â€ť he toldÂ WeekendPost, adding that â€śwhen a person is suspended, they get their salary fully without fail until the matter is resolvedâ€ť.
Makgophe, Katlholo and Kgothane are the three most high-ranking government officials that are under interdiction.
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) and some senior government officials are abuzz with reports that President Mokgweetsi Masisi has requested his Vice President, Slumber Tsogwane not to contest the next general elections in 2024.