Connect with us
Advertisement

BoB inflation forecast deemed myopic

BoB Governor: Moses Pelaelo

A research paper released on Monday has exposed Bank of Botswana(BoB)’s inflation forecast model as not having far reaching predictions and its accuracy only relevant for a short time.

The research titled “Evaluation of the Performance of the Bank of Botswana’s Inflation Forecasting Model” was conducted by central bank’s Research & Financial Stability Department
It was authored by Deputy Director, Innocent Molalapata and economists Lesego Molefhe, Lizzy Sediakgotla and Daniel Balondi.

According to the quartet, to support its forward-looking monetary policy framework, BoB produces inflation forecasts using a quarterly projection model, known as the “Core-Model.” The inflation forecast provides guidance on the appropriate monetary policy interventions necessary to achieve and maintain the Bank’s primary objective of price stability, they wrote.

The economists further said it is critical to have a model that produces inflation forecasts that do not deviate significantly from the actual data, without justifiable accounting, as it can misinform policymaking.

“According to the results, on average, the Bank’s Model has a good forecasting accuracy in the short term, however the model has a low predictive power of medium-term inflation movements, reflecting higher uncertainty associated with economic events in the distant future. Regarding prediction bias, the Model tends to under-predict inflation, which is a result of changing economic conditions domestically and externally,” said the quartet.

The four brains merged to produce a paper titled “Evaluation of the Performance of the Bank of Botswana’s Inflation Forecasting Model” which sought to evaluate the performance of the central bank’s inflation forecasting model over a 10-year period, from December 2008, a period of the Great Recession, to December 2018.

While they were putting the central bank policy practice under the knife, the objectives of the study are to assess the Model’s forecast bias by employing the Mean Forecast Error and determination of the size of the forecast error using the Mean Absolute Forecast Error (MAFE).

The researchers explained that BoB uses a forward-looking monetary policy framework that is guided by a forecasting and policy analysis system (FPAS). According to them, the FPAS is the Bank’s main policy analysis and forecasting framework while the Core-Model, which forms part of the FPAS, is used to produce medium-term forecasts for macroeconomic variables, such as inflation and the output gap.

“The CoreModel is based on Botswana’s monetary policy transmission mechanism. It captures the essential macroeconomic relationships, primarily the impact of monetary policy on output and inflation. The model provides a comprehensive view on future economic developments and possible policy actions necessary to achieve the Bank’s inflation objective.

It also explores possible alternative scenarios to the baseline forecast. Given the Bank’s forward looking monetary policy framework, forecasts from the Core-Model are used as input into deliberations of monetary policy formulation and direction by the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC),” further explained the economists.

Going sharp in their analysis knife, the economists said the Core-Model is calibrated in accordance with the behaviour of key relationships in the monetary policy transmission process, therefore the model output is expected to be a close match to actual data, assuming an adequately functioning transmission mechanism, ceteris paribus.

However, according to the four experts, it is not easy to have a model that is able to produce forecasts that accurately fit actual or realised data due to, among others, future unanticipated changes in the structure of the economy; model misspecification; historical data measurement errors; inaccurate parameter estimation or calibration; volatility in the analysed variables; inappropriate policy design and decision; as well as domestic and external shocks in the economy.

As the quartet’s thesis was reminiscent of the monetary policy practice dating back to the Great Recession, they said some of the shocks are generated by financial imbalances, as was evident during the 2008/9 global financial crisis, as well as lack of congruence of monetary, financial stability and fiscal policies towards achieving macroeconomic stability.

“Meanwhile, a model that produces an inflation forecast path that deviates significantly from the actual data, without justifiable accounting, is not desirable as it can misinform policy making. In practice, it is essential for forecasts to be approximate to observe values as that provides reliable information that can be useful in guiding policy formulation and implementation.

In this context, it is important to assess the forecasting ability of the Core-Model regularly in order to identify and attend to discrepancies, if any, and where necessary, enhance its forecasting ability,” said the four researchers.

When delving into the ‘Forecast Errors for Headline Inflation’ the four brains said statistically, on average, with the exception of the first two periods, BoB has consistently under predicted both short-term and medium-term headline inflation for the period December 2008 to December 2018.

The economists further elaborated that the bias is more pronounced in the medium-term forecasts, precisely from the 5th quarter to the 8th quarter. Under-prediction of short-term inflation (for four quarters) is, however, relatively small at around 0.05 percentage points on average, while medium term inflation forecasts have on average been 0.69 percentage points lower than actual inflation, they said.

Last week, after maintaining the Bank Rate at 3.75 percent, BoB changed its inflation forecast of October which projected inflation to revert back to the objective range in the third quarter of 2021. The fresh inflation forecast which was done last week during an MPC meeting is that inflation will revert to the objective range of 3-6 percent sooner, in the second quarter of next year.

According to Head of Research & Financial Stability Department, Tshokologo Kganetsano, the quick reversion of inflation is due to the increase in transport fares, adjustment in fuel prices and postal office tariffs. However RMB Botswana researchers who use a model different than that of BoB, said the effect of Kganetsano’s stated price movements is unlikely to see inflation average beyond 3 percent in 2021. They expect price growth to register an average of 1.9 percent in 2020 and 2.5 percent in 2021.

The demand side is expected to act as a drag on inflation in 2021 as the bulk of Botswana’s work force will be faced with unemployment challenges as businesses continue to reel from the effects of the pandemic, said the researchers. The RMB Botswana researchers said they expect the effect of upside pressures on the headline figure to remain limited, coupled with an uncertain economic outlook as a result of the disruption caused by covid-19.

RMB Botswana explained that the model they use is a “bottom-up approach” which is based on the baskets and data from Statistics Botswana. “We track each basket and stress it according to any recent or upcoming developments-so in the case of transport, we observe international prices and the likelihood of BERA will adjust local prices. If the likelihood is high enough, then we factor into the model.

Basically we do this for all the baskets and since they are weighing according to what Stats Bots provides, we are then able to provide an annual forecast. This is then done according to different scenarios-in the case some of our expectations don’t happen or we have surprise announcements. As the year goes along, we keep amending to incorporate any changes. For longer term forecasts, beyond two years, we use a regression and make adjustments to the outcome based on our research houses expectations as well as regional outlooks,” explained a researcher at RMB Botswana after their inflation forecast.

The other side of the coin

The four researchers who studied Botswana’s Performance of BoB’s inflation forecasting model have reached to a conclusion that, according to the results from a rolling four-year sample of forecast errors using MAFE, the forecasting performance of the model used by BoB has improved with time.

According to the research quartet, the innovations in the model structure, constant engagements between the Modelling Team and Monetary Policy Technical Committee members and Sector Specialists, as well as capacity building programmes on modelling and forecasting which the Bank continues to invest heavily in.

In the conclusion paragraph, the four economists said BoB’s forecasting framework has a high level of precision, particularly in the short term. However precision of the inflation forecasts in the medium term is limited by increased uncertainty associated with the longer horizon, they further stated in the report.

The researchers said BoB is not addressing the issue of the forecasts being less far reaching, but this is partly addressed by updates of forecasts for successive MPC meetings and Monetary Policy Reports (MPRs). They said continual efforts are being made to improve the inflation forecast performance in both the short- and medium-term.

“As part of ongoing improvements to the forecasting ability, since the last half of 2017, an assumption on the rate of crawl for the ensuing year is made, compared to the earlier approach in which the rate of crawl was assumed to be constant,” said the researchers.

The four researcher further advised that going forward it is crucial for BoB to continue to invest in capacity improvements to facilitate updating of the model (and its calibration) to reflect the evolving structure of the economy through infusion of relevant methods and skills inputs.

Another advice was in recognition of the influence of administered prices on inflation, the four saying it is important for BoB to broaden relations with all stakeholders in order to be informed of impending changes in administrative prices, to inform both forecasts and policy posture.

“Engagement of the MPC by the forecasting team in the formulation of initial conditions, external assumptions and alternative scenarios must be strengthened further and should include a discussion of the policy rate.

Finally, where possible, BoB should strive to address impediments to monetary policy transmission, particularly the credit channel, to enhance the effectiveness of the transmission of monetary policy. High precision and reliable forecasts are important for the transparency and predictability of monetary policy, which enhances policy credibility,” said the researchers.

Business

Botswana loses mineral resources to unwise investments 

24th November 2021
Botswana loses mineral resources to unwise investments

Botswana’s failure to diversify the economy away from mineral revenue could be coming back to haunt the southern African nation as there are strong signs that it is losing its mineral resources and revenue to a string of unwise investment practices. 

This is revealed in a report titled “Wealth Accounting in Botswana” released by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development recently which shows that while the volatility in mineral resource depletion probably reflects the nature of the mining industry, which is subjected to uncertainties in the global markets for diamonds in particular; however, from 2015 to 2018, official figures show “that mineral resource depletion is rising and caching up (sic) with the rate at which capital stock is being accumulated.” 

The capital stock of a country is part of the national wealth which is reproducible, it consists of all resources which contributes to the production of goods and services. On the other hand, mineral resource depletion is the result of an excess of consumption over its production. 

While the report shows positive trends such as non-mining sector replacing the mining industry in contributing to economic growth and Botswana “increasing its overall asset base to offset the gradual depletion of its exhaustible natural resources,” it however, shows alarming trends.

Reads the report in part, “Generally, the growth of capital stock is declining overtime and it is even surprising to see that growth of capital stock at its replacement value is also declining overtime. This could also suggest the need to investigate the productive capacity of capital stock that the country invests in.”  

Furthermore, the report says, “this could suggest the need to investigate the quality of capital stock, since low quality capital stock is subjected to rapid wearing out, resulting in decline in the future economic benefits of investment.”

 Most likely, the report says, “this reflects unproductive investment by government in public infrastructure – for instance; infrastructure being over-priced, badly designed and poorly implemented and even badly selected/prioritised, with marginal investments that are unlikely to deliver significant benefits.” 

The report says Botswana’s fiscal strategy is to finance its recurrent spending through non-mining revenue, whereas development spending is intended to be financed through mineral revenues. “It is worth noting that when mineral revenue is used for development spending, it is derived from mineral resource depletion,” says the report says. It is therefore, the report says, important to track and see if the rate of depletion surpasses the rate at which capital stock is accumulated.

The report says Government allocates a significant portion of mineral revenues to development programmes, which include infrastructure development that forms part of capital stock. It says some of the factors which could be the cause of a declining rate of accumulation of capital stock could be associated with lack of prioritising spending. 

“It is indicated that during the period between 2012/13 and 2017/18, the rate at which actual spending on development programmes has been growing is less than the growth rate of budgets, indicating that underspending of budgets is an increasing problem. Underspending on development projects due to weak implementation capacity could be one cause of a declining rate of capital stock accumulation,” reveals the report. 

According to the report, as a mineral-led economy, Botswana has long aimed to transform its mineral revenues into other classes of assets, namely physical, human and financial capital. This is supported by fiscal policies in place. 

It says Botswana’s fiscal rule has been adopted in the country’s National Development Plan (NDP) 11. This rule, the report explains, plays a critical role by providing guidance on how much to consume and save to achieve macroeconomic stability in the short-run and support long-term fiscal sustainability. The report further explains that the fiscal rule states that 40 percent of mineral revenues would be saved in the form of financial assets for future generations, while the remainder would be invested in physical and human capital. 

“However, in reality, achieving the fiscal rule targets has been a challenge for the country, due to recurring budget deficits over the previous years,” says the report. It says official figures also show that the country experienced budget deficits during the entire reporting period (between 1994 and 2019).  

“Economic shocks that reduced the amount of mineral revenues, coupled with high government expenditure levels, have led to recurring budget deficits. Consequently, the government’s ability to save a portion of mineral revenues, as required by the fiscal rule, was severely compromised,” the report says.

On a positive note, the report says, Botswana’s economy generally grew at an average of 4.1 percent real GDP growth from 2012 to 2019 adding that this growth was mainly attributed to the non-mining sector, which has cushioned the country to some extent against external shocks1. For the past several years, the non-mining sector grew faster than the mining sector, with an average of 5.4 percent, the report reveals further. 

It says the slowed growth of the mining sector was due in part to the closure of BCL copper-nickel mine in 2016, which led to a reduction in total mining output in 2016/17. Continued risks associated with constrained growth in advanced as well as emerging and developing economies during this period, reduced the global demand for diamonds, which led to significant reductions in total mining contribution to GDP. On the other hand, the growth of the non-mining sector signifies the country’s efforts to diversify the economy away from minerals, the report says.  

Economic diversification, the report says, is key in natural resource-rich economies as it restricts the impact of the Dutch Disease – an economic phenomenon where the rapid development of one sector, particularly minerals, results in negative impact on the overall economy. Therefore, it says, prudent management of the country’s mineral resources and economic diversification have been a central objective of Botswana’s macro-fiscal policies.

The report notes that to date, the country has made strides in terms of achieving economic diversification goals. This, it says, is evidenced by the Trade, Hotels and Restaurant sector, which surpassed the Mining sector since 2017 onwards, in terms of contribution to value added, becoming the largest sector of the economy.

“However, in order to achieve sustainable economic growth, private sector-led growth should continue to be promoted to assist in addressing unemployment and poverty alleviation. Economic diversification also reduces macroeconomic volatility and disperse risks, such as commodity price volatility.

Continue Reading

Business

Prosperity Index: Botswana improves slightly

24th November 2021
Prseident-Masisi

The 2021 Legatum Prosperity Index report indicates that Botswana ranks number 82nd globally out of 167 countries with a prosperity score of 57.1. Compared to the 2020 report, Botswana moved three places up from 85. However this is still lower than the country’s best ever score from 2011, when Botswana was ranked at number 80. 

According to the report from Legatum Institute, they had published a new report outlining a framework for natural transformation designed to help leaders as they make decisions to guide their nations on development pathway. The report said legatum Institute is a London -based think-tank with a bold vision to create a global movement of people committed to creating the pathways from poverty to prosperity and the transformation of society.

It states that Botswana performs most strongly in governance and economic quality but is weakest in natural environment, it further states that the biggest improvement compared to a decade ago came in economic equality.

The report suggests that Botswana ranks 4th in Sub-Saharan Africa out of 49 countries. The rank was based on inclusive societies which include; safety and security, personal freedom, governance and social capital. The rank also was based on open economies which includes; investment environment, enterprise conditions, infrastructure market and economic quality and lastly it was also inclusive of empowerment of the people; living conditions, health, education and natural environment.

The Legatum prosperity index report states that inclusive societies are an essential requirement for prosperity, where social and legal institution protects the fundamental freedom of individuals and their ability to flourish. Botswana is ranked 49th globally and 5th in Sub-Saharan region. On Safety and security the report states that a nation, community or society can prosper only in an environment of security and safety for its citizens, Botswana ranks 71st globally and 9th in Sub-Saharan Africa region on this category.

As for personal freedom, the report focused on basic legal rights, individual liberty, the absence of legal discrimination and the degree of social tolerance experienced in a society.  Botswana ranks 57th globally and 9th in Sub-Saharan Africa region.

Botswana is pegged at 38th place globally and 2nd in Sub-Saharan Region when it comes to governance. The Legatum report indicates that governance measures the extent to which there are checks and restraints on power and whether governments operate effectively and without corruption. It also states that the nature of a country’s governance has a material impact on its prosperity.

If there is one area where Botswana is struggling, it is social capital. The country ranks 111th globally and 24th in Sub –Saharan African region. The report states that social capital measures the personal and family relationships, social networks and the cohesion a society experiences when there is high institutional trust, and people respect and engage with one another, both of which have a direct effect on the prosperity of a country.

The report further states that under Open Economics Botswana ranks number 80 globally. The country still needs to encourage innovation and investment, promote business and trade and facilities as well as inclusive growth. Open economics includes; investment environment, enterprise conditions, infrastructure and market access, economic quality.

Botswana ranks 5th in Sub-Saharan African region and 72nd globally in investment environmental which measures the extent to which investments are protected adequately through the existence of property rights, investor protection and contract enforcement. The Prosperity Index report states that, the more a legal system protects investments, for example through property rights, the more that investment can drive economic growth.

The Legatum prosperity index ranked Botswana’s enterprise conditions 10th in Sub-Saharan Africa region and 82nd globally. It explains enterprise conditions as measures of how easy it is for businesses to start, compete and expand.

Botswana ranks 6th in Sub-Saharan African region and 105th globally in infrastructure and market access. The Legatum report explains that market access and infrastructure enables trade and inhibitors on the flow of goods and services between businesses hence economic growth.

Economic quality has been explained by the report as a measure of how robust the economy is as well as how the economy is equipped to generate wealth. The country ranks at the apex, 1st in sub-Saharan Africa region and 53rd globally.

The Legatum prosperity report indicated that states could generate prosperity through empowered people. Empowered people considers living conditions, health, education and natural environment. Botswana ranked 116th globally and 44th in the African region when it comes to empowering its people.

Living conditions as one of the components under empowered people, Botswana ranked 7th in sub-Saharan region and 114th globally. The institute indicated that Living Conditions measures whether a reasonable quality of life is extended to the whole population, which is necessary for a nation to be prosperous

Another component under empowered people is health. According to the institute, the coverage and accessibility of effective healthcare, combined with behaviors that sustain a healthy lifestyle, are critical to both individual and national prosperity. Botswana ranks 17th in the Sub-Saharan region and 131st globally.

Botswana ranks 5th in Sub-Saharan region when it comes to Education and ranks spot 101 globally. According to the report, a better-educated population also leads to greater civic engagement and improved social outcomes — such as better health and lower crime rates.

Lastly Botswana ranks very low on aspect of natural environment, pegged at number 116 globally and 44th in the sub-Saharan African region. The Legatum institute explains this category capturing parts of the physical environment that have a direct effect on people in their daily lives and changes that might impact the prosperity of future generations. The report further reads, “A well-managed natural environment benefits a nation by yielding crops, material for construction, wildlife and food, and sources of energy, while clean air leads to a higher quality of living for all”.

In conclusion, the 2021 prosperity index reveals that sub-Saharan Africa has been the bright light in the world of stagnation in prosperity. With its modest but consistent progress, despite the deterioration in the continent’s safety and security. “The prosperity of 40 out of 49 countries improved over a decade, and the rate of extreme poverty has dropped across the region from 49.9 %to 42.3% of the population, much of the progress has to be driven by steady improvements in Health and in infrastructure” the report said. The Legatum Institute’s 2021 Prosperity Index has found that in Sub-Saharan Africa “prosperity has improved for the 11th year in a row” with the rate of extreme poverty falling from 49.9% to 42.3%.

Mauritius continues to prove itself as a beacon of prosperity in Africa, making it to the top 50 of seven of the index pillars. Second in the region Seychelles ranked number 50, Cabo Verde at number 80, Botswana 82nd, South Africa 85th and last both in Africa and the entire report South Sudan at 167th.

In her Foreword of the report, Baroness Philippa Stroud, CEO of the Legatum Institute states that; “Prosperity is built by deliberate choices to develop a society that works for everyone — an inclusive society, with a strong social contract that protects the fundamental liberties and security of each individual. It is driven by an open economy that harnesses the ideas and talents of the people of a nation.

This in turn builds an enabling environment for all to flourish by fulfilling their unique potential and playing their part in strengthening their families, communities, and nations. A prosperous society is not just about what we’re getting, but about who we are becoming — individually and together. The Prosperity Index acts as a spotlight on what builds prosperity or conversely what causes poverty.

It tracks the rise and fall of prosperity over time and captures the outcomes of decisions that either build or destroy prosperity. When we look at what is happening across the nations of the world, this year’s Legatum Prosperity Index shows that global prosperity is stagnating. However, this stagnation is not simply a result of the recent impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.”

Globally, the 2021 Legatum Prosperity Index reveals that “prosperity has plateaued for the second year running” and this is the result of weakening personal freedoms, specifically Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Assembly.

The Index identifies that whilst “COVID-19 has undoubtedly had a short-term impact on prosperity”, the pandemic has not been solely responsibly. “The past decade has seen the increasing suppression of the core liberties which underpin true prosperity.”

According to the 2021 Index, the “key area of concern”, where this suppression is taking place, is the “ongoing deterioration in political accountability and freedom of speech and assembly in most regions of the world”. In the last decade 72% of all nations have seen a decline in freedom of speech.

The report says in 100 countries around the world both freedom of expression and freedom of assembly deteriorated over the last decade. This has significant implications for global prosperity.

Continue Reading

Business

Inflation up again, rose to 8.8 percent October 

24th November 2021
Inflation

Botswana’s headline inflation took a turn back into the upward trajectory in the month of October after a decline in September. Figures released by Statistics Botswana on Monday reveal that  headline inflation rose from 8.4 percent in September to 8.8 percent in October 2021, which is above the upper bound of the Bank of Botswana‘s medium-term objective range of 3 – 6 percent.

This is also substantially higher than the 2.2 percent recorded in the month October last year 2020.  The increase in inflation between September and October 2021 mainly reflects the upward adjustment in domestic fuel prices in October 2021, as reflected by the annual price changes for Transport (from 17.5 to 19.3 percent).

Meanwhile, there were partially offsetting movements in the annual price changes for some categories of goods and services, while for a few, prices remained stable.  Annual price changes for the following categories of goods and services also increased: Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages (from 6.4 to 6.8 percent); Restaurants and Hotels (from 3.8 to 4.1 percent); Clothing and Footwear (from 3.7 to 3.8 percent); Health (from 2.8 to 2.9 percent); and Miscellaneous Goods and Services (from 7.3 to 7.4 percent).

However, the upward pressure on inflation was partially offset by inflation falling with respect to: Communication (from 1.5 to 1 percent); Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco (from 9 to 8.8 percent); and Housing, Water, Electricity, Gas and Other Fuels (from 8.3 to 8.2 percent). Inflation remained unchanged for: Furnishing, Household Equipment and Routine Maintenance (5 percent); Recreation and Culture (4.3 percent); and Education (2.8 percent).

Similarly, the 16 percent trimmed mean inflation and inflation excluding administered prices increased from 8 percent and 7.1 percent to 8.2 percent and 7.2 percent, in the same period. The inflation rates for regions between September 2021 and October 2021 revealed that the Rural Villages’ inflation rate stood at 8.6 percent in October, showing a rise of 0.6 of a percentage point on the September rate of 8.0 percent.

The Urban Villages’ inflation rate was 9.0 percent in October compared to the September rate of 8.6 percent, while the Cities & Towns inflation rate rose by 0.3 of a percentage point, from 8.4 percent in September to 8.7 percent In October.

The national Consumer Price Index went up by 0.9 percent in October 2021, from 112.3 registered in September 2021 to 113.3. The Rural Villages’ index recorded a growth of 1.1 percent, from 111.1 in September to 112.4 in October.

The Urban Villages’ index advanced from 112.9 in September to 113.8 in October 2021, a rise of 0.9 percent, whereas the Cities & Towns’ Index moved from 112.4 to 113.3, an increase of 0.8 percent. The group indices were generally moving at a steady pace between September and October 2021, recording changes of less than 1.0 percent, except the Transport group index, which recorded 3.0 percent.

The Transport group index recorded a rise of 3.0 percent, from 114.0 in September to 117.5 in October. This was attributed to a growth in the constituent section index of Operation of Personal Transport (5.2 percent) and purchase of Vehicles (1.2 percent). The increase in the Operation of Personal Transport section index was attributed to the rise in retail pump prices for petrol (95) by P0.71 and diesel (50ppm) by P0.55 per litre, which effected on the 8th of October 2021.

The Alcoholic Beverages &Tobacco index group registered a growth of 0.5 percent, from 120.1 in September to 120.8 in October 2021. This was due to an increase in the constituent section index of Alcoholic Beverages (0.6 percent) and Tobacco (0.3 percent).

The Food & Non-Alcoholic Beverages group index moved from 113.5 to 114.0, recording a rise of 0.4 percent. This was owing to the general increase in the constituent section indices, notably; Oils & Fats (1.8 percent), Vegetables (0.9 percent), Sugar, Jam, Honey, Chocolate & Confectionery (0.7 percent) and Food not elsewhere classified (0.7 percent).

The Clothing and Footwear group registered a rise of 0.4 percent, from 107.4 in September to 107.8 in October 2021. The increase was attributed to the general increase in the constituent section indices. The Restaurants & Hotels index group registered an increase of 0.4 percent, from 109.1 in September to 109.6 in October 2021. The rise was due to the rise of the constituent section index of Restaurants, Cafes and the Like by 0.5 percent.

The All-Tradeables index was 114.7 in October 2021, recording a rise of 1.4 percent from 113.0 in September 2021. The Imported Tradeables Index increased from 112.5 in September to 114.6 in October 2021, a rise of 1.9 percent.

The Domestic Tradeables Index realised an increase of 0.3 percent from 114.4 in September to 114.7 in October. The Non-Tradeables Index moved from 111.4 in September to 111.5 in October, an increase of 0.1 percent. The All-Tradeables inflation rate was 12.0 percent in October 2021, recording a rise of 0.7 of a percentage.

Continue Reading
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!