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Thursday, 18 April 2024

Cast in Stone: Affordable Power to the People


What a piteous picture the rate of electricity penetration is on this “hopeless continent”, to quote the highly respected Economist weekly newspaper.

Whilst ferreting around for material to inform this piece, I came across the following rather bleak scenario in this connection:

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“For long, Africa has suffered from the world’s lowest electrification rate. Figures from 2017 state that its power consumption per capita is just 613 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year, compared to 6,500 kWh in Europe and 13,000 in the United States.

Take out relatively industrialised South Africa, and the figures become even worse.  In figures that have been cited regularly, electricity con­sumption per person in large African countries such as Ethiopia, Kenya, and Nigeria is less than one-tenth that of Brazil or China.

In poorer countries such as Mali, a typical household uses less electricity in a year than a Londoner uses to boil a kettle each day. And nearly 600 million people in sub-Saharan Africa lack access to electricity altogether — with the result that whole communities live in the dark, come night time.”

The picture need not get darker. Sadly, the worst may actually be in the offing. Whether we like it or not, the era of belt-tightening is upon us, in Botswana and pretty much elsewhere on this godforsaken continent.

Of course the advent of COVID-19 is a significant, though not necessarily the central factor. Our only hope and prayer is that the belt-tightening will not lead to a terminal crushing of our already constricted spines.

Take the consumer price of electricity, which in our highly urbanised day and fairly sophisticated age is a basic essential. The Masisi administration – for no fault of its own – has served notice on us that the honeymoon is over: in the next 3-5 years, the tab will go up by several bars to bring it in line with the more realistic asking market price.

According to the proposed tariffs as per the Botswana Energy Regulatory Authority’s public notice, the domestic rate will rise from P1.02 presently to P1.16 in 2023.  Such a scenario, however, places too much a premium on the ceteris paribus situation.

In my own reckoning, therefore, the rate could double or even treble between 2023 and 2025 if we factor in the inflationary element and a whole host of unforeseeables. We’re talking here about a surge of up to between P2 to P3 per kWh, which to the greater majority of our indigent population borders on the extortionate.


It is said, and rightly so, that desperate situations call for desperate courses of action. For donkeys’ years, BPC, our only power provider, has been something of a cash guzzling black hole. BPC has been a perennial loss-maker since 2007. In 2015 for one, its operational losses amounted to P2 billion.

It   is routinely sustained year after year on massive government subsidies, ranging from about P800 million to P2.3 billion, an all-time high. Even in the last two financial years, when it turned up sizeable operating profits, it actually would have incurred outright losses had it not been for government consumer tariff subsidies which gave it a veneer of respectability.

The necessity for subsidies arise from government’s politically responsible desire to both cushion consumers from prohibitively high tariffs and to enable the corporation meet its astronomical operational costs, part of which stem from the ingrained inefficiencies.

Sadly, government too is chronically bleeding fiscalwise. Its bedrock revenue source, diamonds, are no longer sufficient as an impregnable economic bolster. For instance, whereas in the current fiscal year   P20 billion worth of diamond sales was projected, the outlook courtesy of the disruption occasioned by COVID-19, is now a modest P6 billion.

Needless to say, the budget deficit is certain to skyrocket, with the ensuing domino effect seriously denting our foreign reserves anchor, which in fact went down by P6.2 billion in the last financial year.

Yet government is still not in a position to wean BPC completely off subsidies. Under NDP 11, it committed to subsidies totalling P9.48 billion over a six-year period from April 2017 to March 2023. This translates to about P1.6 billion a year.

In fact, signs are that even this sum will not consistently materialise in its totality given the economic quicksand we’re already gasping under as we furiously clutch at straws. Must government continue to breastfeed BPC in perpetuity or it is time to leave it wholly to its own devices?


The provision of power is no cheap enterprise. The costs of electricity generation, transmission, and distribution are enormous. In most Africa countries in particular, utilities are under-metered and incur high non-technical and collection loss rates.

According to the number-crunching statisticians, those who do have electricity of necessity pay on average nearly twice as much as consumers elsewhere in the world and even this rate does little to ameliorate the cost of providing the service.

It goes without saying, therefore, that subsidies in one way or the other are inevitable. In Zambia, government subsidises the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO) to the tune of $100 million a year, equivalent to P1.2 billion.

In South Africa, Eskom, like ZESCO and BPC a parastatal, produces 95 percent of the country’s electricity. The South African government subsidises it indirectly – by guaranteeing its staggeringly colossal loans. As of February this year, the loan guarantees stood at R350 billion out of a total debt burden of R450 billion.

Meanwhile, Eskom is barely able to service the interest on its loans, not to mention paring down the gargantuan principal, as revenues continue to plummet.

In Zambia for one, the tariff is graduated. For households, for instance, the first 200 kWh attract 2 Thebe per unit and higher consumption is charged at 10 Thebe per unit.

In South Africa, Eskom has what it terms Free Basic Electricity (FBE) for desperately poor people. This is 50 kWh per household per month – enough to provide basic needs such as lighting, water heating using a kettle, ironing, a small black and white TV, and a radio.

As at end of March 2020, Eskom had 900,000 customers registered for FBE. In other words, in South Africa, no one can be entirely without electricity for as long as their dwelling is connected to the national grid.

I need not overstate the truism that it is the duty of the Botswana government to provide affordable power to its people and even better the present electricity access of under 70 percent of the population (higher than the sub-Saharan African average of 52 percent but still leaving a lot to be desired anyway) even if it means subsidising BPC forever and ever amen.  Either that or Botswana reverts to the Dark Ages of scores of years past for the greater majority of the population.


In 2016, the then energy minister Kitso Mokaila postulated, with the typical brash rhetoric politicians are capable of, that by 2020, Botswana would be in position to spare power for export. We are more than half way in 2020 as I write and that prognosis remains in the realm of wishful thinking.

Even after having spent upwards of P11 billion on enhanced capacitation of Morupule B (which is riddled with cost overruns that could amount to billions and more often than not operates in fits and starts thanks to chronic technical glitches), we still fall far short of meeting our current electricity demand of 600 MW.

In fact, in the first quarter of this very year, over 52 percent of our energy requirements were supplied by Eskom, the South African Power Pool, Nampower in Namibia, and other cross-border sources.

Granted, Botswana sits on 212 billion tonnes of coal reserves, one of the continent’s most substantial. But coal-fired power is eye-poppingly expensive to harness, witness the resource-sapping spend on Morupule B, whose infrastructural uplift at the time of the tender award was quoted at P7.4 billion minus the associated projects such as transmission lines and water supply.  The cheapest form of power over time is hydroelectricity. A semi-arid Botswana, however, does not have lush watercourses to make this option tenable.

The mainstreaming of power generated from fossil fuels in a country like ours which is not endowed with crude oil deposits is inconceivable. When the going gets tough, we resort to the BPC-owned back-up plants at Matshelagabedi, which has a capacity of 105 MW, and Orapa, which can complement with a maximum of 90 MW.

The costs of production in this regard are way too steep: for instance, the two turbines at Orapa can consume up to 17,000 litres of diesel per hour at peak use. That is a humongous tab for our resource-constrained government where the consumer price is not cost-reflective as has been the state of affairs all along.   Thus whilst fossil fuel plants are comparatively cheap to build, they cost an arm and a leg to run.


One alternative is nuclear-powered electricity.  About 30 countries across the globe produce power this way. In Africa, only South Africa has demonstrated capacity for such a feat. Its two reactors, located at Koeberg in the Western Cape, accounts for 5 percent of the country’s total power output.

The country’s Integrated Resource Plan, which was promulgated in 2011, envisages bringing on-stream six to eight more nuclear reactors by 2030, at a unconscionably high cost of R1 trillion, or $60 billion, which amounts to about one-sixth of the country’s GDP.  This will add 9600 MW to the existing average levels of power supply.

Botswana too has the resource potential to make a tilt at erecting facilities for nuclear-generated electricity. Years back, Charles Siwawa, the CEO for the Botswana Chamber of Mines, informed us that Botswana had an estimated 822 million tonnes of unexploited uranium, the fuel for electricity-generating nuclear reactors, in the northern parts of the country. The revised estimate now stands at around 1.04 billion tonnes.

One company, A-Cap, has committed up to P3.7 billion to the establishment of a uranium mine after being awarded a 22-year-long license by the relevant authorities in September 2016. But its initiative, the Letlhakane Uranium Project, is yet to kick- off as the investors bide their time to allow for the depressed uranium price to rebound and hold up for a reasonable length of time.

Meanwhile, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria and Sudan are busy assessing their readiness to embark on a nuclear-generated electricity programme. Algeria, Tunisia, Uganda, and even penurious Zambia are also mulling the possibility of nuclear power.

It is easy to understand their eagerness as uranium is breathtakingly efficient as a power producer:  one uranium fuel pellet creates as much energy as 1 ton of coal, 566 litres of oil, or 510 cubic metres of natural gas.

But given the all too salutary lessons drawn from the ecological contamination (and even possibly death-dealing morbidities over time which are hard to pinpoint) occasioned by  the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster in Japan in 2011, the nuclear option can be hazardous.

Only a day or so ago, I watched a documentary in which the Bench Marks Foundation of South Africa  reported that it had found heavy metal particles in the air, water, and soil of Snake Park location in Soweto. The particles emanated from a nearby uranium mine dump and were responsible for neurotoxic disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy now common in the area, all of which cause lifelong disability.

As such, in next week’s piece, I will dwell on other, more palatable and even ground-breaking alternatives!



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28th March 2023

In recent years, using personal devices in working environments has become so commonplace it now has its own acronym, BOYD (Bring Your Own Device).  But as employees skip between corporate tools and personal applications on their own devices, their actions introduce a number of possible risks that should be managed and mitigated with careful consideration.  Consider these examples:

Si-lwli, a small family-run business in Wales, is arguably as niche a company as you could find, producing talking toys used to promote the Welsh language. Their potential market is small, with only some 300,000 Welsh language speakers in the world and in reality the business is really more of a hobby for the husband-and-wife team, who both still have day jobs.  Yet, despite still managing to be successful in terms of sales, the business is now fighting for survival after recently falling prey to cybercriminals. Emails between Si-Iwli and their Chinese suppliers were intercepted by hackers who altered the banking details in the correspondence, causing Si-Iwli to hand over £18,000 (around P ¼ m) to the thieves. That might not sound much to a large enterprise, but to a small or medium business it can be devastating.

Another recent SMB hacking story which appeared in the Wall Street Journal concerned Innovative Higher Ed Consulting (IHED) Inc, a small New York start-up with a handful of employees. IHED didn’t even have a website, but fraudsters were able to run stolen credit card numbers through the company’s payment system and reverse the charges to the tune of $27,000, around the same loss faced by Si-Iwli.  As the WSJ put it, the hackers completely destroyed the company, forcing its owners to fold.

And in May 2019, the city of Baltimore’s computer system was hit by a ransomware attack, with hackers using a variant called RobinHood. The hack, which has lasted more than a month, paralysed the computer system for city employees, with the hackers demanding a payment in Bitcoin to give access back to the city.

Of course, hackers target governments or business giants  but small and medium businesses are certainly not immune. In fact, 67% of SMBs reported that they had experienced a cyber attack across a period of 12 months, according to a 2018 survey carried out by security research firm Ponemon Institute. Additionally, Verizon issued a report in May 2019 that small businesses accounted for 43% of its reported data breaches.  Once seen as less vulnerable than PCs, smartphone attacks are on the rise, with movements like the Dark Caracal spyware campaign underlining the allure of mobile devices to hackers. Last year, the US Federal Trade Commission released a statement calling for greater education on mobile security, coming at a time when around 42% of all Android devices are believed to not carry the latest security updates.

This is an era when employees increasingly use their smartphones for work-related purposes so is your business doing enough to protect against data breaches on their employees’ phones? The SME Cyber Crime Survey 2018 carried out for risk management specialists AON showed that more than 80% of small businesses did not view this as a threat yet if as shown, 67% of SMBs were said to have been victims of hacking, either the stats are wrong or business owners are underestimating their vulnerability.  A 2019 report by PricewaterhouseCoopers suggests the latter, stating that the majority of global businesses are unprepared for cyber attacks.

Consider that a workstation no longer means a desk in an office: It can be a phone in the back of a taxi or Uber; a laptop in a coffee shop, or a tablet in an airport lounge.  Wherever the device is used, employees can potentially install applications that could be harmful to your business, even from something as seemingly insignificant as clicking on an accidental download or opening a link on a phishing email.  Out of the physical workplace, your employees’ activities might not have the same protections as they would on a company-monitored PC.

Yet many businesses not only encourage their employees to work remotely, but assume working from coffee shops, bookstores, and airports can boost employees’ productivity.  Unfortunately, many remote hot spots do not provide secure Wi-Fi so if your employee is accessing their work account on unsecured public Wi-Fi,  sensitive business data could be at risk. Furthermore, even if your employee uses a company smartphone or has access to company data through a personal mobile device, there is always a chance data could be in jeopardy with a lost or stolen device, even information as basic as clients’ addresses and phone numbers.

BOYDs are also at risk from malware designed to harm and infect the host system, transmittable to smartphones when downloading malicious third-party apps.  Then there is ransomware, a type of malware used by hackers to specifically take control of a system’s data, blocking access or threatening to release sensitive information unless a ransom is paid such as the one which affected Baltimore.  Ransomware attacks are on the increase,  predicted to occur every 14 seconds, potentially costing billions of dollars per year.

Lastly there is phishing – the cyber equivalent of the metaphorical fishing exercise –  whereby  cybercriminals attempt to obtain sensitive data –usernames, passwords, credit card details –usually through a phoney email designed to look legitimate which directs the user to a fraudulent website or requests the data be emailed back directly. Most of us like to think we could recognize a phishing email when we see it, but these emails have become more sophisticated and can come through other forms of communication such as messaging apps.

Bottom line is to be aware of the potential problems with BOYDs and if in doubt,  consult your IT security consultants.  You can’t put the own-device genie back in the bottle but you can make data protection one of your three wishes!

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“I Propose to Diana Tonight”

28th March 2023

About five days before Princess Diana and Dodi Al Fayed landed in Paris, General Atiku, a certain Edward Williams was taking a walk in a woods in the Welsh town of Mountain Ash. Williams, then 73, was a psychic of some renown. He had in the past foretold assassination attempts on US President Ronald Reagan, which occurred on March 30, 1981, and Pope John Paul II, which came to pass on May 13, 1981.

As he trudged the woods, Williams  had a sudden premonition that pointed to Diana’s imminent fate as per Christopher Andersen’s book The Day Diana Died. “When the vision struck me, it was as if everything around me was obscured and replaced by shadowy figures,” Williams was later to reminisce. “In the middle was the face of Princess Diana. Her expression was sad and full of pathos. She was wearing what looked like a floral dress with a short dark cardigan. But it was vague. I went cold with fear and knew it was a sign that she was in danger.”

Williams hastily beat a retreat to his home, which he shared with his wife Mary, and related to her his presentiment, trembling like an aspen leaf as he did so. “I have never seen him so upset,” Mary recounted. “He felt he was given a sign and when he came back from his walk he was deeply shaken.”

The following day, Williams frantically sauntered into a police station to inform the police of his premonition. The officer who attended to him would have dismissed him as no more than a crackpot but he treated him seriously in view of the accuracy of his past predictions. He  took a statement and immediately passed it on to the Special Branch Investigative  Unit.

The report read as follows:

“On 27 August, at 14:12 hrs, a man by the name of Edward Williams came to Mountain Ash police station. He said he was a psychic and predicted that Princess Diana was going to die. In previous years, he has predicted that the Pope and Ronald Reagan were going to be the victims of assassination attempts. On both occasions he was proved to be correct. Mr Williams appeared to be quite normal.”

Williams, General, was spot-on as usual: four days later, the princess was no more.

Meanwhile, General,  even as Dodi and Diana were making their way to the Fayed-owned Ritz Hotel in central Paris, British newspapers were awash with headlines that suggested Diana was kind of deranged. Writes Andrew Morton in Diana in Pursuit of Love: “In The Independent Diana was described as ‘a woman with fundamentally nothing to say about anything’. She was ‘suffering from a form of arrested development’. ‘Isn’t it time she started using her head?’ asked The Mail on Sunday. The Sunday Mirror printed a special supplement entitled ‘A Story of Love’; The News of the World claimed that William had demanded that Diana should split from Dodi: ‘William can’t help it, he just doesn’t like the man.’ William was reportedly ‘horrified’ and ‘doesn’t think Mr Fayed is good for his mother’ – or was that just the press projecting their own prejudices? The upmarket Sunday Times newspaper, which had first serialised my biography of the princess, now put her in the psychiatrist’s chair for daring to be wooed by a Muslim. The pop-psychologist Oliver James put Diana ‘On the Couch’, asking why she was so ‘depressed’ and desperate for love. Other tabloids piled in with dire prognostications – about Prince Philip’s hostility to the relationship, Diana’s prospect of exile, and the social ostracism she would face if she married Dodi.”


Before Diana and Dodi departed the Villa Windsor sometime after 16 hrs, General, one of Dodi’s bodyguards Trevor Rees-Jones furtively asked Diana as to what the programme for the evening was. This Trevor did out of sheer desperation as Dodi had ceased and desisted from telling members of his security detail, let alone anyone else for that matter, what his onward destination was for fear that that piece of information would be passed on to the paparazzi. Diana kindly obliged Trevor though her response was terse and scarcely revealing. “Well, eventually we will be going out to a restaurant”, that was all Diana said. Without advance knowledge of exactly what restaurant that was, Trevor and his colleagues’ hands were tied: they could not do a recce on it as was standard practice for the security team of a VIP principal.  Dodi certainly, General, was being recklessly by throwing such caution to the winds.

At about 16:30, Diana and Dodi drew up at the Ritz Hotel, where they were received by acting hotel manager Claude Roulet.  The front entrance of the hotel was already crawling with paparazzi, as a result of which the couple took the precaution of using the rear entrance, where hopefully they would make their entry unperturbed and unmolested. The first thing they did when they were ensconced in the now $10,000 a night Imperial Suite was to spend some time on their mobiles and set about touching base with friends, relations, and associates.  Diana called at least two people, her clairvoyant friend Rita Rogers and her favourite journalist Richard Kay of The Daily Mail.

Rita, General,  was alarmed that Diana had proceeded to venture to Paris notwithstanding the warning she had given Dodi and herself in relation to what she had seen of him  in the crystal ball when the couple had consulted her. When quizzed as to what the hell she indeed was doing in Paris at that juncture, Diana replied that she and Dodi had simply come to do some shopping, which though partially true was not the material reason they were there. “But Diana, remember what I told Dodi,” Rita said somewhat reprovingly. Diana a bit apprehensively replied, “Yes I remember. I will be careful. I promise.” Well,  she did not live up to her promise as we shall soon unpack General.

As for Richard Kay, Diana made known to him that, “I have decided I am going to radically change my life. I am going to complete my obligations to charities and to the anti-personnel land mines cause, but in November I want to completely withdraw from formal public life.”

Once she was done with her round of calls, Diana went down to the hair saloon by the hotel swimming pool to have her hair washed and blow-dried ahead of the scheduled evening dinner.


Since the main object of their Paris trip was to pick up the “Tell Me Yes” engagement ring  Dodi had ordered in Monte Carlo a week earlier, Dodi decided to check on Repossi Jewellery, which was right within the Ritz prencincts, known as the Place Vendome.  It could have taken less than a minute for Dodi to get to the store on foot but he decided to use a car to outsmart the paparazzi invasion. He was driven there by Trevor Rees-Jones, with Alexander Kez Wingfield and Claude Roulet following on foot, though he entered the shop alone.

The Repossi store had closed for the holiday season but Alberto Repossi, accompanied by his wife and brother-in-law,  had decided to travel all the way from his home in Monaco  and momentarily open it for the sake of the potentially highly lucrative  Dodi transaction.  Alberto, however, disappointed Dodi as the ring he had chosen was not the one  he produced. The one he showed Dodi was pricier and perhaps more exquisite but Dodi  was adamant that he wanted the exact one he had ordered as that was what Diana herself had picked. It was a ploy  on the part of Repossi to make a real killing on the sale, his excuse to that effect being that Diana deserved a ring tha was well worthy of her social pedigree.  With Dodi having expressed disaffection, Repossi rendered his apologies and assured Dodi he would make the right ring available shortly, whereupon Dodi repaired back to the hotel to await its delivery. But Dodi  did insist nonetheless that the pricier ring be delivered too in case it appealed to Diana anyway.

Repossi delivered the two rings an hour later. They were collected by Roulet. On inspecting them, Dodi chose the very one he had seen in Monte Carlo, apparently at the insistence of Diana.  There is a possibility that Diana, who was very much aware of her public image and was not comfortable with ostentatious displays of wealth, may have deliberately shown an interest in a less expensive engagement ring. It  may have been a purely romantic as opposed to a prestigious  choice for her.

The value of the ring, which was found on a wardrobe shelf in Dodi’s apartment after the crash,  has been estimated to be between $20,000 and $250,000 as Repossi has always refused to be drawn into revealing how much Dodi paid for it. The sum, which enjoyed a 25 percent discount, was in truth paid for not by Dodi himself but by his father as was the usual practice.

Dodi was also shown Repossi’s sketches for a bracelet, a watch, and earrings which he proposed to create if Diana approved of them.


At about 7 pm,  Dodi and Diana left the Ritz and headed for Dodi’s apartment at a place known as the Arc de Trompe. They went there to properly tog themselves out for the scheduled evening dinner. They spent two hours at the luxurious apartment. As usual, the ubiquitous paparazzi were patiently waiting for them there.

As they lingered in the apartment, Dodi beckoned over to his butler Rene Delorm  and showed him  the engagement ring. “Dodi came into my kitchen,” Delorm relates. “He looked into the hallway to check that Diana couldn’t hear and reached into his pocket and pulled out the box … He said, ‘Rene, I’m going to propose to the princess tonight. Make sure that we have champagne on ice when we come back from dinner’.” Rene described the ring as “a spectacular diamond encrusted ring, a massive emerald surrounded by a cluster of diamonds, set on a yellow and white gold band sitting in a small light-grey velvet box”.

Just before 9 pm, Dodi called the brother of his step-father, Hassan Yassen, who also was staying at the Ritz  that night, and told him that he hoped to get married to Diana by the end of the year.

Later that same evening, both Dodi and Diana would talk to Mohamed Al Fayed, Dodi’s dad, and make known to him their pre-nuptial intentions. “They called me and said we’re coming back  (to London) on Sunday (August 31) and on Monday (September 1) they are

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RAMADAN – The Blessed Month of Fasting

28th March 2023

Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, where over one billion Muslims throughout the world fast from dawn to sunset, and pray additional prayers at night. It is a time for inner reflection, devotion to Allah, and self-control. It is the ninth month in the Islamic calendar. As you read this Muslims the world over have already begun fasting as the month of Ramadan has commenced (depending on the sighting of the new moon).

‘The month of Ramadan is that in which the Qur’an was revealed as guidance for people, in it are clear signs of guidance and Criterion, therefore whoever of you who witnesses this month, it is obligatory on him to fast it. But whoever is ill or traveling let him fast the same number of other days, God desires ease for you and not hardship, and He desires that you complete the ordained period and glorify God for His guidance to you, that you may be grateful”. Holy Qur’an  (2 : 185)

Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built. The other four are: the declaration of one’s belief in Allah’s oneness and in the message of Muhammad (PBUH); regular attendance to prayer; payment of zakaat (obligatory charity); and the pilgrimage to Mecca.

As explained in an earlier article, fasting includes total abstinence from eating, drinking, smoking, refraining from obscenity, avoiding getting into arguments and including abstaining from marital relations, from sunrise to sunset. While fasting may appear to some as difficult Muslims see it as an opportunity to get closer to their Lord, a chance to develop spiritually and at the same time the act of fasting builds character, discipline and self-restraint.

Just as our cars require servicing at regular intervals, so do Muslims consider Ramadan as a month in which the body and spirit undergoes as it were a ‘full service’. This ‘service’ includes heightened spiritual awareness both the mental and physical aspects and also the body undergoing a process of detoxification and some of the organs get to ‘rest’ through fasting.

Because of the intensive devotional activity fasting, Ramadan has a particularly high importance, derived from its very personal nature as an act of worship but there is nothing to stop anyone from privately violating Allah’s commandment of fasting if one chooses to do so by claiming to be fasting yet eating on the sly. This means that although fasting is obligatory, its observance is purely voluntary. If a person claims to be a Muslim, he is expected to fast in Ramadan.


The reward Allah gives for proper fasting is very generous. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) quotes Allah as saying: “All actions done by a human being are his own except fasting, which belongs to Me and I will reward it accordingly.” We are also told by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that the reward for proper fasting is admittance into heaven.

Fasting earns great reward when it is done in a ‘proper’ manner. This is because every Muslim is required to make his worship perfect. For example perfection of fasting can be achieved through restraint of one’s feelings and emotions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that when fasting, a person should not allow himself to be drawn into a quarrel or a slanging match. He teaches us: “On a day of fasting, let no one of you indulge in any obscenity, or enter into a slanging match. Should someone abuse or fight him, let him respond by saying: ‘I am fasting!’”

This high standard of self-restraint fits in well with fasting, which is considered as an act of self-discipline. Islam requires us to couple patience with voluntary abstention from indulgence in our physical desires. The purpose of fasting helps man to attain a high degree of sublimity, discipline and self-restraint. In other words, this standard CAN BE achieved by every Muslim who knows the purpose of fasting and strives to fulfill it.

Fasting has another special aspect. It makes all people share in the feelings of hunger and thirst. In normal circumstances, people with decent income may go from one year’s end to another without experiencing the pangs of hunger which a poor person may feel every day of his life. Such an experience helps to draw the rich one’s conscience nearer to needs of the poor. A Muslim is encouraged to be more charitable and learns to give generously for a good cause.

Fasting also has a universal or communal aspect to it. As Muslims throughout the world share in this blessed act of worship, their sense of unity is enhanced by the fact that every Muslim individual joins willingly in the fulfillment of this divine commandment. This is a unity of action and purpose, since they all fast in order to be better human beings. As a person restrains himself from the things he desires most, in the hope that he will earn Allah’s pleasure, self-discipline and sacrifice become part of his nature.

The month of Ramadan can aptly be described as a “season of worship.” Fasting is the main aspect of worship in this month, because people are more attentive to their prayers, read the Qur’an more frequently and also strive to improve on their inner and outer character. Thus, their devotion is more complete and they feel much happier in Ramadan because they feel themselves to be closer to their Creator.

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