Botswana will need a total of approximately P40 billion to emerge out of COVID-19 economic shocks and reset back to pre-pandemic growth trajectories and development ambitions. This is contained in the Economic Recovery and Transformational Plan (ERTP) released this week by Ministry of Finance & Economic Development.
Themed “Sustainable and Resilient Recovery towards High – Income Status”, the plan which is still a draft seeks to respond swiftly to the catastrophic depression on Botswana’s economy delivered by the COVID-19 pandemic. The minds involved in this strategic economic rescue path include Bank of Botswana, Ministry of Investment Trade & Industry, University of Botswana and Ministry of Finances amongst others. They envisage cultivation of exponential growth that will catapult Botswana’s economy to resilient development trajectories.
According to International Monetary Fund (IMF) COVID-19 global pandemic will shrink global economies by 3 % against initial expected growth of over 3 %. Locally against initial projected revenue of P62.4 billion, Botswana‘s economy will only generate a projected revenue of about P48 billion.
Government has trimmed its budget from P67.6 billion to P59.6 billion. Budget deficit will now shoot up from initial P5.2 billion, 2.4 % GDP to over P10 billion which will now be over 5 % of GDP, well over government threshold of 4%.Government will therefore do away with some planned expenditures and projects.
The decline in government revenue will be attributable to a massive reduction in Mining & Mineral revenue which is anticipated to shrink by over 33 %. The decline in mining and mineral revenue is predominately as a result of halt in rough diamond sales due to travel restriction and stand still in trading across the industry.
The diamond industry is Botswana‘s key foreign income earner and largest contributor to GDP. It was projected that diamond revenue will bring to the table a total of P20 billion, while Government experts revenue from mineral revenue to only be around P6 billion. Trade & Hotels revenue will go down over 32 %.
Manufacturing will go down by 10 %, Transport and communication will decline by over 4 %.Non Mineral tax revenue will shrink by P2 billion from initial projection of P14 billion to P12 billion. Revenue from Value Added Tax (VAT) will go down from P8.6 billion to P7.6 billion.
As part of Economic response to COVID 19 Bank of Botswana moved its regulatory mantle to make key adjustments. At the meeting held on April 30, 2020, the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) of the Bank of Botswana decided to reduce the Bank Rate by 50 basis points from 4.75 percent to 4.25 percent and the primary reserve requirement (PRR) from 5 percent to 2.5 percent.
Inflation was unchanged for the fourth consecutive month at 2.2 percent in March 2020, remaining below the lower bound of the Bank’s desired medium-term objective range of 3 – 6 percent. According to BOB forecast, Inflation will revert to within the objective range in the fourth quarter of 2020. This represents a significant downward revision compared to forecasts contained in the February 2020 Monetary Policy Statement.
The reduction of Bank rate implied that for those with loans would now pay 0.5 percent less on their monthly loan repayment premiums. The Prime rate now stands at 5.75 percent from 6.25%. BOB’s decision to trim primary reserve requirement from 5 percent to 2.5 percent, effective May 13, 2020 mirrored commercial Bank will be able to keep more money in their hands which they can lend to new borrowers. The PRR cut is expected to result in an injection of liquidity of approximately P1.6 billion into the banking system.
However all these according to the Economic Recovery & Transformational Plan were just the beginning, the middle income country still has a long way to go. ERTP has underscored the need to invest in Agriculture to reduce import bill and propel Botswana to food security heights, ICT to enable globalization and enhance easy of doing business and tap into 4th Industrial Revolution as well as infrastructure to facilitate setting up of businesses.
The team led by Ministry of Finance says securing funding for the above initiatives is one of the most difficult components of the process. First, government revenue will be much lower than earlier anticipated; hence, there will already be a need for much larger deficit funding in the short- to medium term, even before adding ERTP initiatives.
Second, to be effective and meaningful, a stimulus package has to be larger than the “business as usual” or “just counter-cyclical”; that is, replacing what would have been the path of spending. This according to Experts implies a substantial injection of resources, which needs to be undertaken judiciously and for initiatives and projects that have significant multiplier effects and long-term economic durability and impact, i.e. evaluation of returns, and prioritization, is needed.
“Even as this is desirable, there is need for care not to overburden implementation and absorptive capacity of the economy. This is to guard against possible destabilization, in terms of prices, monetary growth and budget sustainability, as well as wastage and opportunities for corruption,” reads the draft plan.
There are five main options to fund the ERTP via the Budget, that is drawing down on the Government’s portion of the foreign exchange reserves and from Government Investment Account held at Bank of Botswana, external and foreign borrowing which may involve international financial institutions such as World Bank and IMF .
The other funding mechanism available is domestic borrowing from capital markets; by issuing bonds and treasury bills, sale of assets through for instance privatization and increasing domestic revenue generation. Ministry of Finance says the preferred options are domestic borrowing and revenue mobilization. However, they are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the entire funding needs over the remainder of the NDP 11 period.
The Ministry says the estimated total cost of ERTP spending is P20 billion over 2.5 years. In addition, the anticipated budget deficit over the same period is P20 billion, making a total of approximately P40 billion to be funded. On the positive side the Ministry says there is considerable potential for increased borrowing through the issuance of government bonds, which currently amounts to around 7.5% of GDP. This compares with a legal limit on total domestic borrowing including guarantees of 20% of GDP, and an “ideal” size for an efficient, liquid government bond market of 15% of GDP.
Furthermore the draft plan suggested that Finance for budget deficits and the ERTP can be raised by doubling the size of total government borrowing from P15 billion to P30 billion. “The additional P15 billion of borrowing can be sourced from domestic savers (e.g. institutions such as insurance companies and pension funds) and banks, although the impact on cost (interest rates paid) is still to be determined. Encouraging the purchase of (Pula) bonds by foreign investors should also be considered,” reads the ERTP.
Lucrative and highly anticipated national lottery tender that saw several Batswana businessmen partnering to form a gambling consortium to pit against their South African counterparts, culminates into a big power gamble.
WeekendPost has had a chance to watch lottery showcase even before the anticipated and impending national lottery set-up launches. A lot has been a big gamble from the bidding process which is now set for the courts next year January following a marathon legal brawl involving the interest of the gambling fraternity in Botswana and South Africa.
Households representing more than half of Botswana’s population-mostly residing in rural areas- do not know where their next meal will come from, but neither do they take into consideration the quality and/or quantity of the food they consume.
This is according to the latest Prevalence of Food Insecurity in Botswana report which was done for the 2018/19 period and represents the state of food insecurity data even to this time. The Prevalence of Food Insecurity was released by Statistics Botswana and it released results with findings that the results show that at national level 50.8 percent of the population in Botswana was affected by moderate to severe food insecurity in 2018/19, while 22.2 percent of the population was affected by severe food insecurity only.
According to the report, this translates to 27 percent of the population being food secure that is to say having adequate access to food in both quality and quantity. According to Statistician General, Burton Mguni, when explaining how the food data was compiled, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), is custodian of the “Prevalence of Undernourishment (PoU)” and “Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)” SDG indicators, for leading FIES data analysis and the resultant capacity building.
“The FIES measures the extent of food insecurity at the household or individual level. The indicator provides internationally comparable estimates of the proportion of the population facing moderate to severe difficulties in accessing food. The FIES consists of eight brief questions regarding access to adequate food, and the questions are answered directly with a yes/no response. It (FIES) complements the existing food and nutrition security indicators such as Prevalence of Undernourishment.
According to the FIES, with increasing severity, the quantity of food consumed decreases as portion sizes are reduced and meals are skipped. At its most severe level, people are forced to go without eating for a day or more. The scale further reveals that the household’s experience of food insecurity may be characterized by uncertainty and anxiety regarding food access and compromising the quality of the diet and having a less balanced and more monotonous diet,” says Mguni.
The 50.8 percent of the population in Botswana which was affected by moderate to severe food insecurity are characterized as people experiencing moderate food insecurity and face uncertainties about their ability to obtain food. These people have been forced to compromise on the quality and/or quantity of the food they consume according to the report on food insecurity.
Those who experience severe food insecurity, the 22.2 percent of the population, are people who have typically run out of food and, at worst, gone a day (or days) without eating. According to the statistics, rural area population experienced moderate to severe food insecurity at 65 percent while urban villages were at 46.60 percent and cities/town were at 31.70 percent. Those experiencing the most extreme and severe insecurity were at rural areas making 33.10 percent while urban villages and towns were at 11.90 percent and 17.50 respectively.
According to a paper compiled by Sirak Bahta, Francis Wanyoike, Hikuepi Katjiuongua and Davis Marumo and published in December 2017, titled ‘Characterization of food security and consumption patterns among smallholder livestock farmers in Botswana,’ over 70 percent of Botswana’s population reside in rural areas, and majority (70%) relies on traditional/subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods.
The study set out to characterize the food security situation and food consumption patterns among livestock keepers in Botswana. “Despite the policy change, challenges still remain in ensuring that all persons and households have access to food at all times. For example, during an analysis of the impacts of rising international food prices for Botswana, BIDPA reported that food prices tended to be highest in the rural areas already disadvantaged by relatively low levels of income and high rates of unemployment,” said the study.
According to the paper, about 9 percent of households were found to be food insecure and this category of households included 6 percent of households that ranked poorly and 3 percent that were on the borderline according to the World Food Programme’s (WFP) definition of food security.
Media reports state that the World Bank has warned that disruption to production and supply chains could ‘spark a food security crisis’ in Africa, forecasting a fall in farm production of up to 7 percent, if there are restrictions to trade, and a 25 percent decline in food imports.
Food security in Botswana or food production was also attacked by the locust pandemic which swept out this country’s vegetation and plants. The locust is said to have contributed to 25 percent loss in production.
Global lockdown have been a thorn in diamonds having shiny sales, but a lot of optimism shows with the easing of Covid-19 restrictions, the precious stones will be bought with high volumes towards festive season. The diamond market is however warned of the resurgence of Covid-19 in key markets presents ongoing risks amid the presence and optimist about the new Covid-29 vaccines.
The latest findings published as De Beers Group’s latest Diamond Insight ‘Flash’ Report, which looks at the impact of the pandemic on relationships and engagements, has revealed that in the US that more couples than ever are buying diamond engagement rings. Bridal sales is mostly the primary source of diamond jewellery demand in recent months, De Beers said.
According to De Beers, interviews with independent jewellers around the US revealed that the rate of couples getting engaged has increased compared with the period when Covid-19 first had an impact in the US in the spring.
“In addition, despite challenging economic times, consumers were spending more than ever on diamond engagement rings – often upgrading in colour, cut and clarity, rather than size. Several jewellers speculated that with consumers spending less on elaborate weddings and/or honeymoons in the current environment, they had more to spend on choosing the perfect ring,” said De Beers.
According to De Beers, a national survey of 360 US women in serious relationships, undertaken in late October in collaboration with engagement and wedding website, The Knot. This survey is said to have found that the majority of respondents (54%) were thinking more about their engagement ring than the wedding itself (32%) or the honeymoon (15%), supporting jewellers’ hypothesis that engagement ring sales were benefiting from reduced wedding and travel budgets in light of Covid-19 restrictions.
When it came to researching engagement rings, online was by far the predominant channel for gaining ideas/inspiration at 86% of consumers surveyed, with 85% saying they had saved examples of styles they liked, according to De Beers. According to the survey, only a uarter of respondents said they had looked in-store at a physical location for design inspiration.
“For many couples, the pandemic has brought them even closer together, in some instances speeding up the path to engagement after forming a deeper connection while experiencing lockdown and its associated ups and downs as a partnership. Engagement rings are taking on even greater symbolism in this environment, with retailers reporting couples are prepared to invest more than usual, particularly due to budget reductions in other areas,” De Beers CEO Cleaver said.
According to De Beers Group, its Diamond Insight Flash Report series is focused on understanding the US consumer perspective in light of Covid-19 and monitoring how it evolves as the crisis evolves. Also, the company said, it is augmenting its existing research programme with additional consumer, retailer and supply chain touch-basis to understand the pain points and the opportunities for stakeholders across the diamond pipeline.
Demand for diamonds is as hard and resilient as the precious stone itself. De Beers pocketed US$ 450 million in its recently held ninth rough diamond sales cycle, and the company says it is more flexible approach to rough diamond sales during the ninth sales cycle of 2020, with the Sight event extended beyond its normal week-long duration.
“Steady demand for De Beers Group’s rough diamonds continued in the ninth sales cycle of the year, reflecting stable consumer demand for diamond jewellery at the retail level in the US and China, and expectations for reasonable demand to continue throughout the holiday season. However, the resurgence of Covid-19 infections in several consumer markets presents ongoing risks,” said De Beers CEO Bruce Cleaver recently.
High expectations are on diamonds being a sentimental gift for holiday season or as the most fetished gift. However the ninth cycle was lower than the eighth which registered US$ 467 million. For the last year period which corresponds with the current one, De Beers managed to raise US$ 400.