This is the last article in this three-part series. In the first article, we made an exposition of the circumstances leading to the Balopi Commission (“the Commission”)’s establishment and its terms of reference and recommendations.
We also made an exposition of the Kamanakao I case, giving a summary of the issues which were before court; the submissions by the parties and the court’s decision. In the second article, we made a critique of Botswana’s tribal equality, considering the extent to which government has implemented the recommendations of the Commission.
As stated in that article, the Commission’s recommendations were implemented to a large extent through the amendment of sections 77, 78 and 79 of the Constitution of Botswana; the repeal of the Chieftainship Act, Cap. 41:01 and the enactment of the Bogosi Act, Cap. 41:01. Notable among the implemented recommendations are the establishment of Ntlo ya Dikgosi; the replacement of the word ‘Chief’ with ‘Kgosi’; the broadening of Ntlo ya Dikgosi’s composition to cover all geographic regions in the country, and the representation of minority tribes in Ntlo ya Dikgosi though that is by elected representatives and not ‘born Dikgosi’ as is the case with the eight tribes.
However, though the Commission had recommended that mention of a specific tribe should be removed from the Constitution or anywhere else it appears in order to address citizens' perception that sections 77,78 and 79 are discriminatory, that was not done. The amended section 77 still mentions some of the eight tribes, but none of the minority tribes is mentioned. For instance, it mentions Ga Malete; Ga Mmangwato and Goo Tawana at subsections (1) (a) (iii); (1) (a) (iv) and (1) (a) (vi) respectively. It does not, for instance, make mention of Ku Bukalanga.
Basubiya and Wayeyi, for instance, are subsumed under Chobe and Goo Tawana respectively. Bakalanga, Basarwa and Bakgalagadi are subsumed under North East District, Ghanzi District and Kgalagadi District respectively. Also, a revision of the recommendations was made in April 2002 through a government white paper titled ‘White Paper No.2 of 2002’ which opted to let the selection process for the House remain the same, allowing the eight Dikgosi of the main tribes to retain their posts, a move which the House of Chiefs itself approved.
This week, we make a critique of Botswana’s tribal equality, considering the extent to which government has implemented the judgment of the Kamanakao I case per Nganunu C.J, Dibotelo J., and Dow J as they then were. The Kamanakao I case held that “without being designated a tribe under the Chieftainship Act, the Wayeyi and any other tribe could not have a chief and in these circumstances the Chieftainship Act did not afford the Applicants equal treatment and they therefore did not enjoy equal protection under that law as required by section 3(a) of the Constitution…”
It held further that “…the Respondent had not placed any special circumstances before the court that could justify the differentiation between tribe and tribe in Botswana which would bring the provisions of section 15(4)(e) into operation…” It also held that “…in defining ‘chief’ and ‘tribe’ under section 2 of the Chieftainship Act to refer only to eight tribes and not the applicants, the Act did not afford equal protection of the law to the Wayeyi and the Applicants and to that extent the Act was in conflict with section 3(a) of the Constitution and contravened the rights of the Applicants…”
The court also held that “… section 2 of the Chieftainship Act had to be amended in such a way as would remove the discrimination complained of and give equal treatment to all tribes under that Act. If other laws had to be amended to accord the Applicants this right then necessary action had to follow…” According to section 2 of the repealed Chieftainship Act, Cap.41:01, ‘tribe’ meant “… the Bamangwato Tribe, the Batawana Tribe, the Bakgatla Tribe, the Bakwena Tribe, the Bangwaketse Tribe, the Bamalete Tribe, the Barolong Tribe or the Batlokwa Tribe.”
In terms of section 2 of the repealed Chieftainship Act, Cap.41:01, ‘Chief’ was defined as “a Chief of one of the tribes and includes any regent thereof.” As has been stated earlier, the Chieftainship Act, Cap.41:01 was repealed by section 29 of the Bogosi Act, Cap.41:01. The Bogosi Act came into effect on 30th April 2008. In terms of section 2 of the Bogosi Act, the word ‘tribe’ now means “… any tribal community in existence and recognised as a tribe immediately before the commencement of this Act and includes such other tribal communities as may be so recognised under section 3.”
In terms of section 2 of the Bogosi Act, the word ‘Kgosi’, which has replaced the word ‘Chief’, means “…a person so designated by the tribe and recognised as such by the Minister under section 4.” Section 3 (1) of the Bogosi Act provides that “the Minister, after consulting a tribal community in its Kgotla, may recognise that tribal community as a tribe” Section 3 (2) provides that “… in deciding whether a tribal community shall be recognised as a tribe, the Minister shall take into account the history, origins, and organisational structure of the community, and any other relevant matters.”
In terms hereof, the word tribe no longer only refers to the eight tribes. Also, it is no longer only the eight tribes which have a kgosi. All other tribal communities, including the so-called minority tribes, have the right to be recognised as a tribe, and to, therefore, have a kgosi, if their history, origins, organisational structure, and any other relevant matters warrant such recognition. In that regard, the court’s ruling was abided by. This, in my view, significantly removed the discrimination complained of and accorded equal treatment and protection of the law to the so-called minority tribes as required by section 3(a) of the Constitution.
The court also held that “…as to the orders which had to be made to give effect to the Applicants' requirements for orders to compel the government to appoint and recognise Wayeyi chiefs, their headmen and other traditional leaders and to give effect to the orders to introduce their language as a medium of instruction and their culture to be part of their school curriculum, the courts, as a matter of judicial policy, were reluctant to issue orders for the carrying out of works and other activities which required the courts' supervision…”
The court further held that “…the order for the recognition of the first Applicant as chief of the Wayeyi had to fail as there was a dispute of facts which could not be resolved whether he could legitimately claim the chieftainship and by granting the relief the court would be second guessing the legislature as regards its response to the court's decision…’’ Of course, from a legal point of view and on the basis of judicial precedent, the court was right in refusing to grant the aforesaid two orders prayed for.
But, obiter, the court stated that “… its refusal to order as applied for was not an expression that the issues in the case had to be ignored: on the contrary there was an urgent requirement on the part of the government to attend to them lest they bedevilled the spirit of goodwill existing between the different tribes and communities in the country…”
In my view, constitutionalism and democracy would have been better served had government heeded the court’s statement above, especially with respect to the introduction of minority tribes’ languages as a medium of instruction in schools as well as mainstreaming minority tribes’ cultures in the school curriculum though it was said obiter and had no binding effect.
No wonder in an Alternative Report submitted to the Human Rights Committee on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in May, 2007, RETENG: The Multicultural Coalition of Botswana wrote: “The amendments through Bill number 34 of 2005 were cosmetic and left the discrimination intact…”
The report continues to say “… The discrimination denies non-Tswana ethnic groups the following rights: a) group rights to land, b) representation in the House of Chiefs; c) the right to educate their children in their languages; c) the right to educate their children about their histories, customs, values and culture; d) the right to enjoy their languages and culture on national radio and television.” This view is supported by Francis B. Nyamnjoh in his journal article titled ‘Insiders and outsiders: citizenship and xenophobia in Southern Africa’.
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.
Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).
This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.
In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.
Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?
Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.
POSITIVITY Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.
“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)
We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.
Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be. You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.
When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.
Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.
However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.” “Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)
COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT
Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.
It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.
Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.
Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.
The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.
It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.