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Inefficiency and corruption cripples Botswana’s economic diversification

Ndulamo Anthony Morima


As gleaned from this year’s Budget Speech, Government, at least at a policy and programme level, prioritises economic diversification. The question is: does Government, in effect, do enough to attain economic diversification?   

According to the Minister of Finance & Economic Development, Honourable Kenneth Matambo, “… efforts by the Government to diversify the domestic economy continue to yield positive results, as evidenced by the decline in the share of mining sector in the value addition, with a corresponding increase in the contribution of the non-mining sectors…”

He continued to say that “… mining sector’s share to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) declined from 25 percent in 2008 to 18 percent in 2018, while the contribution of non-mining sectors increased from 75 percent to 82 percent over the same period…” What this means is that, for a period of ten years, the mining sector’s share to the GDP declined by seven percent, while the contribution of non-mining sectors increased by seven percent. The question is: is this percentage the best that Botswana could have attained, all factors considered.

In my view, though the first half of the period 2008 to 2018 was during the world economic recession, Botswana could have attained ten percent or more were it not for the inefficiencies and corruption bedevilling Government. The Selibe Phikwe Economic Diversification Unit (SPEDU) project, which failed to diversify the economy of Selibe Phikwe and surrounding villages away from copper and nickel reliance until the closure of the Selibe Phikwe mine, is one typical example of how inefficiency cripples Government’s economic diversification goals.

That Government has approved a set of incentives for the SPEDU region, which include five percent corporate tax rate for the first five years and ten percent thereafter, for companies setting up in the SPEDU region, under the sectors of tourism, agriculture, and manufacturing, as Honourable Matambo assets, has long been known.

The same applies to the fact that twelve companies were assessed and ten have been approved. The question is: has there been stimulation of economic activity in the Agri-business; Manufacturing; Infrastructure Development; and Information, Communication and Technology sectors as had been envisaged?

The fact is that since 2008 when the SPEDU programme was established Government has failed to diversify the economy of Selibe Phikwe and surrounding villages. Therefore, Government’s pledge to intensify its effort to facilitate such growth in the coming years rings empty.
It, therefore, cannot be correct, as Honourable Matambo claims, that this, that is, the seven percent performance, is consistent with the Government’s efforts to reduce the dependence of the economy on the mining sector, which is susceptible to external shocks.

That there is need to intensify efforts to diversify the country’s exports and government revenue sources as Honourable Matambo assets is stating the obvious. In Honourable Matambo’s own admission, “… diamonds exports continue to dominate the trade account, while mineral and customs revenues account for over two-thirds of government revenues…”  Since we have known this from time immemorial, the question is: how many manufacturing industries, for instance, has Government played a role in establishing?

Granted, government needs to be commended for assisting some entrepreneurs to, through the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) programme, venture into the textile industry, but there has been little or no progress in the manufacturing sector. Despite the fact we have two abattoirs which supply a market as large as Europe with beef, Government has failed to facilitate or promote the establishment of a manufacturing industry for such products as leather, glue, etc.    

In one of the few instances that government attempted to use manufacturing to diversify the economy, that is, the Fengyue Palapye Glass Project, inefficiency and corruption had the upper hand, resulting in loss of millions of Pula since the project was sponsored by the public purse through the Botswana Development Corporation (BDC). Consequently, as Honourable Matambo admits, “… the country’s dependency on one commodity for exports, and two major sources of revenues, i.e. mineral and customs revenues, poses a systemic risk to our economy…”

Though Honourable Matambo claims that Government pledges to continue with efforts to diversify the economy in general, and its exports and government revenues, in particular, there is little evidence to support that. As Honourable Matambo stated during this year’s Budget Speech, “… one of the strategic initiatives identified to promote economic diversification is the Economic Diversification Drive (EDD), which was established in April 2010…”

The question is: did Government maximally use its purchasing power to support local production of goods and services as per EDD’s dictates? In my view, the fact that only P17.2 billion or 53 percent of the total cumulative amount of P32.5 billion worth of goods and services purchased by Government since the inception of the programme, was from local manufacturers and service providers leaves a lot to be desired. There is no reason why we should not have scored at least 80 percent in this area.

The only reason why such a noble economic diversification tool as the EDD has not been adequately leveraged on is that the award of tenders to local manufacturers and service providers was hampered by either inefficiency or corruption or both. When the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) policy was adopted in 2011 many had hope that it would bring a bumper harvest in as far as economic diversification is concerned. Indeed, it was Government’s hope that the SEZ would contribute to the diversification of the economic and export base of the country.

Yet, in Honourable Matambo’s own admission, to date, about nine years since the SEZ policy was adopted, the only thing we have done is to identify the Special Economic Zones. Other than that, the only thing the minister could report to the nation is that the Special Economic Zones will be developed in two Phases. If this is not inefficiency, I do not know what inefficiency is.Government has, as another initiative aimed at promoting economic diversification, the Cluster Development Initiative (CDI) which, as Honourable Matambo asserts, is aimed at improving business productivity, value chains and competitiveness.

But, just like with the SEZ we have not gone beyond prioritisation. According to Honourable Matambo, preparatory work is underway to develop business case studies and implementation plans for the first three clusters selected for implementation, namely; tourism, beef and finance and knowledge intensive business services. We are yet to do something as basic as conducting detailed studies which, according to Honourable Matambo, will include the assessment of capacity building needs for the identified sectors as part of measures to enhance their domestic and global competitiveness.

As a result of Government’s failure to implement the CDI, Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) with potential to grow this economy, lack the capacity to effectively compete with multinational and regional industries. The noble plans that Government had to assist SMMEs with such infrastructural intervention as power distribution, water reticulation, telecommunication and drainage and pollution control have remained a pipe dream.

The same applies to the plan to set up common facility centres for balancing or improving production lines such as marketing centres. How then can the private sector, which is critical for economic diversification, grow? Without a vibrant private sector, how can there be employment creation? No wonder our unemployment rate is as high as 20%. Without employment creation, how can there be poverty eradication?

In view of the aforegoing, one can conclude that Botswana’s failure to diversify its economy away from diamonds is not because it has no viable plans to do so, but it is because of either inefficiency or corruption or both. Botswana missed an opportunity to diversify its economy when it used the Economic Stimulus Package (ESP) for populist and unsustainable projects for political expediency. These projects hardly had any impact on economic growth and diversification since they were mainly sustenance based.

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Technology saves Lions from angry Okavango villagers

22nd November 2022

Villagers in the eastern Okavango region are now using an alert system which warns them when collared lions approach livestock areas. The new technology is now regarded as a panacea to the human/wildlife conflict in the area as it has reduced mass poisoning and killing of lions by farmers.

The technology is being implemented by an NGO, Community Living Among Wildlife Sustainably (CLAWS) within the five villages of Seronga, Gunutsoga, Eretsha, Beetsha and Gudigwa in the eastern part of the Okavango delta.

A Carnivore Ecologist from CLAWS, Dr Andrew Stein explained that around 2013, villagers in the eastern Okavango were having significant problems with losses of their cattle to predators specifically lions, so the villagers resorted to using poison and shooting the lions in order to reduce their numbers.

He highlighted that as a form of progressive intervention, they designed a programme to reduce the conflicts and promote coexistence. Another component of the programme is communal herding, introduced in 2018 to reduce the conflict by increasing efficiency whereby certified herders monitor livestock health and protect them from predators, allowing community members to engage in other livelihood activities knowing that their livestock are safe.

They are now two herds with 600 and 230 cattle respectively with plan to expand the programme to other neighbouring villages. Currently the programme is being piloted in Eretsha, one of the areas with most conflict incidences per year.

Dr Stein explained that they have developed the first of its kind alert system whereby when the lions get within three or five kilometers of a cattllepost or a homestead upon the five villages, then it will release an alert system going directly to the cellphones of individuals living within the affected area or community.

‘So, if a colored lion gets to about five kilometers of Eretsha village or any villagers in the Eretsha that has signed up for, the system will receive an SMS of the name of the lion and its distance to or from the village”, he stated. He added that this enables villagers to take preventative action to reduce conflicts before its starts.

Dr Stein noted that some respond by gathering their cattle and put them in a kraal or put them in an enclosure making sure that the enclosure is secure while some people will gather firewood and light small fires around edges of the kraal to prevent lions from coming closer and some when they receive the SMS they send their livestock to the neighbours alerting them about the presence of lions.

He noted that 125 people have signed to receive the alert system within Seronga, Eretsha, Beetsha, Gunutsoga and Gudigwa. He added that each homestead is about five people and this means more than 600 people immediately receive the messages about lions when they approach their villages. He also noted that last year they dispersed over 12 000 alerts, adding that this year is a bit higher as about 20 000 alerts have been sent so far across these villages.

Stein further noted that they have been significant changes in the behavior of the villagers as they are now tolerant to lions. “85 percent were happy with the SMS and people are becoming more tolerant with living with lions because they have more information to reduce the conflicts,” he stressed.

Stein noted that since the start of the programme in 2014 they have seen lion populations rebounds almost completely to a level before and they have not recorded cases of lion poisoning in the last three years which is commendable effort.

Monnaleso Sanga from Eretsha village applauded the programme by CLAWS noting that farmers in the area are benefiting through the alert system and take preventative measures to reduce human/lion conflict which has been persistent in the area. He added that numbers of cattle killed by lions have reduced immensely. He also admitted that they are now tolerant to lions and they no longer kill nor poison them.

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8th September 2022

A Muslim is supposed to be and should be a living example of the teachings of the Quran and the ‘Sunnah’ (the teachings and living examples of Prophet Muhammed (SAW – Peace be upon Him). We should follow these in all affairs, relations, and situations – starting with our relationship with our Lord, our own self, our family and the people around us. One of the distinguishing features of the (ideal) Muslim is his faith in Allah, and his conviction that whatever happens in the universe and whatever befalls him, only happens through the will and the decree of the Almighty Allah.

A Muslim should know and feel that he is in constant need of the help and support of Allah, no matter how much he may think he can do for himself. He has no choice in his life but to submit to the will of his Creator, worship Him, strive towards the Right Path and do good deeds. This will guide him to be righteous and upright in all his deeds, both in public and in private.

His attitude towards his body, mind and soul

The Muslim pays attention to his body’s physical, intellectual and spiritual needs. He takes good care of his body, promoting its good health and strength. He shouldn’t eat in excess; but he should eat enough to maintain his health and energy. Allah, The Exalted, Says “…Eat and drink; but waste not by excess, for Allah loves not the wasters.” [Quran 7: 31]

The Muslim should keep away from alcohol and drugs. He should also try to exercise regularly to maintain his physical fitness. The Muslim also keeps his body and clothes clean, he bathes frequently. The Prophet placed a great emphasis on cleanliness and bathing. A Muslim is also concerned with his clothing and appearance but in accordance with the Islamic ideal of moderation, avoiding the extremes.

As for his intellectual care, the Muslim should take care of his mind by pursuing beneficial knowledge. It is his responsibility to seek knowledge whether it is religious or secular, so he may understand the nature and the essence of things. Allah Says: “…and say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.” [Quran 20: 114

The Muslim should not forget that man is not only composed of a body and a mind, but that he also possesses a soul and a spirit. Therefore, the Muslim pays as much attention to his spiritual development as to his physical and intellectual development, in a balanced manner which ideally does not concentrate on one aspect to the detriment of others.

His attitude towards people

The Muslim must treat his parents with kindness and respect, compassion, politeness and deep gratitude. He recognizes their status and knows his duties towards them. Allah Says “And serve Allah. Ascribe nothing as partner unto Him. (Show) kindness unto parents…” [Quran 4: 36]

With his wife, the Muslim should exemplify good and kind treatment, intelligent handling, deep understanding of the nature and psychology of women, and proper fulfilment of his responsibilities and duties.

With his children, the Muslim is a parent who should understand his responsibility towards their good upbringing, showing them love and compassion, influence their Islamic development and giving them proper education, so that they become active and constructive elements in society, and a source of goodness for their parents, community, and society as a whole.

With his relatives, the Muslim maintains the ties of kinship and knows his duties towards them. He understands the high status given to relatives in Islam, which makes him keep in touch with them, no matter what the circumstances.


With his neighbours, the Muslim illustrates good treatment, kindness and consideration of others’ feelings and sensitivities. He turns a blind eye to his neighbour’s faults while taking care not to commit any such errors himself. The Muslim relationship with his wider circle of friends is based on love for the sake of Allah. He is loyal and does not betray them; he is sincere and does not cheat them; he is gentle, tolerant and forgiving; he is generous and he supplicates for them.

In his social relationships with all people, the Muslim should be well-mannered, modest and not arrogant. He should not envy others, fulfils his promises and is cheerful. He is patient and avoids slandering and uttering obscenities. He should not unjustly accuse others nor should he interfere in that which does not concern him. He refrains from gossiping, spreading slander and stirring up trouble – avoids false speech and suspicion. When he is entrusted with a secret, he keeps it. He respects his elders. He mixes with the best of people. He strives to reconcile between the Muslims. He visits the sick and attends funerals. He returns favours and is grateful for them. He calls others to Islam with wisdom, example and beautiful preaching. He should guide people to do good and always make things easy and not difficult.

The Muslim should be fair in his judgments, not a hypocrite, a sycophant or a show-off. He should not boast about his deeds and achievements. He should be straightforward and never devious or twisted, no matter the circumstances. He should be generous and not remind others of his gifts or favours. Wherever possible he relieves the burden of the debtor. He should be proud and not think of begging.

These are the standards by which the (ideal) Muslim is expected to structure his life on. Now how do I measure up and fit into all this? Can I honestly say that I really try to live by these ideals and principles; if not can I really call myself a true Muslim?

For the ease of writing this article I have made use of for want of a better word, the generic term ‘he’, ‘his’, ‘him’ and the ‘male’ gender, but it goes without saying that these standards apply equally to every female and male Muslim.

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29th August 2022

“Homicide and suicide kill almost 7000 children every year; one in four of all children are born to unmarried mothers, many of whom are children themselves…..children’s potential lost to spirit crushing poverty….children’s hearts lost in divorce and custody battles….children’s lives lost to abuse and violence, our society lost to itself, as we fail our children.” “If you bungle raising your children, I don’t think whatever else you do matters very much.” (Quotation taken from a book written by Hillary Clinton).

These words may well apply to us here in Botswana; We are also experiencing a series of challenges in many spheres of development and endeavour but none as challenging as the long term effects of what is going to happen to our youth of today. One of the greatest challenges facing us as parents today is how to guide our youth to become the responsible adults that we wish them to be, tomorrow.

In Islam Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has enjoined upon the parents to take care of the moral and religious instruction of their children from the very beginning, otherwise they will be called to account for negligence on the Day of Judgement. Parents must inculcate God-consciousness in their children from an early age, whereby the children will gain an understanding of duty to The Creator.


The Holy Qur’an says: ‘O you who believe! Save yourself and your families from the Fire of Hell’. (Ch. 66: V6). This verse places the responsibility on the shoulders of the parents to ensure that training and guidance begin at home. The goal is to mould the child into a solid Islamic personality, with good morals, strong Islamic principles, knowledge and behavior so as to be equipped to face the demands of life in a responsible and mature manner. This should begin with the proper environment at home that inculcates the best moral and behavioral standards.

But what do we have instead? Believers of all Religious persuasions will agree that we have children growing up without parental guidance, a stable home environment, without role models, being brought up in surroundings that are not conducive to proper upbringing and moulding of well-adjusted children. These children are being brought up devoid of any parental guidance and increasingly the desperate situation of orphaned children having to raise their siblings (children raising children) because their parents have succumbed to the scourge of AIDS.

It is becoming common that more and more girls still in their schooling years are now falling pregnant, most of them unwanted, with the attendant responsibilities and difficulties.

Observe the many young ladies who are with children barely in their teens having illegitimate children. In the recent past there was a campaign focused on the ‘girl-child’; this campaign targeted this group of young females who had fallen pregnant and were now mothers. The situation is that the mother still being just a ‘child’ and not even having tasted adulthood, now has the onerous responsibility of raising her own child most of the time on her own because either the father has simply disappeared, refuses to takes responsibility, or in some cases not even known.

We cannot place the entire blame on these young mothers; as parents and society as a whole stand accused because we have shirked our responsibilities and worse still we ourselves are poor role models. The virtual breakdown of the extended family system and of the family unit in many homes means that there are no longer those safe havens of peace and tranquility that we once knew. How then do we expect to raise well-adjusted children in this poisoned atmosphere?

Alcohol has become socially acceptable and is consumed by many of our youth and alarmingly they are now turning to drugs. Alcohol is becoming so acceptable that it is easily accessible even at home where some parents share drinks with their children or buying it for them. This is not confined only to low income families it is becoming prevalent amongst our youth across the board.


It is frightening to witness how our youth are being influenced by blatantly suggestive pop culture messages over television, music videos and other social media. Children who are not properly grounded in being able to make rational and informed decisions between what is right and what is wrong are easily swayed by this very powerful medium.


So what do we do as parents? We first have to lead by example; it is no longer the parental privilege to tell the child ‘do as I say not as I do’- that no longer works. The ball is in the court of every religious leader (not some of the charlatans who masquerade as religious leaders), true adherents and responsible parents. We cannot ignore the situation we have to take an active lead in guiding and moulding our youth for a better tomorrow.

In Islam Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “No father gives a better gift to his children than good manners and good character.”  Children should be treated not as a burden, but a blessing and trust of Allah, and brought up with care and affection and taught proper responsibilities etiquettes and behaviour.

Even the Bible says; ‘Suffer the little children to come unto me and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein’. (Mark 10:14-15)

The message is clear and needs to be taken by all of us: Parents let us rise to the occasion – we owe it to our children and their future.

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