Connect with us
Advertisement

Egypt Under Joseph

Benson C Saili
THIS EARTH, MY BROTHER

His accomplishments as Co-Pharaoh

Knowing as we do that Joseph was not an original name (we don’t know what his original name was), exactly how did a man who was called Yuya in Egypt come to be called Joseph in the Torah (the first five books of the Old Testament), particularly that Joseph was not a Jewish name?  It appears that at least in this instance, the Genesis writers knew what they were talking about as they got the name dead right!

Both biblical and extra-biblical sources inform us that upon being made viceroy, Yuya was given a new, evocative name by the incumbent pharaoh. This was Zaphnath-Pa-Neah. It was a descriptive name meaning “Time of God, May He Live”.  Paraphrased, the message in the name was, “May God Shine in This Man’s Time”.  But it is the first syllable, Zaph, that is of particular interest. In the Egyptian spelling, this was “Seph” or “Sef”, meaning “time”.

So what did the Hebrews do? They combined “Yu”, the first syllable of the name Yuya, with “Seph” to form “Yu-Seph”,   or Joseph (pronounced “Yahewseph” in the Bible).  “Yu” was simply the shorter form of  “Yahweh”,  the generic name by which the Jews’ Enlilite gods  went. (Note that the Old Testament was written in the 6th century BC, by which time the Jews referred to their god as Yahweh.)  Thus the name Joseph as interpreted by the Jews meant “Yahweh’s Time”, which is basically the same as its rendering in Egyptian.

In another vein, the name Joseph also meant “Son of God”. One other meaning of the Egyptian term “sef” was “boy” or “son”. In this context though, Joseph was the son not of the Anunnaki god Yahweh but of  Egypt’s national god Marduk. This equated him to a pharaoh as all pharaohs were designated sons of the god Marduk, the reason why at least one of their throne names had to carry the name Ra, or Re, that being a component of Amen-Ra, the name by which Marduk was known  in Egypt. As we have already showcased, Joseph was for  all practical purposes a joint king with Pharaoh Thutmosis IV.  

The Egyptian writer Manetho confirms that the pharaoh Amenhotep III, Tuthmosis IV’s successor, did have a super minister called “Seph”.    And rummaging through ancient Egyptian historical archives, we find that the name Seph was actually a common one and was borne by both males and females.   

JOSEPH DWELT IN KING’S PALACE

The many titles the pharaoh conferred on Joseph included “Bearer of the Seal of the King of Lower (northern) Egypt;  "Bearer of the Ring of the King of Lower Egypt”; “Adjutant (Deputy) of His Majesty in the Chariotry”; “Him Whom the King has Made his Double”; “First Among the King’s Companions”; “Mouth of the King of Lower Egypt”; “Ears of the King of Lower Egypt”; “Mouth of the King of Upper (southern) Egypt”; “Master of the Horses”; “Royal Keeper of the Grain”; “Overseer of the Cattle of Min”; and “Lord of Ahkmin”.

As Master of the Horses and Adjutant of His Majesty in the Chariotry, Joseph commanded his own branch of the armed forces – the Chariotry, which waged horse-mounted  war. He was the first person in the history of Egypt to be entrusted such a responsibility. By dint of this same portfolio, he always rode in the second chariot after that of the pharaoh on ceremonial occasions. Perhaps to underscore that he once held this highly momentous position, Joseph was upon his death entombed with a miniature chariot.

At Joseph’s investiture ceremony, which was to all intents and purposes a coronation ceremony, the pharaoh presented him with three insignias of office. The first was a signet ring, which the pharaoh had all along won on his own finger. As such, the ring literally represented a transfer of power, suggesting a symbolic abdication on the part of the pharaoh in deference to Joseph.  The ring conformed to Joseph’s two titles of “Bearer of the Seal of the King of Lower Egypt” and "Bearer of the Ring of the King of Lower Egypt”. 

The second was a necklace of large beads of gold and Lapis Lazuli and the third was a set of royal robes of “fine linen”.   Whereas the gold necklace was found on his mummified body, the ring was not: apparently it had been stolen by grave robbers. Ecstatic at seeing him lap up all these trappings of power and glory, the priests of Heliopolis, Joseph’s most ardent champions, stopped just short of dancing a jig. They nicknamed him Sobekemsaf, which was a title of the pharaoh himself as if to say he was indeed “Him Who The King Made His Equal”.   

Now, since Joseph was practically a joint-Pharaoh, he was not allowed to live in his own posh residence:  being the King’s conscience, the two had to live cheek by jaw. Thus Joseph was accommodated in a section of the royal residence itself. His wife Tuya served the Queen as a butler, nanny, and lady-in-waiting, her official title being “The King’s Ornament”.   Tuya also served purely religious roles for the Anunnaki gods of Egypt. She was Singer of the Hathor (Ninmah, who though neither an Enkite nor  Enlilite was highly regarded by the Egyptians for her tenderness and her indefatigable efforts to reconcile the two clans); the Chief Entertainer (musically) of the gods Marduk and Horus; and Superintendant of the Harem (a bevy of mistresses) of Marduk in Thebes and Horus in Ahkmin.  

JOSEPH TOPS “THE FORBES RICH LIST”

In those days when people in power had carte blanche to enrich themselves from national coffers (not by theft but by official entitlement), Joseph became one of the wealthiest people on the globe, in keeping with  one of his titles which said “One Made Rich by the King of Lower Egypt”. He is said to have controlled over 20 percent of Egypt’s GNP. The portfolio that brought about these riches was that of Royal Keeper of the Grain Stores.

Since the great flood of Noah’s day, when north Africa began to turn into a desert, the river Nile has always been Egypt’s lifeline. Like most rivers, the Nile has its peaks and troughs: it swells with water during the rainy season (it originates in the more rain-abundant tropics, in Ethiopia and Sudan). But the Nile has had another age-old rainfall cycle that occurs in seven-year periods at its sources. In one such period, it experiences a heavy rainfall pattern and in the next seven-year period it is plagued by low rainfall, and so forth and so on. The grain harvest mirrored this climatic pattern:  seven years of abundance were always followed by seven “lean” years.

According to the Famine Stela, a hieroglyphical inscription into a natural granite cliff on Sehel Island in Egypt which tells of a seven-year period of drought and famine during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser of the Third Dynasty, people were in dire straits during this harsh cycle of the Nile. “Grain was scant, kernels were dried up. Scarce was every kind of food. Temples were shut, shrines covered in dust. Everyone was in distress.” Talking of a similar situation in the time of Joseph, the Bible says the famished populace would match on the palace to plead with their king to do something to get them out of their predicament. “And the dearth was in all lands … And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread.”

Joseph was tasked with balancing out the availability of grain in Egyptian silos. He was in one way  or the other expected to turn the lean years into abundant years too so that the nation was consistently catered for foodwise. Thus Joseph’s first seven years, which coincided with the abundant cycle, was dedicated to stockpiling. Joseph made maximum use of this situation to amass a fortune for himself. Exactly how?

Writes Ralph Ellis in his phenomenally insightful book Jesus, Last of the Pharaohs: “Joseph had been stockpiling grain for years (during the bountiful seven years). As the famine worsened (during the harsh seven years), he began to sell this grain back to the people for the profit of the pharaoh. After a while, people had no more money to buy grain, so they sold their sacred cattle that they would not eat. Joseph bought them all and fed his people well.

Next, the people of Egypt came to Joseph and sold their land to him to pay for grain until all the land of Egypt belonged to pharaoh and Joseph. When the floods at last returned to the land, Joseph said to the people: here is seed corn for you, and ye shall sow the land. But in return you shall give one fifth part unto pharaoh and keep four fifths for your family. And they said; thou hast saved our lives: let us find grace in your sight, and we will be pharaoh’s servants.

And Joseph smiled, knowing that he was the saviour of all of Egypt and, in addition, he would receive a 20 per cent return on all his investments and become the richest man in the world.” If there was such a thing as the Forbes Rich List in Joseph’s day, he would have  shot right to the first slot just in his thirties!

JOSEPH’S STUNNING CIVIL ENGINEERING FEAT

In order to ensure that there was sufficient grain at all times in Egypt, Joseph came up with  a most ingenious idea. There was at a place 60 miles south of Memphis a natural depression which he intended to turn into a lake with full-capacity water all-year-round. This feature, which was practically in the middle of the desert, was known as Qarun. Joseph decided to construct an artificial waterway that would link Qarun to the Nile River over a distance of about 30 miles and which would facilitate year-long irrigation.

The pharaoh of course acceded to the idea coming from the genius that was his No.2, but when  Joseph’s two viziers were told of it,  they, in a bid to undermine him, got the pharaoh to prescribe a rather tight time scale for the project. He was to complete it within a thousand days, or roughly 33 months, a significant Masonic number.

If the green-eyed viziers thought he would fail and so lose a bit of face in the eyes of the pharaoh, they were totally mistaken. Joseph dug feeder canals and created the artificial lake in the stipulated time period with a week or so  to spare. It was such a stunning feat that the place where Qarun was located became known as Alf Yum (or Fayyum), meaning “The Place of the Thousand Days”. Alf Yum became the bread basket of the whole of Egypt, noted not only for grain production but also for fresh vegetables, fruit, and fish.

The Qarun depression was in fact two lakes in one – the smaller Lake Keroun and the larger Lake Moeris, named after the reigning pharaoh. Moeris is the Greek rendition of the name of an Egyptian pharaoh. The Greek historian-geographer Herodotus wrote of a huge lake that was formed artificially in the time of “Pharaoh Moeris”. The lake had a circumference of 400 miles, equivalent to the entire length of Egypt along the sea coast. It is not easy to assign the name Moeris to a particular pharaoh since pharaohs had several throne names but since Joseph thrived in the time of Thutmosis IV and Amenhotep III, Moeris may be one of these two. As for the waterway itself, even today it is known as Bahr Yousof in Arabic, meaning “The Waterway of Joseph”.

JOSEPH MILITARILY RESCUES A NATION IN DISTRESS

As head of the Chariotry, the horse-mounted branch of the Egyptian army, Joseph was a formidable general. We don’t know exactly how many campaigns Joseph took part in but these must have been very few in that Pharaoh Tuthmosis IV and his successor Amenhotep III were not particularly belligerent kings having entered into many peace accords with foreign nations. But at least one campaign headed by Joseph is documented in the apocryphal Book of Jasher.

     The war pitted Egyptians against the Tarshishites. The Tarshishites were from the state of Cilicia, in modern-day Turkey. For years, they had made the lives of the much smaller, populationwise,  and therefore weaker Ishmaelites a total misery. It was the latter who called upon the pharaoh to help get them out of their predicament. The Book of Jasher relates the story as follows:

“At that time the children of Tarshish came against the sons of Ishmael, and made war with them, and the children of Tarshish spoiled the Ishmaelites for a long time. And the children of Ishmael were small in number in those days, and they could not prevail over the children of Tarshish, and they were sorely oppressed. And the old men of the Ishmaelites sent a record to the king of Egypt, saying, send I pray thee unto thy servants officers and hosts to help us to fight against the children of Tarshish, for we have been consuming away for a long time.

And Pharaoh sent Joseph with the mighty men and host which were with him, and also his mighty men from the king's house. And they went to the land of Havilah to the children of Ishmael, to assist them against the children of Tarshish, and the children of Ishmael fought with the children of Tarshish, and Joseph smote the Tarshishites and he subdued all their land, and the children of Ishmael dwell therein unto this day.

And when the land of Tarshish was subdued, all the Tarshishites ran away, and came on the border of their brethren the children of Javan, and Joseph with all his mighty men and host returned to Egypt, not one man of them missing.” It is ironic that the Ishamaelites (Arabs) whose safety the pharaoh of a black nation safeguarded would eons later occupy Egypt and drive its entire black population out of the country. This Earth, My Brother …

WHICH  GOD DID JOSEPH WORSHIP?

Now that Joseph was an Egyptian, which god did he worship?  Did he continue venerating the gods he had worshipped in Canaan, the Enlilites, notably  Jehovah-Enlil, Nannar-Sin, and Ishkur-Adad, or embraced the major Enkite gods such as Enki (called Ptah in Egypt), Marduk, Osiris, and Horus?

That question is not easy to answer. That is because the god one worships publicly is not necessarily the god one worships at heart. We know, for instance, that the overwhelming majority of evangelical churches have today been infiltrated by Satanists, who in public worship Jesus when under cover of darkness they worship Reptilian gods who go under the generic term “Devil”. As for Catholicism, the less said the better: the Vatican and its Pontiff do not have an ounce of spirituality in them.  To cite just one example, every time there is a sting exposure of priests who have sexually abused little boys for ages, all the “Holy Father” says is,  “forgive them: they know not what they are doing”.  

With regard to Joseph, at least on the face of it, one would say he worshipped Enkite gods. At least four of his official titles exalted Enkite gods. They were “Overseer of the Cattle of Min” (Min was Horus primarily); “Prophet of the God Min”; “Overseer of the Cattle of Amun” (Amun, or Amen, was Marduk);  and “Praised of His Lord Amun”.  And as priest of the temple of Heliopolis, a position he later occupied, Joseph was known as Ptah-Seph, meaning “Son of Enki”.

However, the manner in which he was buried, likely according to his wishes, suggests he was in truth not Enkite-oriented. Typically, Egyptian nobles, including pharaohs, were buried with their hands crossed over their chests in homage to the god Osiris, who was said to be the god presiding over the passage of the dead on their way to higher realms of existence.  Joseph, on the other hand, had his palms facing his neck under the chin. His was the only Egyptian mummy to have been buried in that posture.      

Clearly, Joseph may have publicly venerated Enkite gods when deep down he was contemptuous of them. At the same time, if he worshipped Enlilite gods, he must have done so in utmost secrecy. Note that the Jewish population in Egypt did not also worship Enlilite gods. Having lived in Egypt for hundreds of years, most of them worshipped Marduk (who  in Egypt was known as the Apis Bull, meaning Taurean Bull) in the time of Joseph. This aspect was one of the reasons the Enlilites cleverly orchestrated their repatriation to Canaan during the time of Moses.

NEXT WEEK:   JOSEPH’S LEGENDARY GRANDSON IS BORN

Continue Reading

Columns

The Daring Dozen at Bari

8th December 2020
JEFF---Batswana-smoke-unit

Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.

The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.

Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.

At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.

Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.

Continue Reading

Columns

A Strong Marriage Bond Needs Two

8th December 2020

Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).

This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.

In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.

Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?

Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.

POSITIVITY
Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.

“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)

We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”

UNDERSTANDING

Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.

Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be.  You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”

COMMITMENT

Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.

When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.

ACCEPTANCE

Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.

However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.”
“Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)

COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT

Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.

It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.

Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.

Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.

Continue Reading

Columns

Chronic Joblessness: How to Help Curtail it

30th November 2020
Motswana woman

The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.

It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!

Continue Reading
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!