On 9th February 2015, I wrote a column titled ‘Log Raditlhokwa, tell Sir Seretse Khama!’, in honour of Log Raditlhokwa, one of the greatest writers we have had, who had just departed this world.
The essence of the column, as it were, was to ask Raditlhokwa to use his journalistic skills to relay some issues related to Lieutenant General Dr. Seretse Khama Ian Khama’s leadership to his father. Today, about three years later, as I remember Log, I ask him whether he indeed relayed the message to Ian Khama’s father, especially that his son will be stepping down as president in less than a weeks’ time.
Log, did you, as I asked you then my brother, try to meet Sir Seretse Khama and tell him that the Botswana he left has been denigrated by his party, the party he helped found, the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), with his son at the helm? If you did, I suspect he asked you what Festus Mogae and the late Sir Ketumile Masire have done to save the situation. Did you tell him that his son did not listen to them? Did you tell him that when they tried to intervene he told them that this is his time to rule and they should not try to rule from the grave?
Did you tell him that his son, in running the country, listens to such of his friends as Thapelo Olopeng and Isaac Kgosi and ignores the wisdom of party elders? Did you tell him that his son has militarized the public service by appointing former soldiers to head government ministries, departments and parastatals?
Did you tell him that if he had known he would have, on 15th May 1970, concluded his most famous quotation by saying “… and a nation without a leader is a lost nation?” Did you tell him that under his son’s leadership such of our virtues as consultation (therisano) were replaced by directives?
Did you tell him that under his son’s leadership only bootlickers and members of the BDP were regarded as patriots and those who raised questions were labeled as traitors and belonging to the Opposition? Was it difficult for you to meet him? I told you that if it was difficult for you to meet him, you should have requested such elders who still remember you as the late Lieutenant General Mompati Merafhe to arrange the meeting. He cannot have refused to meet you.
Did you, as I requested you to, when you met him remind him of the speech he gave at the opening of the fifth session of Botswana's third National Assembly in November 1978, when he said "Democracy, like a little plant, does not grow or develop on its own. It must be nursed and nurtured if it is to grow and flourish. It must be believed in and practiced if it is to be appreciated. And it must be fought for and defended if it is to survive."
Did you tell him that contrary to his words his son has not practiced and nurtured our democracy? Instead he choked such vanguards of our democracy as the media, trade unions and civil society? Did you tell him that under his son’s watch this very little tree, our democracy, which he helped to plant, has been left to wither? Did you tell him that the son he so loved that he bequeathed his own name has disregarded workers and trade unions?
Did you tell him that he, through the Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM), finally succeeded in disbanding the Public Service Bargaining Council after rendering it meaningless for several years? You obviously cannot have forgotten to talk about the media. Did you tell him that under his leadership the private media was purged and starved of adverts from government and parastatals, with Independent minded government journalists vilified?
I know he did not know Edgar Tsimane, but he certainly knew Outsa Mokone. Did you tell him that, for the first time after many years, the two faced charges of seditious offences and Tsimane fled the country to seek asylum in South Africa, a country which was not even a democracy when he departed. If he did not believe you, did you, as per my request, request your fellow departed rights activist, Laona Segaetsho, to confirm it? May be he would believe him since he worked for the United States Embassy.
Did you remind him of the speech he gave in Blantyre in July 1967 when he said "I think that the trouble we now face in the world is caused mainly by the refusal to try and see another man’s point of view, to try and persuade by example — and the refusal to meet a rather passionate desire to impose your own will upon others, either by force or other means."?
Did you tell him that his son has used the personality cult and charismatic power he inherited from him to impose his will on Batswana. I trust you fear not Log, for you were not afraid to tell the truth to power when you were still alive. Did you tell him that when his son assumed office he, without consulting Batswana, abdicated the four national principles that he as the father of our nation helped develop and instituted his own so-called four Ds?
Did you tell him that his son thought our founding principles of democracy, development, self-reliance and unity are not good enough? Did you tell him that his son’s leadership was characterized by directives and populist and economically unsustainable pet projects? Did you tell him that though some of these projects no doubt bring relief to Batswana they are not sustainable and make Batswana unproductive and reliant on government programmes and hand-outs?
I trust you maintained the balanced reporting you often exhibited Log. Did you tell him that amidst all this his son has done some good? Did you tell him that he likes people, especially the elderly, and made it his duty to make donations to the needy and elderly? Did you tell him that though he does it in an unsustainable manner he has established such programmes as Ipelegeng, ISPAAD and back yard gardening to help the poor?
Did you tell him that he likes the youth too, and has introduced a number of initiatives to empower them though they have made little difference in combating such ills as youth unemployment? Did you tell him that his son abolished our pride, Tirelo Sechaba, and introduced the National Service Scheme, though its participants do the ‘national service’ in their own home villages?
But, did you also tell him that, though the programmes have their own challenges, he has pioneered such programmes as the National Internship Programme, Legal Aid Botswana, Traditional & Cultural Competitions, e.t.c? Did you tell him that through the latter his son has tried to make true his popular saying: “A nation without a past is a lost nation, and a people without a past is a people without a soul”?
Did you tell him that though poverty levels remain high, his son has, throughout his tenure, prioritized poverty eradication initiatives? Did you tell him that of all the presidents, including him, he is the only one who has prioritized those living with disabilities to the extent of having them coordinated from his office?
Did you tell him that he, like him, likes the Kgotla though unlike him he disliked Parliament? Did you tell him that though he has done it in a manner that may encroach into some people’s rights and freedoms, his son has tried to instill discipline among his people? Did you tell him that his son has passed legislation to regulate operating hours for alcohol outlets and has introduced an alcohol levy, supposedly to combat alcohol abuse?
I told you that it will sadden him, but did you tell him that as a result of his son’s poor leadership the party he helped start and build is facing a decline in electoral support, and, for the first time since independence, got less than 50% of the popular vote in 2014? Did you tell him that were it not for the Opposition’s failure to unite, his party could have lost the 2014 general elections?
I know you left before the Good hope, Moshupa West and Ngware bye elections were held, but you probably read about the results in the media. Did you tell him that in an unprecedented development his party lost all those bye elections? I told you that given his intelligence he will know that unless his son becomes a true democrat and his party changes for the better he may, post 2018, be the leader of the Opposition in the after- life.
Tell him that he may only be rescued by the fact that the Opposition recently fractured, with a split in Gomolemo Motswaledi’s party, Botswana Movement for Democracy, giving birth to the Alliance for Progressives led by Ndaba Gaolathe, Baledzi Gaolathe’s son. Log, I pleaded with you to meet Sir Seretse Khama before you met such people as Gomolemo Motswaledi, Dr. Kenneth Koma, Mareledi Gidi, Peter Mmusi and Paul Rantao lest his Private Secretary declines to secure an appointment for you.
I told you that though unlike his son he is a democrat and would not refuse to meet you simply because you differ with him, you need to follow protocol and meet him first as former head of state. Did you do that Log? I trust that when Sir Ketumile Masire came you did not become excited and forget the protocol. Tell him that his son lived to his word and will be stepping down from office on 1st April and will be succeeded by Mokgweetsi Masisi, Edison Masisi’s son.
A wife, uncle, and two in-laws fall at the hands of Judah’s despot
The pre-eminent Jewish chronicler, Flavius Josephus, said of Herod the Great that he was “blessed with every gift of looks, body, and mind” but he was a “slave to his passions”. This was in the context of a gloating bloodlust.
His sword knew no sacred cows: neither his own kids, wives, in-laws, next of kin, nor bosom friends were immune from it. He is on record as pestering Caesar Augustus with a barrage of letters seeking permission to execute his own flesh and blood, prompting the Roman emperor to at one time quip that, “It is better to be Herod’s pig than his son”, which was apt: as a “Jew”, Herod did not eat pork and therefore in the event that he kept any pigs, they would never have to be killed.
You are by now well-apprised of the death of Hyrcanus II by the same Herod, General Atiku, in 30 BC. Hyrcanus, a Hasmonean ruler of Judah twice over, was actually the grandfather of Mariamne I, Herod’s most beloved wife and his second of up to 10 wives. It was Mariamne’s own mother Salome, who dreading Herod’s pathological savagery, pitched Mariamne to Herod in the hope that that would insure her family from Herod’s murderous caprices.
Now, Mariamne, General, was as much a stunning beauty as her younger brother Aristobulus III was breathtakingly good-looking. Having tied the knot with Herod in 37 BC, Mariamne had prevailed over her husband to install Aristobulus as High Priest. The post had fallen vacant on the death of Antigonus in 37 BC and Herod had appointed one Ananel, who had no ties whatsoever to the Hasmoneans, the first such in more than a century, in his place. Unable to resist the spirited entreaties of his beloved wife, who had also lobbied Queen Cleopatra of Egypt and her beau Mark Anthony, Herod gave in and replaced Ananel with Aristobulus, who was only 16 years old, in 36 BC.
Because of his enormous charisma and overall affability, Aristobulus was a hit with the masses despite his tender age and Herod was envious of the young man’s rock star-like popularity. To make doubly sure the young man did not harbour a seditious ace up his sleeve, the morbidly paranoid Herod had his spooks watch on both Aristobulus and his mother round the clock. Sensing imminent danger, Aristobulus contacted Cleopatra, asking for a pre-emptive safe passage to Egypt and there enjoy absolute freedom. When Herod got wind of this, he decided to get rid of Aristobulus as he did not wish him to be a perennial thorn in his flesh from the utter safety of self-imposed exile.
The opportunity came at a banquet in Jericho which was organised by Aristobulus’ mother. There, Herod had one of his henchmen cause Aristobulus to drown during a dusk time horseplay in a swimming pool. Of course Herod would forever maintain the drowning was accidental when everybody knew it was in truth a tactical elimination. Poor Aristobulus was only 17 years old having been born in 56 BC. He was the last Hasmonean High Priest and was replaced by the previously deposed Ananel, who was to remain in that position till 29 BC.
HEROD ACQUITTED OVER THE ARISTOBULUS DEATH
It need not be over-emphasised, General, that Mariamne and her mother Alexandra did not take Herod’s line over the all too untimely demise of Aristobulus lying down. If he had reckoned that with the death of Aristobulus he had gotten rid of potentially the most potent threat to his omnipotence, he was totally mistaken. Herod had actually simply fanned the flames of intrigue against him, for mother and daughter confronted him and accused him of murdering their boy in cold blood.
Nor did the two Iron Ladies end matters there: Alexandra wrote a lachrymal letter to Cleopatra to get her to bring her influence to bear on Mark Anthony so that Herod paid dearly and likewise for his nefarious act. Anthony, who at the time was the Roman colossus in charge of the whole of the Middle East, was persuaded and during a visit to Laodicea (in modern-day Turkey, though some accounts say it was Rhodes in Cyprus), he commanded Herod to report to him forthwith and exculpate himself over the affair.
Although Herod put a brave face on the matter, General, he was rather unsure of his eventual fate after the trial. He also suspected rightly or wrongly that Anthony had a thing for the voluptuously beautiful Mariamne and the last thing Herod wanted was for any other man to bed his beloved Mariamne even in death. So before he set off for Laodicea, Herod instructed his uncle Joseph, who was married to his sister Salome, to make sure that in the event that Anthony sentenced him to death, he should immediately put her to the sword. He also detailed a certain Sohemus, a most trusted aide, to stand sentry over the entire womenfolk at the palace.
Herod, however, had the nine lives of a cat, General. Using his immense rhetorical skills and the time-honoured palm greasing, he won himself an acquittal. Meanwhile, the Judean rumourville was abuzz with chatter that Herod had been summarily executed by Anthony, as a result of which people became spendthrifts of their tongues.
Both Joseph and Sohemus disclosed to Mariamne the instructions Herod had left them with in relation to her fate once he was no more. Mariamne was both livid and distraught that her husband regarded her as so easily expendable when outwardly he cherished her beyond words. To her mind, his arrangements with Joseph had nothing to do with love but sprang from sheer monstrosity. She probably thanked God that he was dead, but the fact of the matter was that he was not and when he at long last turned up, she did not want to have anything to do with him, including the conjugation which he so eagerly pined for after such an extended absence.
HEROD KILLS HIS WIFE AND HIS UNCLE
Now, if Herod had a kind of Svengali, General, it was his youngest sister Salome. Salome (65 BC-10 AD) was the most powerful woman at Herod’s court. A sly, scheming, and manipulating vixen, she arguably more than any other living being had the most sway in a negative sense on her brother, who took practically whatever she said as gospel truth.
Let us nevertheless, General, take stock of the fact that the bulk of what we learn about Salome comes from Flavius Josephus, who himself relied on the writings of Herod’s court historian Nicolaus of Damascus. For one reason or the other, Nicolaus did not see eye to eye with Salome and it is therefore possible that much of what Nicolaus relates of her is embellished to smear her before the court of history. Upon his return, Herod was told of the rumours of his death and so was surprised to find Mariamne alive when Joseph and Sohemus should in the circumstances have had her killed if indeed they were loyal to him. In fact, Joseph had even put Mariamne and Alexandra into the safe custody of Roman legions stationed in Judea just in case Jewish malcontents who abhorred Herod turned their wrath on them.
But there was more. Salome reported to Herod that Mariamne, who she hated like the plague, had had sexual relations with both Joseph and Sohemus, this being Mariamne’s reward to them for dishing out to her the dirt on Herod, and that she had on several occasions before attempted to poison him. Now, no one would hump Herod’s most beloved wife and get away scotfree. It is therefore small wonder that Herod straightaway ordered the execution of Joseph and Sohemus. Joseph was 61 years old at the time of his death in 34 BC, having been born in 95 BC. In the case of Mariamne herself though, he had her subjected to a formal court trial not on charges of adultery but of attempted regicide.
Herod had hoped that the court would acquit her, whereupon he would make bygones be bygones so great was his love for the woman, but sadly for him, General, she was found guilty and sentenced to death. Even then, Herod tactfully dilly-dallied on signing the writ of execution and simply had his wife detained at a fortress for some time until Salome prevailed over him to execute her at long last. Writes Josephus: “Thus, with the death of the noble and lovely Mariamne ended the glorious history of the Hasmonean High Priest Mattathias and his descendants.”
For a long time to come though, General, Herod was haunted by the death of his wife to the point of even sometimes coming across as if he had lost his mind. “When Herod realised what this meant (the death sentence passed on Mariamne), he tried in vain to have the verdict changed, but Salome did not rest until the death penalty was carried out,” Josephus informs us. “Herod was heartbroken; nothing could comfort him for the loss of his lovely wife.
For seven years he refused to have her body buried, and held it, embalmed, in his palace. Afterwards, he became so melancholy and despondent, nothing interested him or could arouse any enthusiasm in him for living … He was so far conquered by his passion, that he would order his servants to call for Mariamne, as if she were still alive, and could still hear them … He tried hard to forget his trouble by going hunting and banqueting, but nothing helped. Herod built new cities and erected temples and palaces. He also named a tower in honour of Mariamne.”
HEROD SLAYS SISTER’S EX-HUBBY
Mariamne’s death was not the only one which Herod perpetrated through the instrumentality of Salome. There were actually several and included those of her own husband Costobarus. Salome was married four times, to her uncle Joseph (45 BC); Costobarus (34 BC); Sylleus (circa 27 BC); and Alexas (20 BC).
Like the Herod clan, Costobarus was of Idumean stock. It was Costobarus Herod had made governor of Idumea and Gaza and upon Joseph’s death had him tie the knot with Salome, with the couple eventually siring two children, Berenice and Antipater III. Costobarus, though, soon began to harbour monarchical ambitions of his own and wrote to Cleopatra beseeching her to persuade Mark Anthony to make Idumea independent of Herod and install him (Costobarus) as Rome’s client King of the territory.
Of course upon learning of this, Herod was not amused. It was Salome who pleaded with him not to put her husband to the sword. Next time, however, a dumped Costobarus was not so lucky. Seven years after their marriage, Salome and Costobarus parted ways and a possibly hurt Salome decided to exact vengeance. She informed her brother that he had been harbouring two fugitives from Herodian justice for a full 12 years at his own farm.
The two were simply known as the Sons of Baba. Baba ben Babuta, their father and clan patriarch, was related to the Hasmonean ruler Antigonus, who Herod had replaced and killed in 37 BC with the help of Roman legions. Baba and his sons had resisted Herod at the time, with his sons henceforth persisted in insurrectionist activity against Herod. Baba himself had been captured and blinded by Herod but spared anyway as he no longer posed any threat. Writes Josephus: “Now the Sons of Babas were of great dignity, and had power among the multitude, and were faithful to Antigonus, and were always raising calumnies against Herod, and encouraged the people to preserve the government to that royal family (the Hasmoneans) which held it by inheritance.”
Costobarus had provided the Sons of Baba an indefinite lair “supposing that their preservation might be of great advantage to him in the changes of government afterward”. Following the Salome tip, Herod had Costobarus and the Sons of Baba summarily executed “so that none was left alive of the family of Hyrcanus (the Hasmonean), and the kingdom was wholly in Herod’s power, there being no one of high rank to stand in the way of his unlawful acts” per Josephus.
We may use the information we receive from them, and they may use the information we share with them, to help operate and market services’. WhatsApp is now reserving the right to share data it collects about you with the broader Facebook network, which includes Instagram, regardless of whether you have accounts or profiles there, claiming it needs it to help operate and improve its offerings. More broadly, almost all of the $21.5 billion in revenues which Facebook generated in the third quarter of 2020 came from advertising and there is currently none in WhatsApp.
The company now wants to be able to serve more targeted ads to people on Facebook and Instagram by also garnering their usage habits on WhatsApp and enabling businesses take payments via WhatsApp for items that were selected on other Facebook sites. For long-time users, the option to share data with Facebook was made available in 2016, but it was just that: optional and temporary. It was now to become mandatory for everybody from Feb. 8 but owing to a massive backlash, the company has delayed that to May 15 to try and persuade users to sign up to the new Ts and Cs.
WhatsApp on Monday attempted to address the uproar over privacy concerns with a post on its website, explaining that the update was designed to aid businesses on its platform, as it reiterated in Friday’s post.
“We want to be clear that the policy update does not affect the privacy of your messages with friends or family in any way. Instead, this update includes changes related to messaging a business on WhatsApp, which is optional, and provides further transparency about how we collect and use data.”
These new terms have caused an outcry among technology experts, privacy advocates, billionaire entrepreneurs and government organisations and triggered a wave of defections to rival services. Elon Musk has urged his followers to switch to Signal and the governments of Turkey and India have threatened to block the app if it insists on proceeding.
Elsewhere too, in spite of Whatsapp protestations, millions of its users are already migrating to alternative platforms. Signal saw 7.5 million downloads last week, a 4,200% spike since the previous week and large swaths of users also jumped to Telegram, as the platform gained 9 million new users last week, up 91% from the previous week. Both apps are now topping Google and Apple’s app stores,
Facebook could possibly learn a lesson from history here. Every past empire – Aztec, Mayan, Greco-Roman, Sumerian, Mongol, Chinese, Ottoman and more recently British, all saw their star rise, their glory swell, their boundaries grow and yet each eventually fell, often the instigators of their own downfall.
To understand its influence and control one only has to check out the un-smart sector of the mobile phone industry which for some time has offered handsets a small step up from the basic starter sets with Facebook and Whatsapp as default screen app settings. These limited internet access options have allowed millions of users to connect with affordable data bundle packages.
And for Google smartphone subscribers, the search engine automatically connects its base to Whatsapp and Facebook – one big, happy family. Facebook is also seamlessly linked to Paypal offering contact-less charges for its boosted post advertising, a somewhat sinister partnership which accesses their Paypal log-in and authorisation details without the need to inform the payee – the transaction is simply deducted automatically from the registered credit card. This is Big Brother with a blue logo.
The bottom line here is that if you have any privacy issues at all – and you probably should – you might as well make the switch now before you are forced to sign away your rights in May. And the plus part is that both Signal and Telegram have the technological edge over Whatsapp anyway, the latter even being accessible on multiple platforms simultaneously, not just on your phone. Empires take time to crumble and Facebook is not in imminent danger but information is a weapon that can be used in any war, even a virtual conflict, so don’t give this giant any more ammunition than it already has.
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.