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Botswana shines in Good Governance, but deteriorating!

Ndulamo Anthony Morima
EAGLE WATCH

Botswana has been internationally acclaimed for being one of the best countries in the world in as far as good governance is concerned. This notwithstanding, there are some, especially in the academia, media, civil society and the Opposition who have questioned that.

In this article, we consider whether Botswana is indeed the shining example of good governance that it is acclaimed to be. In making this assessment we rely on the 2017 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), with data for the year 2016. This Index scored African countries in Rule of Law; Accountability; Personal Safety; National Security; Participation; Rights; Gender; Public Management; Business Environment; Infrastructure; Rural Sector; Welfare; Education and Health.

First, Rule of Law. This includes judicial independence, judicial process, access to justice, property rights, transfers of power and multilateral sanctions in which Botswana scored 74%; 100%; 97%; 85%; 100% and 100% respectively. Botswana attained positions 6; 1; 2; 2; 1 and 1 in judicial independence, judicial process, access to justice, property rights, transfers of power and multilateral sanctions respectively.

Overall, Botswana scored 92.8%, scooping position 2, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.24. However, Botswana beat the African average of 53.2 %. Second, Accountability. This includes access to information, online public services, public sector accountability, accountability of public officials, corruption in Government and public officials, diversion of public funds and corruption investigation in which Botswana scored 25%; 38.2%; 90.1%; 76.2%; 100%; 76.2%; 66.6% and 58.1 % respectively.

Botswana attained positions 31; 19; 2; 1; 1; 2; 2; and 5 in access to information, online public services, public sector accountability, accountability of public officials, corruption in Government and public officials, diversion of public funds and corruption investigation respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 66.3%, scooping position 3, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.86. However, Botswana beat the African average of 35.8 %.

Thirdly, Personal Safety. This includes safety of the person, police services, social unrest, crime, political violence, and human trafficking in which Botswana scored 66.8%; 32.1%; 99.3%; 55.2%; 100%; and 50% respectively. Botswana attained positions 7; 32; 1; 20; 1; and 1 in safety of the person, police services, social unrest, crime, political violence, and human trafficking respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 67.2%, scooping position 2, and considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing improvement of +0.56. Botswana beat the African average of 45.7 %.

Fourth, National Security. This includes Government involvement in armed conflict, domestic armed conflict, violence by non-state actors, cross border tensions, internally displaced people and political refugees in which Botswana scored 100% except for political refugees where she scored 99.7% . Needless to say that Botswana ranked position 1 in all except for political refugees where she ranked position 16.

Overall, Botswana scored 100 %, scooping position 1, experiencing no change with respect to the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016. Obviously, Botswana beat the African average of 76.4 %. Fifth, Participation. This includes political participation, civil society participation, free and fair elections, election monitoring agencies, and legitimacy of the political process in which Botswana scored 77.7%; 91.4%; 76.6%; 70.9% and 100 % respectively.

Botswana attained positions 12; 4; 8; 8 and 1 in political participation, civil society participation, free and fair elections, election monitoring agencies, and legitimacy of the political process respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 83.3%, scooping position 4, and considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing improvement of +0.01. Botswana beat the African average of 49.6 %.

Sixth, Rights. This includes freedom of expression, freedom of association and assembly, civil liberties, human rights conventions, human rights violations and protection against discrimination in which Botswana scored 69%; 70.1%; 85.4%; 38.1%, 50% and an abysmal 0% respectively. Botswana attained positions 19; 10; 2; 49, 7 and 36 in freedom of expression, freedom of association and assembly, civil liberties, human rights conventions, human rights violations and protection against discrimination respectively.

Overall, Botswana scored 52.1%, taking position 20, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.57. However, Botswana beat the African average of 43.4 %. Seventh, Gender. This includes gender equality, women’s political participation, gender balance in education, women’s labour force participation, workplace gender equality, women in the judiciary, laws on violence against women and women’s political empowerment in which Botswana scored 100%; 21.1%; 79.8%; 80%, 100%, 0%, 58.3% and 82.1% respectively.

Botswana attained positions 1; 51; 22; 15; 1; 44; 12 and 16 in gender equality, women’s political participation, gender balance in education, women’s labour force participation, workplace gender equality, women in the judiciary, laws on violence against women and women’s political empowerment respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 65.2%, taking position 18, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.56. However, Botswana beat the African average of 55 %.

Eighth, Public Management. This includes Government statistical capacity, civil registration, public administration, diversification, budget management, budget balance, fiscal policy, revenue mobilization and transparency of State-owned Companies in which Botswana scored 33.3%; 87.5%; 100%; 1%, 88.9%, 51.5%, 88.9%, 66.6% and 25 % respectively. Botswana attained positions 45; 5; 1; 48; 1; 13; 1, 6 and 7 in Government statistical capacity, civil registration, public administration, diversification, budget management, budget balance, fiscal policy, revenue mobilization and transparency of State-owned Companies respectively.

 
Overall, Botswana scored 60.3%, taking position 7, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -1.27. However, Botswana beat the African average of 44.9 %. Ninth, Business Environment. This includes investment climate, competition, business bureaucracy and red tape, customs procedures, soundness of banks, employment creation and regional integration in which Botswana scored 72.2%; 78.9%; 66.7%; 69.9%, 58.4% and 65.9% respectively. Regional integration was stated as not applicable.

Botswana attained positions 11; 4; 4; 3; 7 and 2 in investment climate, competition, business bureaucracy and red tape, customs procedures, soundness of banks, employment creation and regional integration respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 68.7%, taking position 4, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had an increasing deterioration of -0.08. However, Botswana beat the African average of 43.5 %.

Tenth, Infrastructure. This includes transport infrastructure, electricity infrastructure, digital and IT infrastructure, transport infrastructure, access to improved water, and water and sanitation services in which Botswana scored 58.1%; 52%; 66.2%; 75.1% and 70.2% respectively. Regional integration was stated as not applicable. Botswana attained positions 6; 11; 7; 14 and 3 in transport infrastructure, electricity infrastructure, digital and IT infrastructure, transport infrastructure, access to improved water, and water and sanitation services respectively.

Overall, Botswana scored 64.3%, taking position 5, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had a slowing deterioration of -0.08. However, Botswana beat the African average of 63.4 %, albeit marginally. Eleventh, Rural Sector. This includes rural land and water, rural business climate, rural development resources, agricultural support services, agricultural policy costs, engagement with rural organisations, gender balance in rural decision making and rural accountability and transparency in which Botswana scored 64.1%; 55.3%; 87.5%; 37.2%, 63.3%, 64.9%, 75% and 72.6% respectively.

Botswana attained positions 17; 26; 3; 41, 10, 15, 2 and 6 in rural land and water, rural business climate, rural development resources, agricultural support services, agricultural policy costs, engagement with rural organisations, gender balance in rural decision making and rural accountability and transparency respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 65%, taking position 7, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had warning signs of -0.17. However, Botswana beat the African average of 51.5 %.

Twelfth, Welfare. This includes welfare services, social safety nets, social protection and labour, social exclusion, poverty, poverty reduction priorities, narrowing income gaps, environmental policy and environmental sustainability in which Botswana scored 84%; 92.3%; 77.8%; 57.1%, 52.8%, 88.5%, 86.7%, 85.7% and 66.7% respectively. Botswana attained positions 5; 1; 2; 2, 17, 3, 1 and 23 in welfare services, social safety nets, social protection and labour, social exclusion, poverty, poverty reduction priorities, narrowing income gaps, environmental policy and environmental sustainability respectively.

Overall, Botswana scored 76.8%, taking position 3, and considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had a slowing improvement of +0.83. Botswana beat the African average of 48.5 %. Thirteenth, Education. This includes education provision, education quality, educational system management, human resources in primary schools, primary school completion, secondary school enrolment, tertiary education enrolment and literacy in which Botswana scored 70.2%; 83.3%; 55.2%; 88.4%, 84.4%, 69.3%, 38.1% and 91.2% respectively.

Botswana attained positions 5; 2; 12; 6, 10, 10, 7 and 9 in education provision, education quality, educational system management, human resources in primary schools, primary school completion, secondary school enrolment, tertiary education enrolment and literacy respectively. Overall, Botswana scored 72.5%, taking position 3, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had warning signs of +0.19. Botswana beat the African average of 48.5 % as she did with welfare.

Fourteenth, Health. This includes basic health services, public health campaigns, child mortality, maternal mortality, access to sanitation, undernourishment, disease, immunization and antiretroviral treatment in which Botswana scored 81.4.2%; 75%; 86.4%; 95.4%, 69.7%, 65.6%, 91%, 96% and 100% respectively. Botswana attained positions 3; 14; 11; 7, 13, 30, 19, 8 and 1 in basic health services, public health campaigns, child mortality, maternal mortality, access to sanitation, undernourishment, disease, immunization and antiretroviral treatment respectively.

Overall, Botswana scored 84.6%, taking position 6, but considering the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she had warning signs of +0.42. Botswana beat the African average of 71.5 %. Overall, Botswana scored 72.7%, ranking third, but on the 10 year average of 2007 to 2016 she suffered an increasing deterioration of -0.09. Moreover, Botswana, just like Cabo Verde and Mozambique, which have produced Mo Ibrahim Prize laureates, is now showing wavering signs in its governance performance.

It can, therefore, be safely concluded that, based on the 2017 IIAG, while Botswana still shines in good governance, making the top 10 at position 3 with a 72.7%, she is increasing in her deterioration. She has increasing deterioration in 50% of the indicators, and warning signs and slowing deterioration in 25% of the indicators.        

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Export Processing Zones: How to Get SEZA to Sizzle

23rd September 2020
Export Processing Zone (EPZ) factory in Kenya

In 2005, the Business & Economic Advisory Council (BEAC) pitched the idea of the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to the Mogae Administration.

It took five years before the SEZ policy was formulated, another five years before the relevant law was enacted, and a full three years before the Special Economic Zones Authority (SEZA) became operational.

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Egypt Bagged Again

23rd September 2020
Samson

… courtesy of infiltration stratagem by Jehovah-Enlil’s clan

With the passing of Joshua’s generation, General Atiku, the promised peace and prosperity of a land flowing with milk and honey disappeared, giving way to chaos and confusion.

Maybe Joshua himself was to blame for this shambolic state of affairs. He had failed to mentor a successor in the manner Moses had mentored him. He had left the nation without a central government or a human head of state but as a confederacy of twelve independent tribes without any unifying force except their Anunnaki gods.

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‘RO, ‘RO ‘RO YOUR ‘BOT

23rd September 2020

If I say the word ‘robot’ to you,  I can guess what would immediately spring to mind –  a cute little Android or animal-like creature with human or pet animal characteristics and a ‘heart’, that is to say to say a battery, of gold, the sort we’ve all seen in various movies and  tv shows.  Think R2D2 or 3CPO in Star Wars, Wall-E in the movie of the same name,  Sonny in I Robot, loveable rogue Bender in Futurama,  Johnny 5 in Short Circuit…

Of course there are the evil ones too, the sort that want to rise up and eliminate us  inferior humans – Roy Batty in Blade Runner, Schwarzenegger’s T-800 in The Terminator,  Box in Logan’s Run,  Police robots in Elysium and  Otomo in Robocop.

And that’s to name but a few.  As a general rule of thumb, the closer the robot is to human form, the more dangerous it is and of course the ultimate threat in any Sci-Fi movie is that the robots will turn the tables and become the masters, not the mechanical slaves.  And whilst we are in reality a long way from robotic domination, there are an increasing number of examples of  robotics in the workplace.

ROBOT BLOODHOUNDS Sometimes by the time that one of us smells something the damage has already begun – the smell of burning rubber or even worse, the smell of deadly gas. Thank goodness for a robot capable of quickly detecting and analyzing a smell from our very own footprint.

A*Library Bot The A*Star (Singapore) developed library bot which when books are equipped with RFID location chips, can scan shelves quickly seeking out-of-place titles.  It manoeuvres with ease around corners, enhances the sorting and searching of books, and can self-navigate the library facility during non-open hours.

DRUG-COMPOUNDING ROBOT Automated medicine distribution system, connected to the hospital prescription system. It’s goal? To manipulate a large variety of objects (i.e.: drug vials, syringes, and IV bags) normally used in the manual process of drugs compounding to facilitate stronger standardisation, create higher levels of patient safety, and lower the risk of hospital staff exposed to toxic substances.

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ROBOTS Applications include screw-driving, assembling, painting, trimming/cutting, pouring hazardous substances, labelling, welding, handling, quality control applications as well as tasks that require extreme precision,

AGRICULTURAL ROBOTS Ecrobotix, a Swiss technology firm has a solar-controlled ‘bot that not only can identify weeds but thereafter can treat them. Naio Technologies based in southwestern France has developed a robot with the ability to weed, hoe, and assist during harvesting. Energid Technologies has developed a citrus picking system that retrieves one piece of fruit every 2-3 seconds and Spain-based Agrobot has taken the treachery out of strawberry picking. Meanwhile, Blue River Technology has developed the LettuceBot2 that attaches itself to a tractor to thin out lettuce fields as well as prevent herbicide-resistant weeds. And that’s only scratching the finely-tilled soil.

INDUSTRIAL FLOOR SCRUBBERS The Global Automatic Floor Scrubber Machine boasts a 1.6HP motor that offers 113″ water lift, 180 RPM and a coverage rate of 17,000 sq. ft. per hour

These examples all come from the aptly-named site www.willrobotstakemyjob.com    because while these functions are labour-saving and ripe for automation, the increasing use of artificial intelligence in the workplace will undoubtedly lead to increasing reliance on machines and a resulting swathe of human redundancies in a broad spectrum of industries and services.

This process has been greatly boosted by the global pandemic due to a combination of a workforce on furlough, whether by decree or by choice, and the obvious advantages of using virus-free machines – I don’t think computer viruses count!  For example, it was suggested recently that their use might have a beneficial effect in care homes for the elderly, solving short staffing issues and cheering up the old folks with the novelty of having their tea, coffee and medicines delivered by glorified model cars.  It’s a theory, at any rate.

Already, customers at the South-Korean  fast-food chain No Brand Burger can avoid any interaction with a human server during the pandemic.  The chain is using robots to take orders, prepare food and bring meals out to diners.  Customers order and pay via touchscreen, then their request is sent to the kitchen where a cooking machine heats up the buns and patties. When it’s ready, a robot ‘waiter’ brings out their takeout bag.   

‘This is the first time I’ve actually seen such robots, so they are really amazing and fun,’ Shin Hyun Soo, an office worker at No Brand in Seoul for the first time, told the AP. 

Human workers add toppings to the burgers and wrap them up in takeout bags before passing them over to yellow-and-black serving robots, which have been compared to Minions. 

Also in Korea, the Italian restaurant chain Mad for Garlic is using serving robots even for sit-down customers. Using 3D space mapping and other technology, the electronic ‘waiter,’ known as Aglio Kim, navigates between tables with up to five orders.  Mad for Garlic manager Lee Young-ho said kids especially like the robots, which can carry up to 66lbs in their trays.

These catering robots look nothing like their human counterparts – in fact they are nothing more than glorified food trolleys so using our thumb rule from the movies, mankind is safe from imminent takeover but clearly  Korean hospitality sector workers’ jobs are not.

And right there is the dichotomy – replacement by stealth.  Remote-controlled robotic waiters and waitresses don’t need to be paid, they don’t go on strike and they don’t spread disease so it’s a sure bet their army is already on the march.

But there may be more redundancies on the way as well.  Have you noticed how AI designers have an inability to use words of more than one syllable?  So ‘robot’ has become ‘bot’ and ‘android’ simply ‘droid?  Well, guys, if you continue to build machines ultimately smarter than yourselves you ‘rons  may find yourself surplus to requirements too – that’s ‘moron’ to us polysyllabic humans”!

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