Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a relatively common condition where the walls of the throat relax and narrow during sleep, interrupting normal breathing.
This term is made up of two major words; obstructive which means the breathing difficulty is due to an obstruction (partial or complete) of the airway and apnoea which means cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or more. OSA leads to regularly interrupted sleep, which in most cases have a big impact on one’s quality of life and increases the risk of one developing other conditions. Some people know that they snore a lot or their breathing is not normal at night, but may be unaware that this is a medical problem that is causing them harm. Fortunately, good treatments are available.
Symptoms of OSA
The symptoms of OSA are often spotted and reported by a partner, friend or family member who notices problems while the sufferer is sleeping. The major signs and symptoms include;
Loud snoring – air that squeezes past a narrowed or blocked airway is the cause of the loud snoring. The snoring is usually loud enough that is disturbs one’s sleep or that of others
Laboured breathing – when the airway closes, the diaphragm and chest muscles are forced to work harder to open the obstructed airway and pull air into the lungs
Night sweats – the laboured breathing can cause a lot of sweating that can even drench the sheets
Apnoea – episodes where one stops breathing for some time before the breathing starts again
Gasping, snorting or choking – breathing usually resumes with a loud gasp, snort, or even body jerk
Disrupted sleep – when the breathing stops for a short time, blood oxygen levels fall as a result, triggering the brain to pull one out of deep sleep – either to a lighter sleep or to wakefulness – so the airway reopens and one breathes normally to replenish the oxygen supply. The episodes of obstruction may happen many times – even hundreds of times overnight
Fatigue – the repeated sleep interruptions can make it difficult for one to wake up in the morning and when they do they would feel very tired during the day
Daytime somnolence – because of the disruptive effects of OSA on sleep, one may struggle to stay awake as the day goes on, leading to daytime sleepiness
Headache – especially in the morning from lack of sleep
Psychological – sleep deprivation also leads to trouble concentrating, forgetfulness, grumpiness or even depression
Who is at risk of OSA?
It is normal for the muscles and soft tissues in the throat to relax and collapse to some degree while sleeping causing a bit of a snore. For most people this does not cause breathing problems. But in OSA, the obstruction is so severe that it causes symptoms. Overweight –overweight or obesity is the highest risk factor for OSA. Overweight people usually have a fat and short neck with lots of fatty tissue surrounding the throat which can compress it during sleep. Also, having a pot belly or large waistline can push the chest upwards during sleep, making it difficult for breathing or air exchange to take place in the lungs
Male gender – OSA is more common in men than in women though the reason is not really known, but it may be related to different patterns of body fat distribution. However, women may catch up on the risk after menopause Advanced age – though OSA can happen in all age groups, it is more common in people who are over 40 years
Family history – there may be genes inherited from parents that can make one more susceptible to OSA Structural abnormalities – OSA is more likely in people who have smaller airways in their nose, throat, or mouth due to different conditions like enlarged adenoids and tonsils, the hanging uvula and soft palate that block the trachea, a larger-than-average tongue as well as a deviated septum in the nose or nasal congestion
Certain medications – taking medications with a sedative effect such as sleeping tablets can make OSA worse Alcohol – drinking alcohol, particularly before going to sleep, can make snoring and sleep apnoea worse Smoking – smokers are at more risk of developing OSA than non-smokers High blood pressure – Obstructive sleep apnea may be more common in people with hypertension Diabetes – most diabetic patients tend to have a comorbidity of OSA Asthma – recent research has found an association between asthma and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea
How is OSA diagnosed?
People with OSA may not notice they have the condition, and so it can often go undiagnosed. However, if you or any of your family members have the symptoms mentioned above, see a health professional for a proper assessment and formal diagnosis. The reliable investigation to perform in someone suspected of having OSA (having most of the signs and symptoms) is with an overnight sleep study called polysomnography. This measures one’s sleep, breathing and oxygen levels overnight. Your GP may also may refer you to an ENT specialist to rule out any structural abnormalities in the ear, nose and mouth that may predispose you from having OSA.
Next week we will be discussing the effects OSA can have on one’s life and how it can be prevented and successfully treated. For comments or questions please email firstname.lastname@example.org
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.
Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).
This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.
In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.
Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?
Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.
POSITIVITY Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.
“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)
We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.
Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be. You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.
When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.
Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.
However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.” “Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)
COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT
Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.
It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.
Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.
Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.
The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.
It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.