Have you ever felt like a “difficult patient?” It might not be all in your head if you think a doctor is getting impatient or annoyed with you.
Often times we come across patients that we term as “difficult”, just as many patients can recall doctors whom they would say are difficult to work with as well. This kind of patients can evoke feelings of anxiety, dread, frustration, and even anger and seem to breakdown the doctor-patient relationship leaving the doctor feeling like the patient cannot be helped, does not want to be helped, or is sabotaging his/her care. “Difficult patients” can be seen as a problem to be tolerated or terminated from practice, though the real difficulty lies in the relationship, not simply the patient and there are techniques and strategies to help clinicians improve that relationship and retain its therapeutic nature.
Who are ‘difficult’ patients?
Angry – smileless faces, furrowed brows, clenched fists, and wringing of the hands are some of the signs that can show that something is wrong with the patient. When we see these signs, we try to uncover the source of anger for the patient and pay attention to the way his or her emotions relate to the medical issues at hand. For example, a patient who is in pain and has been waiting for an hour because the doctor has been tending to a hospital emergency (and has been briefed so…) might be quite angry (reasonable enough…) when the doctor finally gets to the room. A sincere explanation and apology by the doctor such as, “I can understand why you are upset, and I appreciate your waiting for me,” would go a long way toward easing the patient's frustration and getting back to business.
It is normal to feel a certain way after all especially if you are in pain and feel let down. However, there are patients that will remain forever angry despite lack of a trigger and choose to always be on the opposing end of the hospital staff. Some patients are in a habit of yelling insults and can even be physical with the staff, to an extent that assistance from law enforcers to forcefully remove them is sought. For their own safety, doctors will naturally shy away from seeing this kind of patients of if they do the care can be compromised.
Somatizing patients – These patients often present with long standing, multiple vague or exaggerated symptoms. They often “doctor-shop” and have done multiple diagnostic tests without any significant results being yielded. Keys to productive encounters with somatizing patients include describing the patient's diagnosis with compassion and emphasizing that regularly scheduled visits with a primary physician will help to mitigate any concerns. Be sure to effectively manage any comorbid psychological conditions as well. It is important to refrain from suggesting that “it's all in your head,” and avoid the cycle of vigorous diagnostic testing and referrals.
Manipulative patients – Patients often make requests that doctors think are inappropriate, such as requests for additional pain medicine, frequent or longer sick leaves, increased phone contact or clinic appointments, etc. These patients are often sweet-talkers, they ride on the privilege that the doctor gives them, often playing on the guilt of others, threatening rage, legal action or suicide. They tend to exhibit impulsive behavior directed at obtaining what they want which can be quite dangerous. The key to managing encounters with manipulative patients is to calmly explain and realize as the doctor that that sometimes it is okay to say “No.”
Ungrateful – Patients who, for medical or non-medical reasons, appear ungrateful or frivolously utilize medical care but never satisfied with anything are very hard to manage. They may continue to seek medical attention from you but never report anything positive despite the visible changes. They might start their sentence by saying “I don’t know if you will manage, but these are my issues…” They are generally hard to please and they throw doctors into a frozen state every time trying to explain that indeed we have moved from sate A to B. They hardly heed the advice they are given.
Patients who know it all – There are many ‘Dr. Google’ out there. And it either eases or complicates the consultation or the Doctor-Patient relationship. When we say empower yourselves in medical knowledge, it means ‘have an idea’ so that you do not ask the most basic questions, it saves time (and money). It means know your disease and learn how to live with it. It means understand your treatment and contribute towards it to save yourself some distress and complications.
IT DOES NOT MEAN GOOGLE AND COME UP WITH A DIAGNOSIS THAT YOU THINK FITS YOUR SYMPTOMS AND TELL THE DOCTOR HOW TO TREAT YOU.
These kind of patients are the most difficult to deal with and to manage and unfortunately they have been reported not to get much benefit from the doctors’ help because they come with already made-up minds. They perish out of ignorance rather than knowledge. Stay away from this and let the doctor be the doctor!
Non-adherent – Every patient is special. We do not only take care of the patient’s disease but mind, soul and their surroundings as well. So that takes care of the psychological, religious, spiritual and social aspects of their lives. Where any part of that conflicts with the treatment plan we make time to sit them down, counsel them, be patient with them, counsel them again, bring their support structure like family if permitted, do more counseling until they understand the dangers of their choices. However, if we are happy that they understand the dangers but still choose not to adhere to the management plan, we respect their autonomy or power to do so. with severe symptoms, with an underlying mental disorder or who were less functional.”
Worried well patients, patients with poorly controlled chronic pain, who are non-compliant with medical regimens, seductive or manipulative, consume a lot of clinician-time and health care resources, somatisize, or are self-destructive or attention-seeking may also be labeled ‘difficult’. (Krebs et al., 2006; Elder et al., 2006)
well for patients of mine in similar situations. I would like to make a contract with you to see you every two to four weeks – often enough to see if there is anything truly new going on. If something significant develops that has not already been worked up, we will do more tests. We will meet frequently enough to provide you some assurance that we are not missing anything, and we will avoid uncomfortable and costly tests and procedures unless they are clearly necessary.”
Grieving patients. Recognizing the effect of grief on some patients' health requires familiarity with the normal stages of grief and the cultural context in which it occurs. Look for vegetative signs of depression and maladaptive behaviors that prevent progression through the normal grieving process, and treat them. Help grieving patients by validating their emotional experience and making sure they understand that grief is a process that takes varying degrees of time for different people. Encourage open communication, avoid inappropriate medication to suppress emotions, and caution against major lifestyle changes too early in the process.
“Frequent fliers.” These patients may stand out due to the sheer bulk of their medical charts. They may be lonely, dependent or too afraid or embarrassed to ask the questions they really want answered. They may also be patients with a large number of perfectly rational questions, the “worried well” or simply patients who have been given misinformation that needs clarification.
The first step to a productive interaction is to identify the underlying reasons for the frequent visits. Begin by acknowledging that you notice the pattern of frequent visits, and explain that you have seen other patients schedule frequent visits for different reasons, including concern about undiagnosed symptoms, a need for reassurance, a need for relief from chronic pain or a need to talk. Ask whether any of these reasons apply or whether the patient has other ideas as to the reasons for the frequent visits. Showing understanding of the patient's reasons often will foster an open discussion of the “reasons behind the reasons.” Contract with the patient for regularly scheduled return visits, and use patient education and support personnel as needed. Well-honed pain-management skills may also come in handy for patients who schedule frequent appointments due to chronic pain
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In 2005, the Business & Economic Advisory Council (BEAC) pitched the idea of the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to the Mogae Administration.
It took five years before the SEZ policy was formulated, another five years before the relevant law was enacted, and a full three years before the Special Economic Zones Authority (SEZA) became operational.
… courtesy of infiltration stratagem by Jehovah-Enlil’s clan
With the passing of Joshua’s generation, General Atiku, the promised peace and prosperity of a land flowing with milk and honey disappeared, giving way to chaos and confusion.
Maybe Joshua himself was to blame for this shambolic state of affairs. He had failed to mentor a successor in the manner Moses had mentored him. He had left the nation without a central government or a human head of state but as a confederacy of twelve independent tribes without any unifying force except their Anunnaki gods.
If I say the word ‘robot’ to you, I can guess what would immediately spring to mind – a cute little Android or animal-like creature with human or pet animal characteristics and a ‘heart’, that is to say to say a battery, of gold, the sort we’ve all seen in various movies and tv shows. Think R2D2 or 3CPO in Star Wars, Wall-E in the movie of the same name, Sonny in I Robot, loveable rogue Bender in Futurama, Johnny 5 in Short Circuit…
Of course there are the evil ones too, the sort that want to rise up and eliminate us inferior humans – Roy Batty in Blade Runner, Schwarzenegger’s T-800 in The Terminator, Box in Logan’s Run, Police robots in Elysium and Otomo in Robocop.
And that’s to name but a few. As a general rule of thumb, the closer the robot is to human form, the more dangerous it is and of course the ultimate threat in any Sci-Fi movie is that the robots will turn the tables and become the masters, not the mechanical slaves. And whilst we are in reality a long way from robotic domination, there are an increasing number of examples of robotics in the workplace.
ROBOT BLOODHOUNDS Sometimes by the time that one of us smells something the damage has already begun – the smell of burning rubber or even worse, the smell of deadly gas. Thank goodness for a robot capable of quickly detecting and analyzing a smell from our very own footprint.
A*Library Bot The A*Star (Singapore) developed library bot which when books are equipped with RFID location chips, can scan shelves quickly seeking out-of-place titles. It manoeuvres with ease around corners, enhances the sorting and searching of books, and can self-navigate the library facility during non-open hours.
DRUG-COMPOUNDING ROBOT Automated medicine distribution system, connected to the hospital prescription system. It’s goal? To manipulate a large variety of objects (i.e.: drug vials, syringes, and IV bags) normally used in the manual process of drugs compounding to facilitate stronger standardisation, create higher levels of patient safety, and lower the risk of hospital staff exposed to toxic substances.
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ROBOTS Applications include screw-driving, assembling, painting, trimming/cutting, pouring hazardous substances, labelling, welding, handling, quality control applications as well as tasks that require extreme precision,
AGRICULTURAL ROBOTS Ecrobotix, a Swiss technology firm has a solar-controlled ‘bot that not only can identify weeds but thereafter can treat them. Naio Technologies based in southwestern France has developed a robot with the ability to weed, hoe, and assist during harvesting. Energid Technologies has developed a citrus picking system that retrieves one piece of fruit every 2-3 seconds and Spain-based Agrobot has taken the treachery out of strawberry picking. Meanwhile, Blue River Technology has developed the LettuceBot2 that attaches itself to a tractor to thin out lettuce fields as well as prevent herbicide-resistant weeds. And that’s only scratching the finely-tilled soil.
INDUSTRIAL FLOOR SCRUBBERS The Global Automatic Floor Scrubber Machine boasts a 1.6HP motor that offers 113″ water lift, 180 RPM and a coverage rate of 17,000 sq. ft. per hour
These examples all come from the aptly-named site www.willrobotstakemyjob.com because while these functions are labour-saving and ripe for automation, the increasing use of artificial intelligence in the workplace will undoubtedly lead to increasing reliance on machines and a resulting swathe of human redundancies in a broad spectrum of industries and services.
This process has been greatly boosted by the global pandemic due to a combination of a workforce on furlough, whether by decree or by choice, and the obvious advantages of using virus-free machines – I don’t think computer viruses count! For example, it was suggested recently that their use might have a beneficial effect in care homes for the elderly, solving short staffing issues and cheering up the old folks with the novelty of having their tea, coffee and medicines delivered by glorified model cars. It’s a theory, at any rate.
Already,customers at the South-Korean fast-food chain No Brand Burger can avoid any interaction with a human server during the pandemic. The chain is using robots to take orders, prepare food and bring meals out to diners. Customers order and pay via touchscreen, then their request is sent to the kitchen where a cooking machine heats up the buns and patties. When it’s ready, a robot ‘waiter’ brings out their takeout bag.
‘This is the first time I’ve actually seen such robots, so they are really amazing and fun,’ Shin Hyun Soo, an office worker at No Brand in Seoul for the first time, told the AP.
Human workers add toppings to the burgers and wrap them up in takeout bags before passing them over to yellow-and-black serving robots, which have been compared to Minions.
Also in Korea, the Italian restaurant chain Mad for Garlic is using serving robots even for sit-down customers. Using 3D space mapping and other technology, the electronic ‘waiter,’ known as Aglio Kim, navigates between tables with up to five orders. Mad for Garlic manager Lee Young-ho said kids especially like the robots, which can carry up to 66lbs in their trays.
These catering robots look nothing like their human counterparts – in fact they are nothing more than glorified food trolleys so using our thumb rule from the movies, mankind is safe from imminent takeover but clearly Korean hospitality sector workers’ jobs are not.
And right there is the dichotomy – replacement by stealth. Remote-controlled robotic waiters and waitresses don’t need to be paid, they don’t go on strike and they don’t spread disease so it’s a sure bet their army is already on the march.
But there may be more redundancies on the way as well. Have you noticed how AI designers have an inability to use words of more than one syllable? So ‘robot’ has become ‘bot’ and ‘android’ simply ‘droid? Well, guys, if you continue to build machines ultimately smarter than yourselves you ‘rons may find yourself surplus to requirements too – that’s ‘moron’ to us polysyllabic humans”!