During the quarter century that followed the 1890 Anglo-German border agreement the impact of colonial rule on the indigenous peoples of the Bechuanaland Protectorate and German South West Africa differed greatly.
In Botswana the loss of political independence was accompanied by gradual economic underdevelopment and the introduction of elements of racial subordination. But, with most of its land reserved the indigenous population who continued to be ruled through their traditional rulers, the territory remained at relative peace. While the stationing of significant numbers of paramilitary colonial police, along with threatened military campaigns to crush resistance to colonial administrative measures in 1892 and 1894, had an intimidating effect, British colonial authority in the Protectorate ultimately rested on the emergence of an understanding with the Batswana.
By the mid-1890s a political consensus had emerged among leading Batswana that imperial rule from London was preferable to the likely alternative of incorporation into neighbouring white settler dominated states of South Africa and/or Southern Rhodesia. This consensus was reflected in the popularly supported 1895 petitions to keep the Protectorate free of BSACo (Rhodesian) control, which culminating in the historic 1895 tour of the United Kingdom by Dikgosi Bathoen, Khama, and Sebele.
Subsequently this consensus was further confirmed by the 1908-12 petitions by various dikgosi and popular mass agitation to remain outside the Union of South Africa. Thus, at least until the last decade of the colonial era nationalist sentiment within Botswana was ironically equated with the retention rather than rejection of the British imperial connection as a shield against local white settler hegemony.
By contrast, the imposition of German colonial authority in southern and central Namibia was perhaps the most brutal example of colonial conquest in Africa. In the area south of the great Etosha Pan that came under effective colonial control as the so-called "Police Zone" the indigenous population was reduced by over 50%. In the region the local Ovaherero, Nama, and Khoisan peoples (the latter being collectively labelled by the colonialists as "Bushmen"), suffered rapid and widespread alienation of land and livestock, imposition of forced labour on men women and children alike, and ultimately the genocide destruction of whole communities.
Namibia communities living beyond the "Red Line" that marked the Police Zone's northern border, such as the Ovahimba, Ovambo, Kangali, and various peoples of the Caprivi Strip, remained largely undisturbed during the early period. After initial setbacks, German imperial attempts to disarm and subjugate the Police Zone's indigenous population began in earnest in 1893. Having just received a substantial troop reinforcement, along with Berlin's blessing to deploy them as he saw fit, at dawn on the 12th of April 1893, the then military Governor, von Francois, attacked without warning the largest Nama group, the Khowesin, then led by Hendrick Witbooi, at their settlement at Hoornkrans.
But, while the attack itself was a serious blow to the Nama, in the months that followed von Francois' force was decimated in further futile fighting against the tenacious Witbooi whose stout resistance attracted the support of other Nama clans. At the time most of the Nama belonged to one of a dozen sub-groups or clans, each of which was under an independent leader:
In March 1894 the heavy handed von Francois was replaced by the more subtle Major Theodor Leutwien. Under instructions to set up white settler colony by the cheapest means, Leutwien was determined use a combination of diplomacy and force to implement a strategy of divide and rule. Of the benefit of the later approach he would later observe: “It was more difficult, but also more serviceable to influence the natives to kill each other for us, than to expect streams of blood and streams of money from the Old Fatherland for their suppression.”
But, before he could make any headway, Leutwien first had to overcome the elusive Witbooi, who waxed Biblical in his continued defiance: “God the Lord has established various kingdoms on the earth, and therefore I know and believe that it is no sin and no misdeed for me to remain the independent Captain of my land and people…but you [Leutwien] say “might is right” so I think that I shall shoot back, not in my name, not in my strength, but in the name of the lord and under his power.”
With additional troops Leutwien was finally able to bring about the submission of Witbooi and other important Nama leaders, such as Khauas and Simon Kopper (or Cooper to the British), by the end of 1894. The temporary peace left the Nama largely undisturbed on their land. With the Nama quiet, Leutwien shifted his attention to the potentially more lucrative target of the Ovaherero and related Ovambanderu. The principal Ovaherero leader, Samuel Maharero, was coerced into surrendering both land and cattle to the first wave of German settlers.
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.
Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).
This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.
In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.
Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?
Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.
POSITIVITY Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.
“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)
We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.
Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be. You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.
When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.
Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.
However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.” “Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)
COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT
Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.
It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.
Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.
Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.
The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.
It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.