In this article I argue that if the Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) is to stand any chance of winning the 2019 general elections the Botswana Movement for Democracy (BMD)’s faction led by Honourable Ndaba Gaolatlhe should split and form a new party as early as now.
Before presenting my arguments it is apposite that I give a brief back ground of the BMD saga. Sometime in April this year violence broke during a National Executive Committee (NEC) meeting which had been convened to discuss the postponement of the Youth League congress.
Following that, despite the NEC’s decision to postpone the Youth League congress, it was held, allegedly at the instance of the faction led by party President, Honourable Ndaba Gaolatlhe, and his deputy, Honourable Wynter Mmolotsi. This resulted in suspensions and disciplinary proceedings being waged against those who attended the Congress being Honourable Gaolathe, Honourable Mmolotsi, former Youth League president, Phenyo Segokgo, former National Organizing Secretary, Kabelo Mahupe, Pako Keokilwe, former Women’s League president, Joyce Mothudi, and Harriet Rampa.
It is common knowledge that these did not attend the disciplinary hearings as a result of which all of them except Kabelo Mahupe were expelled from the party. It is also worth mentioning that none of them appealed the NEC’s decision within the stipulated fourteen (14) days in terms of clause 37.25 of the BMD constitution. It is also common knowledge that when the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction tried to attend the party Congress in Bobonong, violence ensued, resulting in the faction retreating to hold their Congress elsewhere while the Modubule/Mangole faction remained at the designated venue.
The two factions elected their leadership, a situation which has resulted in the BMD having two NECs, one led by Honourable Gaolathe while the other is led by Advocate Sidney Pilane. Reportedly, both NECs have since written to the UDC seeking recognition. I now present the case for the need for the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction to split from the BMD and form a new party. Firstly, I address the question as to why it is the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction that has to split and form a new party.
In my view, though the Modubule/Mangole faction is not blemishless, the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction is tainted with illegality in many respects. Firstly, the NEC’s decision to expel its leaders is likely to be upheld by the courts. As members of the BMD, who are subject to the BMD constitution, the suspended leaders had an obligation to attend the disciplinary hearings held by the Disciplinary Committee (DC) regardless of the objections they may have had. If they had objections, e.g. about the charges or the composition of the DC they had several lawful avenues to pursue. They could have made written representations of such to the DC before the hearing in which case the DC would have had a legal duty to consider the submissions before making any determination.
In this instance, if the DC could have decided to proceed with the disciplinary hearing without due regard to the submissions and/or objections the suspended leaders had the option of making a court application, even on urgent basis, to interdict the disciplinary hearing and get directions from the court. Alternatively, they could have attended the disciplinary hearing and, at a preliminary stage, made such submissions and/or objections to the DC. If the DC had disregarded such submissions and/or objections, they still had the option of interdicting the disciplinary hearing.
Also, if the DC continued with the disciplinary hearing in wanton disregard of the submissions and/or objections they had the option to make a court application to have the findings of the disciplinary hearing set aside in which case the disciplinary hearing could later be held according to the terms set by the court. Not only that. Even after the DC made its findings, which were upheld by the NEC, the suspended leaders still had several lawful options. They had the option of, within fourteen (14) days, appealing the decision to expel them in terms of clause 37.25 of the BMD constitution.
They also had the option of making a court application, even on urgent basis, to set aside the DC’s as well as the NEC’s decision. Their failure to prosecute their defence and to appeal the NEC’s decision is, in law, an acquiescence of their guilt and it is likely to be upheld by the courts. Secondly, the Modubule/Mangole NEC is likely to be upheld by the courts. Inarguably, the NEC had the constitutional right to call the Congress. If the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction had issue with that they could have made a court application to interdict the Congress.
In the same application they could have prayed to the court to give directions on how the Congress should be held. Such directions could have included such issues as delegates’ validation, the chairing of the Congress and the conduct of the elections for the NEC. The mere fact that they first attempted to attend the Congress on the date and at the venue set by the NEC the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction effectively accepted that that was the lawful Congress. The Congress which they later held fails to satisfy the requirements of legality in many respects.
Firstly, it had not been called, through a competent statutory notice, by the NEC in terms of clause 13.4 of the BMD constitution. Consequently, it cannot be said that there were delegates who attended the Congress since competent delegation to a Congress can only flow from a competent statutory notice. Secondly, because, in law, it cannot be said that there were delegates to the Congress, no decision, including the decision to hold the Congress and to conduct the elections, can stand the test of legality. Thirdly, the purported NEC members who presided over the Congress were illegitimate.
This is because they were not members of the BMD owing to the decision to expel them which decision had neither been set aside by the National Disciplinary Committee of Appeal (NDCA) nor the courts. In my view, the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction’s reported plans to approach the court on urgency to set aside the Modubule/Mangole NEC are likely to be in vain. Firstly, the courts are unlikely to agree to hear the case on urgency since no urgency in fact exists.
The Congress was held more than two (2) weeks ago. The question is: why did they wait this long to approach the courts? They probably waited this long because their legal advisors have advised them that they have no prospects of success. But even if the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction may be heared on urgency or in the normal course it is unlikely to succeed on the merits. In my view, they relied too much on the majority they thought they had and hoped they will be reinstated and win the elections.
As a result, they sat on their rights and it may be too late to enforce such rights. To put is simply, the Modubule/Mangole faction outmaneuvered them both tactically and legally. While some remain hopeful that the two factions may reconcile I am of the view that there is no viable path to true and lasting reconciliation. True and lasting reconciliation would require at least two paths. One is setting aside the decision to expel the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi leaders.
This would mean Honourable Gaolathe remains as President with Honourable Mmolotsi as his deputy. But, can Advocate Pilane agree to give up his hard won presidency, especially in view of the 2019 general elections where there is hope that the UDC may win? I believe he cannot. Neither can his deputy, Dr. Tlamelo Mmatli, Chairman, Nehemiah Modubule, and Secretary General, Honourable Gilbert Mangole. They have fought so hard that they have nothing more to lose.
It should be remembered that it is the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction which was behind the effort to bar Advocate Pilane from rejoining the BMD. How can Advocate Pilane trust that they will not use the Congress to terminate his membership if they are returned to power? Also, the level of mistrust between the factions is so high that they cannot reasonably be able to work together. How do you work with someone you have accused of being a spy for the Directorate on Intelligence and Security Services (DISS)?
The other path is the nullification of both Congresses and the calling of another Congress during which fresh NEC elections are held. If the Congresses are nullified who becomes president, deputy president, chairman and secretary general in the interim? Which faction can agree that the other presides over the Congress? Who can risk losing elections during the newly convened Congress?
Can either Honourable Gaolathe or Advocate Pilane accept any reconciliation deal in terms of which he will not be president? Can people who have failed to reconcile their differences since the 2015 elective Congress reconcile now after such a bruising fight?
Though reconciliation is a noble thing to do the relationship between the two factions has broken down so irretrievably that the only viable thing to do is for the BMD to split and for a new party to be formed. For the reasons advanced above it is the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction which should leave and form a new party.
After all the Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction is said to have the support of most of the branches. If this is true, a split will leave the Modubule/Mangole faction as an empty shell which will collapse or dwindle into insignificance. Of course, it is Modubule/Mangole which will retain the constitution, the name, the logo, the slogan, the party colors and the bank accounts, but what good are these without the members? In time, they will dissipate into insignificance.
The Gaolathe/Mmolotsi faction should not worry about whether or not they will be admitted into the UDC after forming the new party. Their numbers and party organization will compel the UDC to admit them. If this happens the new party may, in the remaining two years, regroup and give the UDC a realistic chance to wrestle state power from the ruling Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) in 2019.
In recent years, using personal devices in working environments has become so commonplace it now has its own acronym, BOYD (Bring Your Own Device). But as employees skip between corporate tools and personal applications on their own devices, their actions introduce a number of possible risks that should be managed and mitigated with careful consideration. Consider these examples:
Si-lwli, a small family-run business in Wales, is arguably as niche a company as you could find, producing talking toys used to promote the Welsh language. Their potential market is small, with only some 300,000 Welsh language speakers in the world and in reality the business is really more of a hobby for the husband-and-wife team, who both still have day jobs. Yet, despite still managing to be successful in terms of sales, the business is now fighting for survival after recently falling prey to cybercriminals. Emails between Si-Iwli and their Chinese suppliers were intercepted by hackers who altered the banking details in the correspondence, causing Si-Iwli to hand over £18,000 (around P ¼ m) to the thieves. That might not sound much to a large enterprise, but to a small or medium business it can be devastating.
Another recent SMB hacking story which appeared in the Wall Street Journal concerned Innovative Higher Ed Consulting (IHED) Inc, a small New York start-up with a handful of employees. IHED didn’t even have a website, but fraudsters were able to run stolen credit card numbers through the company’s payment system and reverse the charges to the tune of $27,000, around the same loss faced by Si-Iwli. As the WSJ put it, the hackers completely destroyed the company, forcing its owners to fold.
And in May 2019, the city of Baltimore’s computer system was hit by a ransomware attack, with hackers using a variant called RobinHood. The hack, which has lasted more than a month, paralysed the computer system for city employees, with the hackers demanding a payment in Bitcoin to give access back to the city.
Of course, hackers target governments or business giants but small and medium businesses are certainly not immune. In fact, 67% of SMBs reported that they had experienced a cyber attack across a period of 12 months, according to a 2018 survey carried out by security research firm Ponemon Institute. Additionally, Verizon issued a report in May 2019 that small businesses accounted for 43% of its reported data breaches. Once seen as less vulnerable than PCs, smartphone attacks are on the rise, with movements like the Dark Caracal spyware campaign underlining the allure of mobile devices to hackers. Last year, the US Federal Trade Commission released a statement calling for greater education on mobile security, coming at a time when around 42% of all Android devices are believed to not carry the latest security updates.
This is an era when employees increasingly use their smartphones for work-related purposes so is your business doing enough to protect against data breaches on their employees’ phones? The SME Cyber Crime Survey 2018 carried out for risk management specialists AON showed that more than 80% of small businesses did not view this as a threat yet if as shown, 67% of SMBs were said to have been victims of hacking, either the stats are wrong or business owners are underestimating their vulnerability. A 2019 report by PricewaterhouseCoopers suggests the latter, stating that the majority of global businesses are unprepared for cyber attacks.
Consider that a workstation no longer means a desk in an office: It can be a phone in the back of a taxi or Uber; a laptop in a coffee shop, or a tablet in an airport lounge. Wherever the device is used, employees can potentially install applications that could be harmful to your business, even from something as seemingly insignificant as clicking on an accidental download or opening a link on a phishing email. Out of the physical workplace, your employees’ activities might not have the same protections as they would on a company-monitored PC.
Yet many businesses not only encourage their employees to work remotely, but assume working from coffee shops, bookstores, and airports can boost employees’ productivity. Unfortunately, many remote hot spots do not provide secure Wi-Fi so if your employee is accessing their work account on unsecured public Wi-Fi, sensitive business data could be at risk. Furthermore, even if your employee uses a company smartphone or has access to company data through a personal mobile device, there is always a chance data could be in jeopardy with a lost or stolen device, even information as basic as clients’ addresses and phone numbers.
BOYDs are also at risk from malware designed to harm and infect the host system, transmittable to smartphones when downloading malicious third-party apps. Then there is ransomware, a type of malware used by hackers to specifically take control of a system’s data, blocking access or threatening to release sensitive information unless a ransom is paid such as the one which affected Baltimore. Ransomware attacks are on the increase, predicted to occur every 14 seconds, potentially costing billions of dollars per year.
Lastly there is phishing – the cyber equivalent of the metaphorical fishing exercise – whereby cybercriminals attempt to obtain sensitive data –usernames, passwords, credit card details –usually through a phoney email designed to look legitimate which directs the user to a fraudulent website or requests the data be emailed back directly. Most of us like to think we could recognize a phishing email when we see it, but these emails have become more sophisticated and can come through other forms of communication such as messaging apps.
Bottom line is to be aware of the potential problems with BOYDs and if in doubt, consult your IT security consultants. You can’t put the own-device genie back in the bottle but you can make data protection one of your three wishes!
About five days before Princess Diana and Dodi Al Fayed landed in Paris, General Atiku, a certain Edward Williams was taking a walk in a woods in the Welsh town of Mountain Ash. Williams, then 73, was a psychic of some renown. He had in the past foretold assassination attempts on US President Ronald Reagan, which occurred on March 30, 1981, and Pope John Paul II, which came to pass on May 13, 1981.
As he trudged the woods, Williams had a sudden premonition that pointed to Diana’s imminent fate as per Christopher Andersen’s book The Day Diana Died. “When the vision struck me, it was as if everything around me was obscured and replaced by shadowy figures,” Williams was later to reminisce. “In the middle was the face of Princess Diana. Her expression was sad and full of pathos. She was wearing what looked like a floral dress with a short dark cardigan. But it was vague. I went cold with fear and knew it was a sign that she was in danger.”
Williams hastily beat a retreat to his home, which he shared with his wife Mary, and related to her his presentiment, trembling like an aspen leaf as he did so. “I have never seen him so upset,” Mary recounted. “He felt he was given a sign and when he came back from his walk he was deeply shaken.”
The following day, Williams frantically sauntered into a police station to inform the police of his premonition. The officer who attended to him would have dismissed him as no more than a crackpot but he treated him seriously in view of the accuracy of his past predictions. He took a statement and immediately passed it on to the Special Branch Investigative Unit.
The report read as follows:
“On 27 August, at 14:12 hrs, a man by the name of Edward Williams came to Mountain Ash police station. He said he was a psychic and predicted that Princess Diana was going to die. In previous years, he has predicted that the Pope and Ronald Reagan were going to be the victims of assassination attempts. On both occasions he was proved to be correct. Mr Williams appeared to be quite normal.”
Williams, General, was spot-on as usual: four days later, the princess was no more.
Meanwhile, General, even as Dodi and Diana were making their way to the Fayed-owned Ritz Hotel in central Paris, British newspapers were awash with headlines that suggested Diana was kind of deranged. Writes Andrew Morton in Diana in Pursuit of Love: “In The Independent Diana was described as ‘a woman with fundamentally nothing to say about anything’. She was ‘suffering from a form of arrested development’. ‘Isn’t it time she started using her head?’ asked The Mail on Sunday. The Sunday Mirror printed a special supplement entitled ‘A Story of Love’; The News of the World claimed that William had demanded that Diana should split from Dodi: ‘William can’t help it, he just doesn’t like the man.’ William was reportedly ‘horrified’ and ‘doesn’t think Mr Fayed is good for his mother’ – or was that just the press projecting their own prejudices? The upmarket Sunday Times newspaper, which had first serialised my biography of the princess, now put her in the psychiatrist’s chair for daring to be wooed by a Muslim. The pop-psychologist Oliver James put Diana ‘On the Couch’, asking why she was so ‘depressed’ and desperate for love. Other tabloids piled in with dire prognostications – about Prince Philip’s hostility to the relationship, Diana’s prospect of exile, and the social ostracism she would face if she married Dodi.”
DIANA AND DODI AT THE RITZ
Before Diana and Dodi departed the Villa Windsor sometime after 16 hrs, General, one of Dodi’s bodyguards Trevor Rees-Jones furtively asked Diana as to what the programme for the evening was. This Trevor did out of sheer desperation as Dodi had ceased and desisted from telling members of his security detail, let alone anyone else for that matter, what his onward destination was for fear that that piece of information would be passed on to the paparazzi. Diana kindly obliged Trevor though her response was terse and scarcely revealing. “Well, eventually we will be going out to a restaurant”, that was all Diana said. Without advance knowledge of exactly what restaurant that was, Trevor and his colleagues’ hands were tied: they could not do a recce on it as was standard practice for the security team of a VIP principal. Dodi certainly, General, was being recklessly by throwing such caution to the winds.
At about 16:30, Diana and Dodi drew up at the Ritz Hotel, where they were received by acting hotel manager Claude Roulet. The front entrance of the hotel was already crawling with paparazzi, as a result of which the couple took the precaution of using the rear entrance, where hopefully they would make their entry unperturbed and unmolested. The first thing they did when they were ensconced in the now $10,000 a night Imperial Suite was to spend some time on their mobiles and set about touching base with friends, relations, and associates. Diana called at least two people, her clairvoyant friend Rita Rogers and her favourite journalist Richard Kay of The Daily Mail.
Rita, General, was alarmed that Diana had proceeded to venture to Paris notwithstanding the warning she had given Dodi and herself in relation to what she had seen of him in the crystal ball when the couple had consulted her. When quizzed as to what the hell she indeed was doing in Paris at that juncture, Diana replied that she and Dodi had simply come to do some shopping, which though partially true was not the material reason they were there. “But Diana, remember what I told Dodi,” Rita said somewhat reprovingly. Diana a bit apprehensively replied, “Yes I remember. I will be careful. I promise.” Well, she did not live up to her promise as we shall soon unpack General.
As for Richard Kay, Diana made known to him that, “I have decided I am going to radically change my life. I am going to complete my obligations to charities and to the anti-personnel land mines cause, but in November I want to completely withdraw from formal public life.”
Once she was done with her round of calls, Diana went down to the hair saloon by the hotel swimming pool to have her hair washed and blow-dried ahead of the scheduled evening dinner.
THE“TELL ME YES” RING IS DELIVERED
Since the main object of their Paris trip was to pick up the “Tell Me Yes” engagement ring Dodi had ordered in Monte Carlo a week earlier, Dodi decided to check on Repossi Jewellery, which was right within the Ritz prencincts, known as the Place Vendome. It could have taken less than a minute for Dodi to get to the store on foot but he decided to use a car to outsmart the paparazzi invasion. He was driven there by Trevor Rees-Jones, with Alexander Kez Wingfield and Claude Roulet following on foot, though he entered the shop alone.
The Repossi store had closed for the holiday season but Alberto Repossi, accompanied by his wife and brother-in-law, had decided to travel all the way from his home in Monaco and momentarily open it for the sake of the potentially highly lucrative Dodi transaction. Alberto, however, disappointed Dodi as the ring he had chosen was not the one he produced. The one he showed Dodi was pricier and perhaps more exquisite but Dodi was adamant that he wanted the exact one he had ordered as that was what Diana herself had picked. It was a ploy on the part of Repossi to make a real killing on the sale, his excuse to that effect being that Diana deserved a ring tha was well worthy of her social pedigree. With Dodi having expressed disaffection, Repossi rendered his apologies and assured Dodi he would make the right ring available shortly, whereupon Dodi repaired back to the hotel to await its delivery. But Dodi did insist nonetheless that the pricier ring be delivered too in case it appealed to Diana anyway.
Repossi delivered the two rings an hour later. They were collected by Roulet. On inspecting them, Dodi chose the very one he had seen in Monte Carlo, apparently at the insistence of Diana. There is a possibility that Diana, who was very much aware of her public image and was not comfortable with ostentatious displays of wealth, may have deliberately shown an interest in a less expensive engagement ring. It may have been a purely romantic as opposed to a prestigious choice for her.
The value of the ring, which was found on a wardrobe shelf in Dodi’s apartment after the crash, has been estimated to be between $20,000 and $250,000 as Repossi has always refused to be drawn into revealing how much Dodi paid for it. The sum, which enjoyed a 25 percent discount, was in truth paid for not by Dodi himself but by his father as was the usual practice.
Dodi was also shown Repossi’s sketches for a bracelet, a watch, and earrings which he proposed to create if Diana approved of them.
DIANA AND DODI GUSH OVER IMMINENT NUPTIALS
At about 7 pm, Dodi and Diana left the Ritz and headed for Dodi’s apartment at a place known as the Arc de Trompe. They went there to properly tog themselves out for the scheduled evening dinner. They spent two hours at the luxurious apartment. As usual, the ubiquitous paparazzi were patiently waiting for them there.
As they lingered in the apartment, Dodi beckoned over to his butler Rene Delorm and showed him the engagement ring. “Dodi came into my kitchen,” Delorm relates. “He looked into the hallway to check that Diana couldn’t hear and reached into his pocket and pulled out the box … He said, ‘Rene, I’m going to propose to the princess tonight. Make sure that we have champagne on ice when we come back from dinner’.” Rene described the ring as “a spectacular diamond encrusted ring, a massive emerald surrounded by a cluster of diamonds, set on a yellow and white gold band sitting in a small light-grey velvet box”.
Just before 9 pm, Dodi called the brother of his step-father, Hassan Yassen, who also was staying at the Ritz that night, and told him that he hoped to get married to Diana by the end of the year.
Later that same evening, both Dodi and Diana would talk to Mohamed Al Fayed, Dodi’s dad, and make known to him their pre-nuptial intentions. “They called me and said we’re coming back (to London) on Sunday (August 31) and on Monday (September 1) they are
Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, where over one billion Muslims throughout the world fast from dawn to sunset, and pray additional prayers at night. It is a time for inner reflection, devotion to Allah, and self-control. It is the ninth month in the Islamic calendar. As you read this Muslims the world over have already begun fasting as the month of Ramadan has commenced (depending on the sighting of the new moon).
‘The month of Ramadan is that in which the Qur’an was revealed as guidance for people, in it are clear signs of guidance and Criterion, therefore whoever of you who witnesses this month, it is obligatory on him to fast it. But whoever is ill or traveling let him fast the same number of other days, God desires ease for you and not hardship, and He desires that you complete the ordained period and glorify God for His guidance to you, that you may be grateful”. Holy Qur’an (2 : 185)
Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built. The other four are: the declaration of one’s belief in Allah’s oneness and in the message of Muhammad (PBUH); regular attendance to prayer; payment of zakaat (obligatory charity); and the pilgrimage to Mecca.
As explained in an earlier article, fasting includes total abstinence from eating, drinking, smoking, refraining from obscenity, avoiding getting into arguments and including abstaining from marital relations, from sunrise to sunset. While fasting may appear to some as difficult Muslims see it as an opportunity to get closer to their Lord, a chance to develop spiritually and at the same time the act of fasting builds character, discipline and self-restraint.
Just as our cars require servicing at regular intervals, so do Muslims consider Ramadan as a month in which the body and spirit undergoes as it were a ‘full service’. This ‘service’ includes heightened spiritual awareness both the mental and physical aspects and also the body undergoing a process of detoxification and some of the organs get to ‘rest’ through fasting.
Because of the intensive devotional activity fasting, Ramadan has a particularly high importance, derived from its very personal nature as an act of worship but there is nothing to stop anyone from privately violating Allah’s commandment of fasting if one chooses to do so by claiming to be fasting yet eating on the sly. This means that although fasting is obligatory, its observance is purely voluntary. If a person claims to be a Muslim, he is expected to fast in Ramadan.
The reward Allah gives for proper fasting is very generous. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) quotes Allah as saying: “All actions done by a human being are his own except fasting, which belongs to Me and I will reward it accordingly.” We are also told by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that the reward for proper fasting is admittance into heaven.
Fasting earns great reward when it is done in a ‘proper’ manner. This is because every Muslim is required to make his worship perfect. For example perfection of fasting can be achieved through restraint of one’s feelings and emotions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that when fasting, a person should not allow himself to be drawn into a quarrel or a slanging match. He teaches us: “On a day of fasting, let no one of you indulge in any obscenity, or enter into a slanging match. Should someone abuse or fight him, let him respond by saying: ‘I am fasting!’”
This high standard of self-restraint fits in well with fasting, which is considered as an act of self-discipline. Islam requires us to couple patience with voluntary abstention from indulgence in our physical desires. The purpose of fasting helps man to attain a high degree of sublimity, discipline and self-restraint. In other words, this standard CAN BE achieved by every Muslim who knows the purpose of fasting and strives to fulfill it.
Fasting has another special aspect. It makes all people share in the feelings of hunger and thirst. In normal circumstances, people with decent income may go from one year’s end to another without experiencing the pangs of hunger which a poor person may feel every day of his life. Such an experience helps to draw the rich one’s conscience nearer to needs of the poor. A Muslim is encouraged to be more charitable and learns to give generously for a good cause.
Fasting also has a universal or communal aspect to it. As Muslims throughout the world share in this blessed act of worship, their sense of unity is enhanced by the fact that every Muslim individual joins willingly in the fulfillment of this divine commandment. This is a unity of action and purpose, since they all fast in order to be better human beings. As a person restrains himself from the things he desires most, in the hope that he will earn Allah’s pleasure, self-discipline and sacrifice become part of his nature.
The month of Ramadan can aptly be described as a “season of worship.” Fasting is the main aspect of worship in this month, because people are more attentive to their prayers, read the Qur’an more frequently and also strive to improve on their inner and outer character. Thus, their devotion is more complete and they feel much happier in Ramadan because they feel themselves to be closer to their Creator.