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Conclusion: Kgosi Sebele II


In our last episode it was noted that the 1936 High Court Judgement in the case between Dikgosi Tshekedi Khama and Bathoen II versus the High Commissioner had upheld the latter’s ''unfettered and unlimited powers", which specifically extended to the continued detention without charge or trial of their colleague Sebele II.

The judgement thus effectively blocked further legal challenges e on the part of the banished Kgosi and his supporters. As had occurred earlier in the case brought before the Privy Council in London by Kgosi Sekgoma Letsholathebe is was affirmed that as a British Protected Person, Sebele along with all other Batswana was not entitled to the basic legal protection of habeas corpus.

Although the Court had ruled against the Dikgosi on the technical matter of its having no jurisdiction over the High Commissioner’s administrative actions to “preserve peace, order and good government” among the Batswana, it nonetheless found merit in the substance of the Dikgosi’s arguments that their people’s views and traditions of governance had been neglected.  

By the time of the judgement, Resident Commissioner Rey's superiors in London had also apparently concluded that his heavy handed approach to the Chiefs, and the consequent turmoil within Kweneng and the other Reserves, had become counter-productive. Under Rey’s his successor, Charles Arden-Clark, new Proclamations where drawn up, in consultation with the Dikgosi, and enacted in 1943. At the time the High Commissioner's Office notified London that:

"There is only one point in which I desire to direct your particular attention and that is the provision in Clause 3 of the Native Administration Proclamation for a Judicial enquiry in case of any doubt as to the rightful successor to the Chieftainship. This is novel, and although the proviso is permissive in form Huggard considers that it would curtail to some extent the High Commissioner's present powers.

Its insertion is pressed by Tshekedi who was supported by the other African members of the committee, which examined the draft. Forsyth Thompson says that the Africans and particularly Tshekedi were insistent on safeguards which would prevent any recurrence of the Sebele incident and similar happenings."

The new administrative climate, however, came too late to be of any benefit to Sebele. In Ghanzi he had remained defiant but isolated, telling the British that he had not been banished because he, unlike they, was still in his country. Indeed the white Ghanzi farmers feared the respect accorded to him by the local population.

0n one occasion, when he was allowed to travel to Maun, Kgosi Moremi graduated mophato in his honour. But by 1938 his longing for Kweneng caused him to offer to abdicate if he could only be allowed to return as an ordinary person. This offer was refused by Kgari, who reportedly stated: "I am afraid that Sebele should return to Molepolole, for he is the real chief, I, Kgari, am a chief's son."

Sebele died 2 October 1939. His body was brought back and buried at the royal kraal next to the graves of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather. The funeral was attended by thousands and included people from all over the Protectorate. Susan, the mother of his only male heirs, Moruakgomo and Mokgalagadi, was escorted from her mother's home in Tlokweng to the funeral by the Bakgatla Kgosi Molefi. There she is said to have been seated beside Phetogo, who gave her morning cloths after the funeral. Some refused to believe it was really Sebele's remains in the coffin and continued to pray for his return.

After his brother's death, the British sought to re-launch Kgosi Kgari’s authority by having him serve as a senior NCO in the African Pioneer Corps, while installing a three man regency to maintain order in Molepolole. Upon returning from the war Kgari reassumed his royal duties no longer bothered by demands for Sebele’s return.  Yet although he was now addressed as "Kgosi" his legitimacy remained tentative. As late as 1959 a report by then Kweneng District Commissioner Peter Cardross-Grant noted:

"When Government banished Chief Kgari's brother Sebele, Government made Kgari Chief in his place. Neither Kgari nor the tribe as a whole has ever forgotten that. If Kgari has the support of Government when he needs it, i.e. in dealing with strong, influential and capable characters such as Letlole Mosielele, Makgasane Kgosidintsi, and Patrick Bothusang Kgosidintsi, and if he can be frightened into curtailing his drinking bouts, and from flaunting his mistress Sefentse Makwati in public, he will do almost anything that Government wants him to do- in time. He has the power in him to make his people do things, provided they are sensible and reasonable things."

In his final years Kgosi Kgari, noting the emergence of the new nationalist politics, began to think about abdication and, perhaps, even self exile. Thus, while the Democratic and People's Parties were holding their first public meetings in Molepolole, he was in Swaziland with his friend Nkosi Sobuza II, allegedly looking to buy a farm. There he suddenly died on 19 September 1962. Before his death Kgari had repeatedly predicted that he would be the last Bakwena Chief.

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Export Processing Zones: How to Get SEZA to Sizzle

23rd September 2020
Export Processing Zone (EPZ) factory in Kenya

In 2005, the Business & Economic Advisory Council (BEAC) pitched the idea of the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to the Mogae Administration.

It took five years before the SEZ policy was formulated, another five years before the relevant law was enacted, and a full three years before the Special Economic Zones Authority (SEZA) became operational.

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Egypt Bagged Again

23rd September 2020

… courtesy of infiltration stratagem by Jehovah-Enlil’s clan

With the passing of Joshua’s generation, General Atiku, the promised peace and prosperity of a land flowing with milk and honey disappeared, giving way to chaos and confusion.

Maybe Joshua himself was to blame for this shambolic state of affairs. He had failed to mentor a successor in the manner Moses had mentored him. He had left the nation without a central government or a human head of state but as a confederacy of twelve independent tribes without any unifying force except their Anunnaki gods.

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23rd September 2020

If I say the word ‘robot’ to you,  I can guess what would immediately spring to mind –  a cute little Android or animal-like creature with human or pet animal characteristics and a ‘heart’, that is to say to say a battery, of gold, the sort we’ve all seen in various movies and  tv shows.  Think R2D2 or 3CPO in Star Wars, Wall-E in the movie of the same name,  Sonny in I Robot, loveable rogue Bender in Futurama,  Johnny 5 in Short Circuit…

Of course there are the evil ones too, the sort that want to rise up and eliminate us  inferior humans – Roy Batty in Blade Runner, Schwarzenegger’s T-800 in The Terminator,  Box in Logan’s Run,  Police robots in Elysium and  Otomo in Robocop.

And that’s to name but a few.  As a general rule of thumb, the closer the robot is to human form, the more dangerous it is and of course the ultimate threat in any Sci-Fi movie is that the robots will turn the tables and become the masters, not the mechanical slaves.  And whilst we are in reality a long way from robotic domination, there are an increasing number of examples of  robotics in the workplace.

ROBOT BLOODHOUNDS Sometimes by the time that one of us smells something the damage has already begun – the smell of burning rubber or even worse, the smell of deadly gas. Thank goodness for a robot capable of quickly detecting and analyzing a smell from our very own footprint.

A*Library Bot The A*Star (Singapore) developed library bot which when books are equipped with RFID location chips, can scan shelves quickly seeking out-of-place titles.  It manoeuvres with ease around corners, enhances the sorting and searching of books, and can self-navigate the library facility during non-open hours.

DRUG-COMPOUNDING ROBOT Automated medicine distribution system, connected to the hospital prescription system. It’s goal? To manipulate a large variety of objects (i.e.: drug vials, syringes, and IV bags) normally used in the manual process of drugs compounding to facilitate stronger standardisation, create higher levels of patient safety, and lower the risk of hospital staff exposed to toxic substances.

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ROBOTS Applications include screw-driving, assembling, painting, trimming/cutting, pouring hazardous substances, labelling, welding, handling, quality control applications as well as tasks that require extreme precision,

AGRICULTURAL ROBOTS Ecrobotix, a Swiss technology firm has a solar-controlled ‘bot that not only can identify weeds but thereafter can treat them. Naio Technologies based in southwestern France has developed a robot with the ability to weed, hoe, and assist during harvesting. Energid Technologies has developed a citrus picking system that retrieves one piece of fruit every 2-3 seconds and Spain-based Agrobot has taken the treachery out of strawberry picking. Meanwhile, Blue River Technology has developed the LettuceBot2 that attaches itself to a tractor to thin out lettuce fields as well as prevent herbicide-resistant weeds. And that’s only scratching the finely-tilled soil.

INDUSTRIAL FLOOR SCRUBBERS The Global Automatic Floor Scrubber Machine boasts a 1.6HP motor that offers 113″ water lift, 180 RPM and a coverage rate of 17,000 sq. ft. per hour

These examples all come from the aptly-named site    because while these functions are labour-saving and ripe for automation, the increasing use of artificial intelligence in the workplace will undoubtedly lead to increasing reliance on machines and a resulting swathe of human redundancies in a broad spectrum of industries and services.

This process has been greatly boosted by the global pandemic due to a combination of a workforce on furlough, whether by decree or by choice, and the obvious advantages of using virus-free machines – I don’t think computer viruses count!  For example, it was suggested recently that their use might have a beneficial effect in care homes for the elderly, solving short staffing issues and cheering up the old folks with the novelty of having their tea, coffee and medicines delivered by glorified model cars.  It’s a theory, at any rate.

Already, customers at the South-Korean  fast-food chain No Brand Burger can avoid any interaction with a human server during the pandemic.  The chain is using robots to take orders, prepare food and bring meals out to diners.  Customers order and pay via touchscreen, then their request is sent to the kitchen where a cooking machine heats up the buns and patties. When it’s ready, a robot ‘waiter’ brings out their takeout bag.   

‘This is the first time I’ve actually seen such robots, so they are really amazing and fun,’ Shin Hyun Soo, an office worker at No Brand in Seoul for the first time, told the AP. 

Human workers add toppings to the burgers and wrap them up in takeout bags before passing them over to yellow-and-black serving robots, which have been compared to Minions. 

Also in Korea, the Italian restaurant chain Mad for Garlic is using serving robots even for sit-down customers. Using 3D space mapping and other technology, the electronic ‘waiter,’ known as Aglio Kim, navigates between tables with up to five orders.  Mad for Garlic manager Lee Young-ho said kids especially like the robots, which can carry up to 66lbs in their trays.

These catering robots look nothing like their human counterparts – in fact they are nothing more than glorified food trolleys so using our thumb rule from the movies, mankind is safe from imminent takeover but clearly  Korean hospitality sector workers’ jobs are not.

And right there is the dichotomy – replacement by stealth.  Remote-controlled robotic waiters and waitresses don’t need to be paid, they don’t go on strike and they don’t spread disease so it’s a sure bet their army is already on the march.

But there may be more redundancies on the way as well.  Have you noticed how AI designers have an inability to use words of more than one syllable?  So ‘robot’ has become ‘bot’ and ‘android’ simply ‘droid?  Well, guys, if you continue to build machines ultimately smarter than yourselves you ‘rons  may find yourself surplus to requirements too – that’s ‘moron’ to us polysyllabic humans”!

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