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Builders Of Botswana: Kgosi Sebele Ii (Part 8) The Order Of Ethiopia

Jeff Ramsay

Builders Of Botswana

In our previous episodes we noted that Kgosi Sebele II's insistence on exercising customary law authority over all Kweneng residents, including local whites, had become a source of friction between him and the colonial regime. This was almost certainly aggravated by his youthful militancy which had undoubtedly been shaped by his experiences in Gauteng and the battlefields of France.

From 1922 he also clashed with the resident mission societies in Molepolole, i.e. the London Missionary Society (LMS, now part of the UCCSA church) and Anglican Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG).

At the time of his coronation, however, Sebele II, following in the footsteps of his father Kealeboga Sechele II, had embraced the Anglican Church. He broke with the denomination after the arrival of a white SPG missionary, the Rev. Clissold. As the latter subsequently observed:

"When I came first to Molepolole the Church was known as the 'Chief's Church', and I found that quite a number had joined it simply because the Chief had done so. When I was not prepared to sanction the Initiation School and other measure introduced by the Chief, he was reported to have said that the Church now existed no longer since it did not obey him.

The Anglicans had originally been introduced into Kweneng a decade earlier under the auspices of Bishop James Mata Dwane's Order of Ethiopia, a branch of the independent African led Ethiopian Christian movement whose original Afro-centric inspiration had come from the African-American breakaway African Methodist Episcopal Church.

A firm believer in apostolic succession from Christ through St. Peter, in 1900 Dwane had negotiated a compact whereby the then seven Anglican seven bishops of the Province of South Africa agreed to be in communion with the Ethiopian Church. This involved a decision by the Anglican Church to consecrate bishops, priest and deacons of the Order.

It had thus been black baruti of Dwane's Order, who had included Sechele II's uncle Motswasele Sechele and the then Bakwena National School head George Mashwe who had spearheaded the establishment of St. Paul's mission in Molepolole, with the support of his brother-in-law, the Kgosi's tribal secretary Richard Sidzumo, and his progressive second wife Mohumagadi Lena Rauwe.

A former L.M.S. catechist, Motswasele had been active as an evangelist in western Kweneng prior to his suspension on allegations of polygamy. Prior to this his preaching was notable in that it took place at a time when, in the words of his missionary supervisor Howard Williams: "Preaching the gospel to the Makhalahari is looked upon a decided democratic movement by all Bechuanas, and more especially the aristocracy."

Prior to coming to Kweneng both Mashwe and Sidzumo had grown up as educated elite members of the Mfengu (Xhosa origin) community in Mahikeng. Besides acting as Sechele II's tribal secretary, Sidzumo was from 1912 also active as the founding Secretary-General of the Bechuanaland and Griqualand Provincial Congress of the South African Native National Congress, subsequently African National Congress (ANC).

In 1912 Lena and Mashwe convinced Kgosi Kealeboga to leave the LMS in favour of the "true Church of [King] George V". This development was welcomed by the charismatic SPG missionary Henry Beven, who had once been Mashwe's teacher and had by then begun instructing Motswasele.

To house his denomination, Kgosi Kealeboga purchased a large brick warehouse for 500 pounds sterling in the Borakalalo ward from the estate of a deceased Jewish trader named Gower. The Anglican Bishop Winifred Gore-Brown of the then newly established Diocese of Kimberly and Kuruman, thereafter raised 100 pounds sterling from DeBeers for its outfitting as St. Paul's Parish.

The Parish quickly gained a large following. Many undoubtedly were motivated to follow their kgosi's lead. But, as elsewhere in Southern Africa, there were individuals such as Motswasele who were attracted to the championing by S.P.G. missionaries such as Beven of the Order of Ethiopia's combination of Anglo-Catholic tradition, which in contrast to the austere congregational Protestantism of the L.M.S., combined an emphasis on the value of Apostolic succession and "high church" rituals with its a relative tolerance for many indigenous social practices.

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Export Processing Zones: How to Get SEZA to Sizzle

23rd September 2020
Export Processing Zone (EPZ) factory in Kenya

In 2005, the Business & Economic Advisory Council (BEAC) pitched the idea of the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to the Mogae Administration.

It took five years before the SEZ policy was formulated, another five years before the relevant law was enacted, and a full three years before the Special Economic Zones Authority (SEZA) became operational.

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Egypt Bagged Again

23rd September 2020

… courtesy of infiltration stratagem by Jehovah-Enlil’s clan

With the passing of Joshua’s generation, General Atiku, the promised peace and prosperity of a land flowing with milk and honey disappeared, giving way to chaos and confusion.

Maybe Joshua himself was to blame for this shambolic state of affairs. He had failed to mentor a successor in the manner Moses had mentored him. He had left the nation without a central government or a human head of state but as a confederacy of twelve independent tribes without any unifying force except their Anunnaki gods.

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23rd September 2020

If I say the word ‘robot’ to you,  I can guess what would immediately spring to mind –  a cute little Android or animal-like creature with human or pet animal characteristics and a ‘heart’, that is to say to say a battery, of gold, the sort we’ve all seen in various movies and  tv shows.  Think R2D2 or 3CPO in Star Wars, Wall-E in the movie of the same name,  Sonny in I Robot, loveable rogue Bender in Futurama,  Johnny 5 in Short Circuit…

Of course there are the evil ones too, the sort that want to rise up and eliminate us  inferior humans – Roy Batty in Blade Runner, Schwarzenegger’s T-800 in The Terminator,  Box in Logan’s Run,  Police robots in Elysium and  Otomo in Robocop.

And that’s to name but a few.  As a general rule of thumb, the closer the robot is to human form, the more dangerous it is and of course the ultimate threat in any Sci-Fi movie is that the robots will turn the tables and become the masters, not the mechanical slaves.  And whilst we are in reality a long way from robotic domination, there are an increasing number of examples of  robotics in the workplace.

ROBOT BLOODHOUNDS Sometimes by the time that one of us smells something the damage has already begun – the smell of burning rubber or even worse, the smell of deadly gas. Thank goodness for a robot capable of quickly detecting and analyzing a smell from our very own footprint.

A*Library Bot The A*Star (Singapore) developed library bot which when books are equipped with RFID location chips, can scan shelves quickly seeking out-of-place titles.  It manoeuvres with ease around corners, enhances the sorting and searching of books, and can self-navigate the library facility during non-open hours.

DRUG-COMPOUNDING ROBOT Automated medicine distribution system, connected to the hospital prescription system. It’s goal? To manipulate a large variety of objects (i.e.: drug vials, syringes, and IV bags) normally used in the manual process of drugs compounding to facilitate stronger standardisation, create higher levels of patient safety, and lower the risk of hospital staff exposed to toxic substances.

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ROBOTS Applications include screw-driving, assembling, painting, trimming/cutting, pouring hazardous substances, labelling, welding, handling, quality control applications as well as tasks that require extreme precision,

AGRICULTURAL ROBOTS Ecrobotix, a Swiss technology firm has a solar-controlled ‘bot that not only can identify weeds but thereafter can treat them. Naio Technologies based in southwestern France has developed a robot with the ability to weed, hoe, and assist during harvesting. Energid Technologies has developed a citrus picking system that retrieves one piece of fruit every 2-3 seconds and Spain-based Agrobot has taken the treachery out of strawberry picking. Meanwhile, Blue River Technology has developed the LettuceBot2 that attaches itself to a tractor to thin out lettuce fields as well as prevent herbicide-resistant weeds. And that’s only scratching the finely-tilled soil.

INDUSTRIAL FLOOR SCRUBBERS The Global Automatic Floor Scrubber Machine boasts a 1.6HP motor that offers 113″ water lift, 180 RPM and a coverage rate of 17,000 sq. ft. per hour

These examples all come from the aptly-named site    because while these functions are labour-saving and ripe for automation, the increasing use of artificial intelligence in the workplace will undoubtedly lead to increasing reliance on machines and a resulting swathe of human redundancies in a broad spectrum of industries and services.

This process has been greatly boosted by the global pandemic due to a combination of a workforce on furlough, whether by decree or by choice, and the obvious advantages of using virus-free machines – I don’t think computer viruses count!  For example, it was suggested recently that their use might have a beneficial effect in care homes for the elderly, solving short staffing issues and cheering up the old folks with the novelty of having their tea, coffee and medicines delivered by glorified model cars.  It’s a theory, at any rate.

Already, customers at the South-Korean  fast-food chain No Brand Burger can avoid any interaction with a human server during the pandemic.  The chain is using robots to take orders, prepare food and bring meals out to diners.  Customers order and pay via touchscreen, then their request is sent to the kitchen where a cooking machine heats up the buns and patties. When it’s ready, a robot ‘waiter’ brings out their takeout bag.   

‘This is the first time I’ve actually seen such robots, so they are really amazing and fun,’ Shin Hyun Soo, an office worker at No Brand in Seoul for the first time, told the AP. 

Human workers add toppings to the burgers and wrap them up in takeout bags before passing them over to yellow-and-black serving robots, which have been compared to Minions. 

Also in Korea, the Italian restaurant chain Mad for Garlic is using serving robots even for sit-down customers. Using 3D space mapping and other technology, the electronic ‘waiter,’ known as Aglio Kim, navigates between tables with up to five orders.  Mad for Garlic manager Lee Young-ho said kids especially like the robots, which can carry up to 66lbs in their trays.

These catering robots look nothing like their human counterparts – in fact they are nothing more than glorified food trolleys so using our thumb rule from the movies, mankind is safe from imminent takeover but clearly  Korean hospitality sector workers’ jobs are not.

And right there is the dichotomy – replacement by stealth.  Remote-controlled robotic waiters and waitresses don’t need to be paid, they don’t go on strike and they don’t spread disease so it’s a sure bet their army is already on the march.

But there may be more redundancies on the way as well.  Have you noticed how AI designers have an inability to use words of more than one syllable?  So ‘robot’ has become ‘bot’ and ‘android’ simply ‘droid?  Well, guys, if you continue to build machines ultimately smarter than yourselves you ‘rons  may find yourself surplus to requirements too – that’s ‘moron’ to us polysyllabic humans”!

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