Connect with us

Builders Of Botswana: Kgosi Sebele II (Part 5)

jeff Ramsay

Builders Of Botswana

Last week's episode noted how in the 1920s Kgosi Sebele II's exercise of residual authority over local European artisans and traders, was distorted into fantastic newspaper stories about "White Serfs" in Bechuanaland. This press hysteria ongoing when an attempt to force a resident Boer to respect the local ban against travelling by ox-wagon on a Sunday resulted in the following correspondence, which gives some insight into the temperament that, would ultimately result in Sebele's detention.

Letter by Kgosi Sebele II to Captain Stigand, Resident Magistrate Molepolole, 5 April 1926:

"My Friend, I have the wagon here of Mr. W. Horne. It was stopped by my brothers Padi and Waboraro from going about on Sunday; before stopping this wagon they saw one belonging to those at Mokgopetsane, when they came to stop it, they found that it was carrying a sick person, and they left it. Now from there they saw this wagon of Willie Horne passing, and a boy having the name of Ntu Taukobong was sent to stop it, and he was severely knocked on the top of his eye and made a wound.

"The boy Ntu came back to my brothers and reported the wound. Four more boys were sent again to stop the same wagon, Kangwane, Mochele, Mochwara-kgole, and Kike. The boy Kike when coming near the wagon spoke to W. Horne to stop the wagon and he stopped it at once. He took out a rifle, those women in the wagon tried to stop him, but he knocked one of them, as he was so wild. When the boys saw the gun they ran away, however they managed after all to return the wagon at Mokgopetsane and brought it here. My law strictly prohibits wagons going about on Sunday."

Response by Stigand to Sebele II, 5 April 1926:

"My Friend, With regard to your letter this morning concerning the stopping and seizing of Willie Horne's wagon yesterday by boys sent by Padi and Waboraro, I enclose for your information a copy of a statement which Mr. Horne made this morning before Sub-Insp. Knott at this Office.

"This matter is for me, the Magistrate, to deal with. I shall have to hold an enquiry into the matter, taking the statements of all witnesses to the affair.

"The Government laws in this Protectorate lay down as follows in Proclamation of 10th January, 1891, Section 10: 'no suit, action, or proceeding whatsoever to which a person of European birth, or descent shall be a party, either as plaintiff or complainant, or as a defendant or accused person, shall be adjudicated upon by any Native Chief, save by consent of all parties concerned.'

"William Horne comes within this category; he does not pay Hut Tax but pays Poll Tax and like the Dutch and other residents here pays stand rent to the Chief for the stand where his house is…

"From the statements I have before me, so far, it would appear that Mr. Horne was peacefully travelling on the public road. If it is true that any Bakwena tried to forcibly stop his wagon – that is, not by calmly speaking to him, – but by force – they were totally wrong because he is not one of your people and is doing no harm to anyone or their property by travelling on a public road. After speaking to him any complaint should have been taken to the Chief and he afterwards can complain to the Magistrate.

"If anyone has a bone fide charge of assault against anyone who is not according to law under your jurisdiction, there is the Magistrates Court.

"You will please return the seized wagon, donkey etc. to its owner. As I have stated the case will be gone into by me."

Sebele II's response to Stigand, 7 April 1926:

"I am surprised by the way you want to take this case; I find that you are quite unfair in it. Let it be quite clear to you that the law prohibiting people from Sunday wagon trekking not only applies to the Bakwena themselves, but to everyone in the Reserve, European and Non-European. I am not against the Proclamation of the 10th of June 1891, section 10, but I take the proclamation in the way that it refers only to Criminal and Civil cases, not to cases as this one today. If then you take them in the same way, why should you bring Mrs. Janssen's case to me of the stolen pair of ladies shoes.

"It is the bounden duty of Mr. Horn to come and fetch his wagon not for me to take it to him, it was brought by the boys only to witness that they had done what they had done as they know the law. You have seen the wounded boy Ntu Taukobong and the others; the wounded boy was struck on purpose not accidentally.

"I am going to see that this is proved to you! The head belongs to the Chief- Tlhogo ke ea Kgosi, deal fairly with this case, the head is mine. I am quite sure that if these boys were drunk as said by Willie they would have thrashed him; and it seems to me that you quite agree to Mr. Horne's statement first [without] hearing all the witnesses.

"I have read your letter to the Councillors, and we came to the conclusion that the day you are going to take this case, say two days previous let me know, I shall come to the case to hear the proceedings, and I will come with them the Bakwena; to come and get from you information as to why should the Bakwena law be taken as nothing, whereas it has been all times kept and carried, not only in our Reserve, but at Gamangwato and Kanye Reserves, they have it, and it applies to all, European and Non-European."

Continue Reading


Export Processing Zones: How to Get SEZA to Sizzle

23rd September 2020
Export Processing Zone (EPZ) factory in Kenya

In 2005, the Business & Economic Advisory Council (BEAC) pitched the idea of the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to the Mogae Administration.

It took five years before the SEZ policy was formulated, another five years before the relevant law was enacted, and a full three years before the Special Economic Zones Authority (SEZA) became operational.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!


Continue Reading


Egypt Bagged Again

23rd September 2020

… courtesy of infiltration stratagem by Jehovah-Enlil’s clan

With the passing of Joshua’s generation, General Atiku, the promised peace and prosperity of a land flowing with milk and honey disappeared, giving way to chaos and confusion.

Maybe Joshua himself was to blame for this shambolic state of affairs. He had failed to mentor a successor in the manner Moses had mentored him. He had left the nation without a central government or a human head of state but as a confederacy of twelve independent tribes without any unifying force except their Anunnaki gods.

This content is locked

Login To Unlock The Content!


Continue Reading



23rd September 2020

If I say the word ‘robot’ to you,  I can guess what would immediately spring to mind –  a cute little Android or animal-like creature with human or pet animal characteristics and a ‘heart’, that is to say to say a battery, of gold, the sort we’ve all seen in various movies and  tv shows.  Think R2D2 or 3CPO in Star Wars, Wall-E in the movie of the same name,  Sonny in I Robot, loveable rogue Bender in Futurama,  Johnny 5 in Short Circuit…

Of course there are the evil ones too, the sort that want to rise up and eliminate us  inferior humans – Roy Batty in Blade Runner, Schwarzenegger’s T-800 in The Terminator,  Box in Logan’s Run,  Police robots in Elysium and  Otomo in Robocop.

And that’s to name but a few.  As a general rule of thumb, the closer the robot is to human form, the more dangerous it is and of course the ultimate threat in any Sci-Fi movie is that the robots will turn the tables and become the masters, not the mechanical slaves.  And whilst we are in reality a long way from robotic domination, there are an increasing number of examples of  robotics in the workplace.

ROBOT BLOODHOUNDS Sometimes by the time that one of us smells something the damage has already begun – the smell of burning rubber or even worse, the smell of deadly gas. Thank goodness for a robot capable of quickly detecting and analyzing a smell from our very own footprint.

A*Library Bot The A*Star (Singapore) developed library bot which when books are equipped with RFID location chips, can scan shelves quickly seeking out-of-place titles.  It manoeuvres with ease around corners, enhances the sorting and searching of books, and can self-navigate the library facility during non-open hours.

DRUG-COMPOUNDING ROBOT Automated medicine distribution system, connected to the hospital prescription system. It’s goal? To manipulate a large variety of objects (i.e.: drug vials, syringes, and IV bags) normally used in the manual process of drugs compounding to facilitate stronger standardisation, create higher levels of patient safety, and lower the risk of hospital staff exposed to toxic substances.

AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ROBOTS Applications include screw-driving, assembling, painting, trimming/cutting, pouring hazardous substances, labelling, welding, handling, quality control applications as well as tasks that require extreme precision,

AGRICULTURAL ROBOTS Ecrobotix, a Swiss technology firm has a solar-controlled ‘bot that not only can identify weeds but thereafter can treat them. Naio Technologies based in southwestern France has developed a robot with the ability to weed, hoe, and assist during harvesting. Energid Technologies has developed a citrus picking system that retrieves one piece of fruit every 2-3 seconds and Spain-based Agrobot has taken the treachery out of strawberry picking. Meanwhile, Blue River Technology has developed the LettuceBot2 that attaches itself to a tractor to thin out lettuce fields as well as prevent herbicide-resistant weeds. And that’s only scratching the finely-tilled soil.

INDUSTRIAL FLOOR SCRUBBERS The Global Automatic Floor Scrubber Machine boasts a 1.6HP motor that offers 113″ water lift, 180 RPM and a coverage rate of 17,000 sq. ft. per hour

These examples all come from the aptly-named site    because while these functions are labour-saving and ripe for automation, the increasing use of artificial intelligence in the workplace will undoubtedly lead to increasing reliance on machines and a resulting swathe of human redundancies in a broad spectrum of industries and services.

This process has been greatly boosted by the global pandemic due to a combination of a workforce on furlough, whether by decree or by choice, and the obvious advantages of using virus-free machines – I don’t think computer viruses count!  For example, it was suggested recently that their use might have a beneficial effect in care homes for the elderly, solving short staffing issues and cheering up the old folks with the novelty of having their tea, coffee and medicines delivered by glorified model cars.  It’s a theory, at any rate.

Already, customers at the South-Korean  fast-food chain No Brand Burger can avoid any interaction with a human server during the pandemic.  The chain is using robots to take orders, prepare food and bring meals out to diners.  Customers order and pay via touchscreen, then their request is sent to the kitchen where a cooking machine heats up the buns and patties. When it’s ready, a robot ‘waiter’ brings out their takeout bag.   

‘This is the first time I’ve actually seen such robots, so they are really amazing and fun,’ Shin Hyun Soo, an office worker at No Brand in Seoul for the first time, told the AP. 

Human workers add toppings to the burgers and wrap them up in takeout bags before passing them over to yellow-and-black serving robots, which have been compared to Minions. 

Also in Korea, the Italian restaurant chain Mad for Garlic is using serving robots even for sit-down customers. Using 3D space mapping and other technology, the electronic ‘waiter,’ known as Aglio Kim, navigates between tables with up to five orders.  Mad for Garlic manager Lee Young-ho said kids especially like the robots, which can carry up to 66lbs in their trays.

These catering robots look nothing like their human counterparts – in fact they are nothing more than glorified food trolleys so using our thumb rule from the movies, mankind is safe from imminent takeover but clearly  Korean hospitality sector workers’ jobs are not.

And right there is the dichotomy – replacement by stealth.  Remote-controlled robotic waiters and waitresses don’t need to be paid, they don’t go on strike and they don’t spread disease so it’s a sure bet their army is already on the march.

But there may be more redundancies on the way as well.  Have you noticed how AI designers have an inability to use words of more than one syllable?  So ‘robot’ has become ‘bot’ and ‘android’ simply ‘droid?  Well, guys, if you continue to build machines ultimately smarter than yourselves you ‘rons  may find yourself surplus to requirements too – that’s ‘moron’ to us polysyllabic humans”!

Continue Reading
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!