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Man, The Evolutionary Enigma

Benson C Saili


… but Genesis and Darwin do agree rather than conflict

We are called human beings, mankind, earthlings, or simply man.  We’re earthlings because we’re native to planet Earth: we evolved here. However, we’re not pure earthlings. We’re a hybrid race, or LULUs in Sumerian language.  We’re part extraterrestrial, part  ape. The extraterrestrial component arises from the fact that we have Anunnaki blood in us. There’s Sirian (of Sirius), Aryan (of Orion), and Reptilian (of Draco) blood in us – Alien DNA. There are smaller traces of other  ET races in our DNA still.  

We’re a hybrid race because the Anunnaki tampered with us. If  they hadn’t, we would still be pure earthlings but primitive ones, albeit fully content with our way of  life. We would still be Ape Man. You may not be aware of this, but  zoologically, mankind is  classified as ape. We belong to the same family (called a genus) as gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees, and gibbons. These are tailless primates. Primates with tails include monkeys and baboons – it’s a broad family we belong too folks.  

In the ape family, the closest to  mankind is the chimpanzee. Genetically, the difference between mankind and  the chimpanzee is only 2 percent.  This is because mankind and chimpanzees are descended from the same hominid ancestor, making the chimpanzee our most immediate cousin. The chimpanzee is still a chimpanzee because it hasn’t been genetically tampered with by biomedically advanced ETs such as the Anunnaki. In our case, we were genetically tinkered with  at some stage in the course of our evolution.  

At the time we were genetically manipulated by the Anunnaki, we had reached an evolutionary stage we today call Homo Erectus.   Homo Erectus was a hominid that walked in an erect posture, was able to make fire, and fashion primitive tools from stones. His body was hairy but his facial features were closer to what we look today than they were to apes. Then 300,000 years ago, the Anunnaki created Adam and Eve, the first Homo Sapiens.   

How does the creation of Adam and Eve by the Anunnaki, a topic we shall address exhaustively sooner than later, exactly reconcile with biomedical science and the theory of evolution? Is the Biblical take really in agreement, if at all, with these fields
of inquiry?

First, some clarity. When I say the  Anunnaki created mankind, I use a conventional figure of speech, something that most of our readership will have realised by now. The Anunnaki, or to be more specific, Enki, did not create Adam and Eve per se; he fashioned them out of already existing matter in Ape-Woman, or Homo Erectus, and the Anunnaki themselves.  Ape-Woman eggs were infused with Anunnaki genes – a genetic engineering technique best known as cloning – to yield Adam and Eve some 300,000 years ago.  How do we know Adam and Eve appeared on the scene 300,000 years ago and in the era of Homo Erectus?


In 1859, the famed naturalist Charles Darwin published a seminal book titled On the Origins of Species in which he put forward what has become known as the theory of evolution. According to this theory, all living things evolved from lower forms, such as an amoeba, to a higher form, such as an ape, by a process known as natural selection. 

Natural selection can be explained thus:  because of the rigours (trials and tribulations) of existence inherent in the natural environment, those organisms that are able to cope survive (that is nature gives them a “pass”), whilst those unable to cope die off (that is nature gives them a “fail”). As the capable organism forges through existence, it evolves into a more sophisticated species. This evolution does not take place in jumps; it is so glacially and imperceptibly slow it takes many millions of years.

What is the most obvious evidence that man is a product of evolution? It is the way we develop when we are in the womb. Any evolutionary biologist will tell you that at some stage of its development, the human embryo is no different from that of a bird,  reptile, or any other mammal. At one point, it even has gills, like a fish. In other words, the human embryo developing in the womb passes through stages of its evolutionary ancestry.

One profile of  the development of  the human embryo I read in a biology encylopaedia says at 5 weeks, the embryo has “a distinctly reptilian aspect … The embryo still has a tail and cannot be distinguished from pig, rabbit, elephant, or chick embryo”. At 7 weeks, “the face is mammalian but somewhat pig-like”. It is only when it is ten weeks old that the human embryo is distinctly human.

Man’s intra-uterine cycle was one of the major clues that gave Darwin and his co-discoverer Alf Wallace the idea that we are creatures of evolution. But Wallace was more matter-of-fact: he stated that some intelligent power has guided or determined the development of man. Why did he say that? As stated above, mankind belongs to a animal category known as hominids or primates. This category includes chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, baboons, gibbons, and your ordinary monkey. Evolutionists say hominids had a common ancestor eons ago.

Man’s closest cousin is the chimpanzee. A type of chimpanzee called the bonobos is remarkably human-like in character: for instance, it also copulates face to face. Mankind and chimpanzees   share a common, relatively recent ancestor, from which they split 6 million years ago Indeed genetically, the difference between mankind and a chimpanzee as asserted above is only 2 percent. Mankind came through the line of Homo Erectus, or Ape-Man, who appeared on the scene around 2  million years ago.  

For Homo Erectus to evolve into modern man, Homo Sapiens Sapiens, he should by rights have taken millions of years. The biologist Thomas Huxley says, “Large changes (in species) occur over tens of millions of years, while really major ones (macro changes) take a hundred million years or so”.  Yet Homo Erectus, for reasons that baffled Darwin and Wallace, disappeared a mere 2 million years after emerging, which in evolutional terms is overnight. The moment Homo Erectus vanished, that is, 300,000 years ago, Homo Sapiens suddenly emerged, as if by magic!

Over a hundred years since Darwin’s day, scientists remained puzzled by this anomaly. In 1984, anthropologist Roger Lewin said, “The origin of  modern humans denoted by the subspecies Homo Sapiens remains one of the great puzzles of palaeoanthropology (the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominids)”.  In 1995, The Sunday Times of London reported that “scientists themselves are confused”. In regard to mankind’s Ape-like ancestors, the highly respected paper said, “Their relationships to one another remain clouded in mystery and nobody has conclusively identified any of them as the early hominid that gave rise to Homo   Sapiens”. In other words, even Homo Erectus does not exactly qualify as mankind’s undisputed ancestor.

Both scientists and evolutionists are at a loss as to why mankind, or Adam in the Hebrew language, defied the pace of nature and evolved basically in the twinkling of an eye from his hominid ancestor. And there is more. Why did we become intelligent whilst our nearest cousin, the chimpanzee, did not? Why have chimpanzees remained in evolutionary stagnation for 6 million years when we have woven clothes, built cities, and flown to the moon? Why is our brain size 50 percent larger than that of the chimpanzee?

In 1911, Arthur Keith, an anthropologist, investigated the peculiar characteristics that made a particular primate different from the rest.  The distinctive characteristics were as follows: gorilla 75; chimpanzee 109; orangutan 113; gibbon 116; and man 312. In other words, mankind was about three times more unique than any other primate. Why did we make such a leap? How did we attain such a level of sophistication not by degrees but practically in a flash in evolutional terms?

Still another jigsaw is this: apes are five to ten times stronger than humans. Where did our strength go? Why did we lose so much strength when it was vital to our survival? We are indeed a “revolutionary misfit” courtesy of another Earth Chronicles researcher Alan Alford.

The absence of a definite and necessary intermediate species between Homo Erectus and mankind evolutionists call the Missing Link.


Whilst scientists and evolutionists remained staggered by the mystery of the Missing Link, it was left to independent researchers to plug  the gap. In 1976, Zechariah Sitchin wrote the iconic book, The 12th Planet, in which he sought to enlighten the world on the fact  that in addition to the known 9 planets plus the Sun and Moon, there was a 12th eminent celestial body, a tenth planet known as Nibiru. Nibiru, which is seen by Earthlings only once in 3600 years, is the “Heaven” of the Bible, the abode of Old Testament “gods” – Jehovah/Yahweh and the like.

These gods were not supernatural beings but humanoids –  flesh-and-blood creatures like we are, only they were more advanced technologically.  It were these “gods”, or Anunnaki as they were best known in antiquity, who 450,000 years ago came to Earth in their spaceships and 144,000 years later created mankind as a worker race. They needed a worker race to help mine gold, a commodity that was needed to plug the gaping ozone hole on their planet. The Anunnaki did not create mankind from without: they employed genetic engineering to fuse their own genes with those  of Homo Erectus to give rise to  a reasoning species they called the Adam.     

Sitchin researched for thirty years, primarily from thousands of clay tablets and cylinder seals on which the Sumerians, the world’s best known civilisation of old, 6,000 years ago recorded mankind’s origins and other momentous events before he put pen to paper.  But the Illuminati, the diabolical forces who rule the world from behind the scenes, had known about Nibiru and the Anunnaki since days immemorial, a knowledge they had kept  inviolably secret though they did give hints of it through symbols, signage, movies, and rituals.     

In The 12th Planet, Sitchin wrote thus:  “Man is the product of evolution; but modern Man, Homo Sapiens, is the product of the ‘gods’. For  some time circa 300,000 years ago, the Nephilim took ape-man (Homo Erectus) and implanted on him their own image and likeness.”

By “gods”,  Sitchin meant the Anunnaki, whose royal ranks were known as the Nephilim. By “man”, he meant the two species that sprang from Homo Erectus: these were Neanderthal Man and Cro-Magnon Man, the latter of whom advanced into modern man. Whereas Neanderthal Man became extinct 30,000 years ago,  Cro-Magnon  man persevered.

On February 13, 2009, the highly respected journal Science reported that German  scientists had deciphered the genome of a female Neanderthal fossil  in a project that sought to establish when Neanderthal Man, the “failed species of humans”, separated from modern man. The New York Times reported that “the new findings document two important sets of genetic changes – those that occurred between 5.7 million years ago, when the human line split from the line leading to chimpanzees, and 300,000 years ago when Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans (that is, Cro-Magnon Man) parted ways”.  

Thus Sitchin’s reckoning, from the Sumerian tablets, that Adam came onto the scene 300,000 years ago was now scientifically corroborated.  But scientists still could not hazard a guess as to how modern man emerged and so suddenly at that. They should have listened to the Sumerians, who inform us  that it were the Anunnaki who jumped the gun on the evolutionary process and brought mankind into existence millions of years ahead of schedule through genetic engineering.  Neanderthal Man was the remnant of Homo Erectus who was not further  upgraded genetically by the Anunnaki.

In all his books, Sitchin makes the case that the Anunnaki came to Earth to look for gold because on their planet, Nibiru, they faced a very acute problem of a dwindling atmosphere brought about by natural causes and nuclear wars. To overcome this problem, Sitchin says, they needed to create a shield of gold particles in their upper atmosphere, which gold was extremely rare on Nibiru but abundant on Earth.

At an international conference held in Germany in May 2009, White House Science Advisor John Holdern punted “Geo-Engineering”, already under discussion by the US government as he spoke,  as a future answer to the problem of global warming.  He said using space technology yet to be devised, “particles will be shot into the Earth's upper atmosphere to create a shield that will reflect away from Earth the Sun's warming rays”. Holdern did not specify the nature of these “particles”, but as an Illuminati scientist, he was obviously aware that the Anunnaki had successfully tried the method on their planet using gold particles.

Reading of this development, Sitchin gleefully gushed thus: “Modern science is only catching up with ancient knowledge. The idea of 'geo-engineering' is borrowed from technologies of the Anunnaki.”    

How true!

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28th March 2023

In recent years, using personal devices in working environments has become so commonplace it now has its own acronym, BOYD (Bring Your Own Device).  But as employees skip between corporate tools and personal applications on their own devices, their actions introduce a number of possible risks that should be managed and mitigated with careful consideration.  Consider these examples:

Si-lwli, a small family-run business in Wales, is arguably as niche a company as you could find, producing talking toys used to promote the Welsh language. Their potential market is small, with only some 300,000 Welsh language speakers in the world and in reality the business is really more of a hobby for the husband-and-wife team, who both still have day jobs.  Yet, despite still managing to be successful in terms of sales, the business is now fighting for survival after recently falling prey to cybercriminals. Emails between Si-Iwli and their Chinese suppliers were intercepted by hackers who altered the banking details in the correspondence, causing Si-Iwli to hand over £18,000 (around P ¼ m) to the thieves. That might not sound much to a large enterprise, but to a small or medium business it can be devastating.

Another recent SMB hacking story which appeared in the Wall Street Journal concerned Innovative Higher Ed Consulting (IHED) Inc, a small New York start-up with a handful of employees. IHED didn’t even have a website, but fraudsters were able to run stolen credit card numbers through the company’s payment system and reverse the charges to the tune of $27,000, around the same loss faced by Si-Iwli.  As the WSJ put it, the hackers completely destroyed the company, forcing its owners to fold.

And in May 2019, the city of Baltimore’s computer system was hit by a ransomware attack, with hackers using a variant called RobinHood. The hack, which has lasted more than a month, paralysed the computer system for city employees, with the hackers demanding a payment in Bitcoin to give access back to the city.

Of course, hackers target governments or business giants  but small and medium businesses are certainly not immune. In fact, 67% of SMBs reported that they had experienced a cyber attack across a period of 12 months, according to a 2018 survey carried out by security research firm Ponemon Institute. Additionally, Verizon issued a report in May 2019 that small businesses accounted for 43% of its reported data breaches.  Once seen as less vulnerable than PCs, smartphone attacks are on the rise, with movements like the Dark Caracal spyware campaign underlining the allure of mobile devices to hackers. Last year, the US Federal Trade Commission released a statement calling for greater education on mobile security, coming at a time when around 42% of all Android devices are believed to not carry the latest security updates.

This is an era when employees increasingly use their smartphones for work-related purposes so is your business doing enough to protect against data breaches on their employees’ phones? The SME Cyber Crime Survey 2018 carried out for risk management specialists AON showed that more than 80% of small businesses did not view this as a threat yet if as shown, 67% of SMBs were said to have been victims of hacking, either the stats are wrong or business owners are underestimating their vulnerability.  A 2019 report by PricewaterhouseCoopers suggests the latter, stating that the majority of global businesses are unprepared for cyber attacks.

Consider that a workstation no longer means a desk in an office: It can be a phone in the back of a taxi or Uber; a laptop in a coffee shop, or a tablet in an airport lounge.  Wherever the device is used, employees can potentially install applications that could be harmful to your business, even from something as seemingly insignificant as clicking on an accidental download or opening a link on a phishing email.  Out of the physical workplace, your employees’ activities might not have the same protections as they would on a company-monitored PC.

Yet many businesses not only encourage their employees to work remotely, but assume working from coffee shops, bookstores, and airports can boost employees’ productivity.  Unfortunately, many remote hot spots do not provide secure Wi-Fi so if your employee is accessing their work account on unsecured public Wi-Fi,  sensitive business data could be at risk. Furthermore, even if your employee uses a company smartphone or has access to company data through a personal mobile device, there is always a chance data could be in jeopardy with a lost or stolen device, even information as basic as clients’ addresses and phone numbers.

BOYDs are also at risk from malware designed to harm and infect the host system, transmittable to smartphones when downloading malicious third-party apps.  Then there is ransomware, a type of malware used by hackers to specifically take control of a system’s data, blocking access or threatening to release sensitive information unless a ransom is paid such as the one which affected Baltimore.  Ransomware attacks are on the increase,  predicted to occur every 14 seconds, potentially costing billions of dollars per year.

Lastly there is phishing – the cyber equivalent of the metaphorical fishing exercise –  whereby  cybercriminals attempt to obtain sensitive data –usernames, passwords, credit card details –usually through a phoney email designed to look legitimate which directs the user to a fraudulent website or requests the data be emailed back directly. Most of us like to think we could recognize a phishing email when we see it, but these emails have become more sophisticated and can come through other forms of communication such as messaging apps.

Bottom line is to be aware of the potential problems with BOYDs and if in doubt,  consult your IT security consultants.  You can’t put the own-device genie back in the bottle but you can make data protection one of your three wishes!

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“I Propose to Diana Tonight”

28th March 2023

About five days before Princess Diana and Dodi Al Fayed landed in Paris, General Atiku, a certain Edward Williams was taking a walk in a woods in the Welsh town of Mountain Ash. Williams, then 73, was a psychic of some renown. He had in the past foretold assassination attempts on US President Ronald Reagan, which occurred on March 30, 1981, and Pope John Paul II, which came to pass on May 13, 1981.

As he trudged the woods, Williams  had a sudden premonition that pointed to Diana’s imminent fate as per Christopher Andersen’s book The Day Diana Died. “When the vision struck me, it was as if everything around me was obscured and replaced by shadowy figures,” Williams was later to reminisce. “In the middle was the face of Princess Diana. Her expression was sad and full of pathos. She was wearing what looked like a floral dress with a short dark cardigan. But it was vague. I went cold with fear and knew it was a sign that she was in danger.”

Williams hastily beat a retreat to his home, which he shared with his wife Mary, and related to her his presentiment, trembling like an aspen leaf as he did so. “I have never seen him so upset,” Mary recounted. “He felt he was given a sign and when he came back from his walk he was deeply shaken.”

The following day, Williams frantically sauntered into a police station to inform the police of his premonition. The officer who attended to him would have dismissed him as no more than a crackpot but he treated him seriously in view of the accuracy of his past predictions. He  took a statement and immediately passed it on to the Special Branch Investigative  Unit.

The report read as follows:

“On 27 August, at 14:12 hrs, a man by the name of Edward Williams came to Mountain Ash police station. He said he was a psychic and predicted that Princess Diana was going to die. In previous years, he has predicted that the Pope and Ronald Reagan were going to be the victims of assassination attempts. On both occasions he was proved to be correct. Mr Williams appeared to be quite normal.”

Williams, General, was spot-on as usual: four days later, the princess was no more.

Meanwhile, General,  even as Dodi and Diana were making their way to the Fayed-owned Ritz Hotel in central Paris, British newspapers were awash with headlines that suggested Diana was kind of deranged. Writes Andrew Morton in Diana in Pursuit of Love: “In The Independent Diana was described as ‘a woman with fundamentally nothing to say about anything’. She was ‘suffering from a form of arrested development’. ‘Isn’t it time she started using her head?’ asked The Mail on Sunday. The Sunday Mirror printed a special supplement entitled ‘A Story of Love’; The News of the World claimed that William had demanded that Diana should split from Dodi: ‘William can’t help it, he just doesn’t like the man.’ William was reportedly ‘horrified’ and ‘doesn’t think Mr Fayed is good for his mother’ – or was that just the press projecting their own prejudices? The upmarket Sunday Times newspaper, which had first serialised my biography of the princess, now put her in the psychiatrist’s chair for daring to be wooed by a Muslim. The pop-psychologist Oliver James put Diana ‘On the Couch’, asking why she was so ‘depressed’ and desperate for love. Other tabloids piled in with dire prognostications – about Prince Philip’s hostility to the relationship, Diana’s prospect of exile, and the social ostracism she would face if she married Dodi.”


Before Diana and Dodi departed the Villa Windsor sometime after 16 hrs, General, one of Dodi’s bodyguards Trevor Rees-Jones furtively asked Diana as to what the programme for the evening was. This Trevor did out of sheer desperation as Dodi had ceased and desisted from telling members of his security detail, let alone anyone else for that matter, what his onward destination was for fear that that piece of information would be passed on to the paparazzi. Diana kindly obliged Trevor though her response was terse and scarcely revealing. “Well, eventually we will be going out to a restaurant”, that was all Diana said. Without advance knowledge of exactly what restaurant that was, Trevor and his colleagues’ hands were tied: they could not do a recce on it as was standard practice for the security team of a VIP principal.  Dodi certainly, General, was being recklessly by throwing such caution to the winds.

At about 16:30, Diana and Dodi drew up at the Ritz Hotel, where they were received by acting hotel manager Claude Roulet.  The front entrance of the hotel was already crawling with paparazzi, as a result of which the couple took the precaution of using the rear entrance, where hopefully they would make their entry unperturbed and unmolested. The first thing they did when they were ensconced in the now $10,000 a night Imperial Suite was to spend some time on their mobiles and set about touching base with friends, relations, and associates.  Diana called at least two people, her clairvoyant friend Rita Rogers and her favourite journalist Richard Kay of The Daily Mail.

Rita, General,  was alarmed that Diana had proceeded to venture to Paris notwithstanding the warning she had given Dodi and herself in relation to what she had seen of him  in the crystal ball when the couple had consulted her. When quizzed as to what the hell she indeed was doing in Paris at that juncture, Diana replied that she and Dodi had simply come to do some shopping, which though partially true was not the material reason they were there. “But Diana, remember what I told Dodi,” Rita said somewhat reprovingly. Diana a bit apprehensively replied, “Yes I remember. I will be careful. I promise.” Well,  she did not live up to her promise as we shall soon unpack General.

As for Richard Kay, Diana made known to him that, “I have decided I am going to radically change my life. I am going to complete my obligations to charities and to the anti-personnel land mines cause, but in November I want to completely withdraw from formal public life.”

Once she was done with her round of calls, Diana went down to the hair saloon by the hotel swimming pool to have her hair washed and blow-dried ahead of the scheduled evening dinner.


Since the main object of their Paris trip was to pick up the “Tell Me Yes” engagement ring  Dodi had ordered in Monte Carlo a week earlier, Dodi decided to check on Repossi Jewellery, which was right within the Ritz prencincts, known as the Place Vendome.  It could have taken less than a minute for Dodi to get to the store on foot but he decided to use a car to outsmart the paparazzi invasion. He was driven there by Trevor Rees-Jones, with Alexander Kez Wingfield and Claude Roulet following on foot, though he entered the shop alone.

The Repossi store had closed for the holiday season but Alberto Repossi, accompanied by his wife and brother-in-law,  had decided to travel all the way from his home in Monaco  and momentarily open it for the sake of the potentially highly lucrative  Dodi transaction.  Alberto, however, disappointed Dodi as the ring he had chosen was not the one  he produced. The one he showed Dodi was pricier and perhaps more exquisite but Dodi  was adamant that he wanted the exact one he had ordered as that was what Diana herself had picked. It was a ploy  on the part of Repossi to make a real killing on the sale, his excuse to that effect being that Diana deserved a ring tha was well worthy of her social pedigree.  With Dodi having expressed disaffection, Repossi rendered his apologies and assured Dodi he would make the right ring available shortly, whereupon Dodi repaired back to the hotel to await its delivery. But Dodi  did insist nonetheless that the pricier ring be delivered too in case it appealed to Diana anyway.

Repossi delivered the two rings an hour later. They were collected by Roulet. On inspecting them, Dodi chose the very one he had seen in Monte Carlo, apparently at the insistence of Diana.  There is a possibility that Diana, who was very much aware of her public image and was not comfortable with ostentatious displays of wealth, may have deliberately shown an interest in a less expensive engagement ring. It  may have been a purely romantic as opposed to a prestigious  choice for her.

The value of the ring, which was found on a wardrobe shelf in Dodi’s apartment after the crash,  has been estimated to be between $20,000 and $250,000 as Repossi has always refused to be drawn into revealing how much Dodi paid for it. The sum, which enjoyed a 25 percent discount, was in truth paid for not by Dodi himself but by his father as was the usual practice.

Dodi was also shown Repossi’s sketches for a bracelet, a watch, and earrings which he proposed to create if Diana approved of them.


At about 7 pm,  Dodi and Diana left the Ritz and headed for Dodi’s apartment at a place known as the Arc de Trompe. They went there to properly tog themselves out for the scheduled evening dinner. They spent two hours at the luxurious apartment. As usual, the ubiquitous paparazzi were patiently waiting for them there.

As they lingered in the apartment, Dodi beckoned over to his butler Rene Delorm  and showed him  the engagement ring. “Dodi came into my kitchen,” Delorm relates. “He looked into the hallway to check that Diana couldn’t hear and reached into his pocket and pulled out the box … He said, ‘Rene, I’m going to propose to the princess tonight. Make sure that we have champagne on ice when we come back from dinner’.” Rene described the ring as “a spectacular diamond encrusted ring, a massive emerald surrounded by a cluster of diamonds, set on a yellow and white gold band sitting in a small light-grey velvet box”.

Just before 9 pm, Dodi called the brother of his step-father, Hassan Yassen, who also was staying at the Ritz  that night, and told him that he hoped to get married to Diana by the end of the year.

Later that same evening, both Dodi and Diana would talk to Mohamed Al Fayed, Dodi’s dad, and make known to him their pre-nuptial intentions. “They called me and said we’re coming back  (to London) on Sunday (August 31) and on Monday (September 1) they are

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RAMADAN – The Blessed Month of Fasting

28th March 2023

Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, where over one billion Muslims throughout the world fast from dawn to sunset, and pray additional prayers at night. It is a time for inner reflection, devotion to Allah, and self-control. It is the ninth month in the Islamic calendar. As you read this Muslims the world over have already begun fasting as the month of Ramadan has commenced (depending on the sighting of the new moon).

‘The month of Ramadan is that in which the Qur’an was revealed as guidance for people, in it are clear signs of guidance and Criterion, therefore whoever of you who witnesses this month, it is obligatory on him to fast it. But whoever is ill or traveling let him fast the same number of other days, God desires ease for you and not hardship, and He desires that you complete the ordained period and glorify God for His guidance to you, that you may be grateful”. Holy Qur’an  (2 : 185)

Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built. The other four are: the declaration of one’s belief in Allah’s oneness and in the message of Muhammad (PBUH); regular attendance to prayer; payment of zakaat (obligatory charity); and the pilgrimage to Mecca.

As explained in an earlier article, fasting includes total abstinence from eating, drinking, smoking, refraining from obscenity, avoiding getting into arguments and including abstaining from marital relations, from sunrise to sunset. While fasting may appear to some as difficult Muslims see it as an opportunity to get closer to their Lord, a chance to develop spiritually and at the same time the act of fasting builds character, discipline and self-restraint.

Just as our cars require servicing at regular intervals, so do Muslims consider Ramadan as a month in which the body and spirit undergoes as it were a ‘full service’. This ‘service’ includes heightened spiritual awareness both the mental and physical aspects and also the body undergoing a process of detoxification and some of the organs get to ‘rest’ through fasting.

Because of the intensive devotional activity fasting, Ramadan has a particularly high importance, derived from its very personal nature as an act of worship but there is nothing to stop anyone from privately violating Allah’s commandment of fasting if one chooses to do so by claiming to be fasting yet eating on the sly. This means that although fasting is obligatory, its observance is purely voluntary. If a person claims to be a Muslim, he is expected to fast in Ramadan.


The reward Allah gives for proper fasting is very generous. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) quotes Allah as saying: “All actions done by a human being are his own except fasting, which belongs to Me and I will reward it accordingly.” We are also told by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that the reward for proper fasting is admittance into heaven.

Fasting earns great reward when it is done in a ‘proper’ manner. This is because every Muslim is required to make his worship perfect. For example perfection of fasting can be achieved through restraint of one’s feelings and emotions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that when fasting, a person should not allow himself to be drawn into a quarrel or a slanging match. He teaches us: “On a day of fasting, let no one of you indulge in any obscenity, or enter into a slanging match. Should someone abuse or fight him, let him respond by saying: ‘I am fasting!’”

This high standard of self-restraint fits in well with fasting, which is considered as an act of self-discipline. Islam requires us to couple patience with voluntary abstention from indulgence in our physical desires. The purpose of fasting helps man to attain a high degree of sublimity, discipline and self-restraint. In other words, this standard CAN BE achieved by every Muslim who knows the purpose of fasting and strives to fulfill it.

Fasting has another special aspect. It makes all people share in the feelings of hunger and thirst. In normal circumstances, people with decent income may go from one year’s end to another without experiencing the pangs of hunger which a poor person may feel every day of his life. Such an experience helps to draw the rich one’s conscience nearer to needs of the poor. A Muslim is encouraged to be more charitable and learns to give generously for a good cause.

Fasting also has a universal or communal aspect to it. As Muslims throughout the world share in this blessed act of worship, their sense of unity is enhanced by the fact that every Muslim individual joins willingly in the fulfillment of this divine commandment. This is a unity of action and purpose, since they all fast in order to be better human beings. As a person restrains himself from the things he desires most, in the hope that he will earn Allah’s pleasure, self-discipline and sacrifice become part of his nature.

The month of Ramadan can aptly be described as a “season of worship.” Fasting is the main aspect of worship in this month, because people are more attentive to their prayers, read the Qur’an more frequently and also strive to improve on their inner and outer character. Thus, their devotion is more complete and they feel much happier in Ramadan because they feel themselves to be closer to their Creator.

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