In 2014 Dumelang Saleshando the President of the Botswana Congress Party (BCP) and former Member of Parliament for Gaborone Central tabled a motion in Parliament calling for a comprehensive land audit. As expected the ruling Botswana Government used its majority to defeat the motion. Their main argument was that government preferred to institute a Land Administrative Procedures Capacity and Systems (LAPCAS). It is worth noting that Charles Tibone the former Member of Parliament for Tati West broke ranks with his party to support the motion. The issue of the land audit featured prominently in BCP 2014 manifesto and through-out the parliamentary candidate debates across length and breadth of the country. We shall return to LAPCAS with a view to expose its shortcomings.
The main thrust of the land audit is to document land in Botswana in terms who owns the land, how it was acquired, value, tenure, and the variation between planned and use of the land. The move is triggered by worrying land patterns where some individuals own hundreds of pieces of land while others are landless. There is something that is seriously wrong for a country like Botswana which is the size of France and the State of Texas with a tiny population of 2 million to be experiencing a major land crisis. Land allocations are characterized by lack of transparency resulting in officially sanctioned corruption. This can only be attributable to mismanagement of land in Botswana. Urban, peri-urban, freehold farms and tourism places are worst affected. In urban areas citizens wait 20 years for land while a foreigner processes vast amount of land in just ten years of residence in the country.
In 1992 the magnitude of corruption scandals associated with land allocation were exposed by a Presidential Commission of Enquiry on Land Problems in Mogoditshane commonly known as the Kgabo Commission. Inappropriate, irregular as well as self-allocations were discovered by the Commission. Unfortunately the findings of the report came to nothing as the courts of law killed it on account that the Commission should have conducted its proceedings in public. This was after some of the powerful individuals who were implicated approached the courts as aggrieved persons.
More than ten years after the Kgabo Commission problems of land allocation persisted. It was for this reason that the Lesetedi Land Commission was established to investigate controversial allocation of state land in Gaborone. The Commission revealed among other things a clear collusion between senior employees of the Department of Lands and land grabbing powerful individuals. One does not have to be a rocket scientist to conclude that cash money must have exchanged hands. Like the Kgabo Commission the findings of the Lesetedi Land Commission were as good as thrown in the dust bin as unscrupulous businessmen and corrupt public servants went unpunished. It is an issue that must be revisited in the event that a new government replaces the moribund Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) in 2019. Accusations of a witch hunt must not stop the new government from taking stem measures against those implicated irrespective of their position in society. Such action may include expropriation of land acquired illegally.
If irregular land allocations can take place in a capital city like Gaborone clearly the situation must be uncontrollable in the periphery. Places like the Tuli Block, Francistown, Boteti, Nata/Gweta, Chobe, Kasane, Ngamiland, Okavango, and Kgalagadi, and Game Reserves such as Central Kgalagadi Game Reserve (CKGR) must be hard hit when it comes to irregular and self-allocation of land by powerful individuals connected to the ruling BDP. Botswana is a country that has recorded both income as a well as land inequalities with a government that has no clear solution to such challenges. As if this is not enough vast amount land remains deserted by absentee landlords yet the government of the day does not seem to know what to do about the situation.
The land audit that the BCP is advocating for seeks to comprehensively examine the problem of land management in Botswana with a view to formulate long term solutions. The problems tabulated above cannot be effectively addressed by the LAPCAS exercise. Simply put, LAPCAS is a land inventory program. A close examination of the MLH 9/15 form entitled “Land rights Claim Form” shows that the intention is far from establishing true sources of land that is being claimed by the individual. The only question being asked is the name of the claimant, name of the Land Board that allocated the land, and the location of the piece of land in terms of ward, village and district. Once collected the information is supposed to be captured in the computer for management and administrative purposes. Prior to capturing the data surveys would have been conducted and plot numbers allocated. Surprisingly the Ministry has started allocating plot numbers across the country before surveys are undertaken. It is unclear where they get the plot numbers when they don’t have survey maps. The exercise is fraudulent to say least. No long ago the Minister of Lands and Housing expressed concern over the slow pace of LAPCAS.
Based on the above narration one can safely conclude that LAPCAS serves a completely different purpose from that of the land audit as proposed by the BCP. It cannot address problems of land disparities as well as illegally or corruptly acquired land. If anything it has the potential to legitimise land obtained through irregularities. For these reasons the BCP remains resolute in advocating for the land audit.
Kesitegile Gobotswang (PhD) is the Deputy Leader, BCP
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.
Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).
This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.
In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.
Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?
Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.
POSITIVITY Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.
“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)
We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.
Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be. You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.
When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.
Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.
However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.” “Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)
COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT
Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.
It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.
Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.
Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.
The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.
It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.