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Roots of Botswana Nationalist Politics (Part 21): MK, MI6 and the pipeline

Jeff Ramsay

We left off last week with the Mpho and Motsete-Matante factions of the BPP each planning rival meetings to take place in Lobatse on the 19th of August 1962.

Within the colonial administration there was concern that serious clashes might result. This fear increased when, on the 16th of August, Jacob Lesabeer and two other pro-Mpho Francistowners reported to the police “that 7 members of the B.P.P. Youth League had threatened them that if they attended the Mpho meeting in Lobatsi on the 19th August, they would be killed and their property burned.”

The seven were taken into custody and eventually fined. Their hearing sparked off a small riot, on the 22nd of August, when police fired teargas to disperse a predominately female crowd of some 200 Matante supporters who reportedly attempted to storm the Francistown courthouse; resulting in an additional 38 arrests. In response the police implemented a security operation of surveillance and contingency controls at Lobatse, codenamed "Weekend Jaunt"; which included the deployment of the Police Mobile Unit.

The rival meetings went ahead on the 19th without serious incident. Between 9.20 am and 1.45 pm. eighty pro-Mpho “delegates” and fluctuating number of additional supporters crowded into the local beer hall to elect a new President (Mpho), National Executive (with Mpho's brother-in-law Jitiro Macheng as Secretary-General), and branch leaders. The resulting organization continued to call itself the BPP until 1964, when it reconstituted itself as the Botswana Independence Party.

Among those whose attendance attracted official attention was another Mpho in-law, the Wayeyi separatist Chombo Saundo, whose 1961 civil disobedience campaign against the Batawana Tribal Administration had been crushed by the British. The gathering, nonetheless, reaffirmed itself as: “The leadership that shall not help the Imperialists and Colonialists to continue to divide the already divided Africa.”

Across town there was a larger gathering of Matante-Motsete supporters at the Freedom Square. This meeting was ostensibly held to canvass opinion against the Protectorate's “so-called Land Tenure System”, in preparation for Matante's scheduled September 10th 1962 appearance before the United Nations Committee on Colonialism. It also served as a show of strength and an opportunity to introduce Maruping and other newly appointed National Executive members to the branches.

Beyond any general appreciation of the day's tranquillity, the British were relieved that their worst fears about an open ANC presence had failed to materialize. At the highest level of the Bechuanaland Protectorate administration concern that Mpho's group might become too closely identified with the ANC was connected with a fear of exposing the "pipeline".

The "pipeline" was a covert operation that informally linked agents of the British Special Intelligence Service (MI6) and elements of the ANC, including the embryonic Umkonto we Sizwe (MK), in order to fly politically sensitive refugees out of the Protectorate to Tanganyika. The need for such an arrangement had become apparent in March-April 1960 when delays in arranging the passage of Oliver Tambo among others had risked South African intervention.

Within the Protectorate, covert British involvement in the "pipeline" was under the personal control of the Resident Commissioner, Peter Fawcus. With much of the Protectorate Administration, including the police Special Branch, considered to be suspect on matters involving political refugees, only a handful of subordinates were trusted by Fawcus to facilitate their movement. These included the then Lobatse Police inspector John Sheppard, Kasane D.C. Brian Egner and Francistown D.C. Phil Steenkamp.

Another key figure was a private pilot named Herbert “Bertie” Bartuane.  In overt partnership with leading Lobatse meat tycoon Cyril Hurwitz and allegedly covert partnership with MI6, Bartuane operated two Cessna planes out of Lobatse as Bechuanaland Safaris Airways.

From the MK side the designated point man for the pipeline was Fish Keitseng (who kept the full extent of his ANC activities secrete from his BPP colleagues).

ʉ۬Having hosted Oliver Tambo in 1960, Seretse Khama was also kept in the loop, with occasional secret meetings at Serowe with senior ANC figures, including Nelson Mandela.

ʉ۬By 1962 the pipeline was working in both directions allowing the MK commander, Mandela, to become the "black pimpernel" by slipping in and out of South Africa via Botswana as David Motsamayi. Mandela last landed in the Protectorate, at Kanye, on July 23, 1962.

Two weeks later he was arrested at a Natal roadblock, the beginning of his long imprisonment. Within days of his capture the British were being challenged by the South African Police (S.A.P.) about his passage through the territory and contact with Seretse. An August 15th minute notes:

"I cannot help forming the opinion that the S.A.P. are aware of the fact that Mandela returned to the Republic via the B.P.", while an August 28th entry, following a SB conversation with an SAP sergeant, adds that "It was as a result of information from contacts in Serowe, so he said, that they were eventually able to arrest Mandela."

The British considered the latter statement to be deliberate disinformation, but decided that elements of the "pipeline" were now under jeopardy and needed to be closed down. Egner and Sheppard were thus hurriedly transferred out of the Protectorate to prevent their potential kidnapping.

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The Daring Dozen at Bari

8th December 2020

Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.

The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.

Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.

At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.

Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.

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A Strong Marriage Bond Needs Two

8th December 2020

Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).

This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.

In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.

Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?

Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.

Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.

“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)

We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”


Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.

Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be.  You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”


Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.

When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.


Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.

However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.”
“Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)


Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.

It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.

Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.

Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.

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Chronic Joblessness: How to Help Curtail it

30th November 2020
Motswana woman

The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.

It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.

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