This week we continue to look at emerging local challenges to the colonial status quo, having previously concluded that underlying the ethnic ferment in Ngamiland during the reformist regency of Pulane Moremi (1947-64) was the recent collapse of bolata, which up until the 1940s had incorporated substantial numbers of Wayeyi, as well as Khoe (Basarwa) in the region.
In this context Ngamiland's small educated elite became politically split along communal lines with Batawana reformers like Pulane's secretary Tsheko Tsheko ultimately becoming the nucleus of the BDP, while the future founder of the BPP and Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Mpho, supported the cause of the Ovaherero, as well as his fellow Wayeyi.
Mpho's own impact within the area before independence was, however, limited by the fact that between 1948 and 1960 he was based in South Africa, gaining both experience and well earned respect as the chairman of the ANC's Roodeport branch, while he spent most of the early 1960s trying to build up a national following from Palapye.
In Kweneng Kgosi Kgari's post Second World War attempts to consolidate royal autocracy were at various times challenged by ex-servicemen, persecuted independent church followers, ethnic sub-groups and educated progressives. Leadership among the later ultimately fell to two junior royal relatives, Patrick Kgosidintsi and Englishman Kgabo, who in 1962 became the rival leaders of the BPP and BDP in Kweneng. In this competition while the BPP was supported by ANC and labour militants, such as Ben Kenosi and Victor Busang, as well as some of the old BagaSebele, the majority of the local notables, including such older progressives of the pre-war generation as Marthinus Seboni, James Mhiko and Sankoloba Matlabaphiri, drifted into the Domkrag camp. Of the 64 elected and appointed members of the 1961 Bakwena Tribal Council, by 1965 43 were associated with the BDP with only 4 for the BPP.
By the time of Kgari's 1962 death the political parties had already gained the initiative. Thereafter the unsatisfactory resolution of the succession dispute between Sebele II's eldest son, Moruakgomo, and his cousin Bonewamang Padi, in which a colonial Judge naively imposed the illegitimate and incompetent Neale Sechele as a compromise candidate, at least temporarily reduced the political relevance of bogosi.
In western Kweneng Bakgalagari grievances during the 1950s became associated with the persecution of the independent Pentecostal movement of Tumelo Puleng, as well as the occasional protests of such figures as Eyes Rekoeng and the Babaloogwe Kgosi Gaoonwe Seloilwe.
In the settler dominated freehold concession areas of the northeast and southeast, as well as the sparsely inhabited Crownlands of Ghanzi, Chobe, and Kgalagadi, there were no colonially recognized chiefs, only sub-chiefs and headmen. Royal autocracy was thus not a significant issue. Instead political agitation focused on white settler domination and discrimination, black landlessness, and inter-communal competition over scarce resources.
In Ghanzi the opening of the cattle trek route to the Lobatse abattoir increased economic and political competition between rival white, mostly Afrikaner, and black, predominately Ovaherero, Bakgalagari and Nama, pastoralists. Khoisan speakers, predominately Naro and Gwi-Khoe, who made up approximately half of the district's population, remained a marginalized underclass.
Notwithstanding its relatively modest population the Chobe sub-district had its own political culture revolving around competition between and among the Vekuhane (Basubiya), Batawana and Shua-Khoe communities, attempts to organize local timber company workers, and resentment at the discriminatory shadow of the Rhodesias. The latter was accompanied by official concern about the presence of alleged Northern Rhodesia African National Congress activists.
The northeast and southeast, including the growing towns of Francistown and Lobatse, in many ways resembled microcosms of the bordering settler states. After the Second World War low African wages reinforced by a rigorous colour bar, gave rise to organized labour activity.
The territory's first trade union, the Francistown African (later Bechuanaland Protectorate) Workers Union (BPWU) was founded in 1949. Subsequently revived by Raditladi in the mid-fifties, with branches in Serowe led by L. Seretse and Lobatse by Victor Busang, the BPWU remained more of a talking shop than a true workers movement. Busang, however, managed to organize boycotts of racist business establishments.
Joshua Nkomo's Rhodesia Railway Workers Union, was also active in the Protectorate. Its organizers included future BPP stalwarts Knight Maripe and Kenneth Nkwa, both of whom were then based in Bulawayo.
In 1954 Raditladi also presided over the Francistown African Cultural Organization as a forum for educated township dwellers. In 1959 this grouping was superseded by the more openly politicised Tatitown Cultural Organization, one of whose leading lights was a store manager, ex-serviceman and sometime Pentecostal preacher named Philip Matante.
Having migrated to Johannesburg after the war, Matante had played at most a minor role in ANC activities prior to his 1957 return to the Protectorate. He had thus already left South Africa before the 1959 formation of the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), with which he was often subsequently identified. Before becoming the BPP's most charismatic public speaker, he had also honed his oratory skills as an independent preacher; struggling in vain between February and October 1960 to have his “St. Phillip's Apostolic Church” sanctioned in Gammangwato.
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.
Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).
This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.
In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.
Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?
Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.
POSITIVITY Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.
“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)
We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.
Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be. You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.
When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.
Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.
However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.” “Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)
COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT
Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.
It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.
Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.
Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.
The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.
It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.