‘Verily Satan is an avowed enemy to you; so treat him as an enemy. He only invites his adherents that they may become companions of the blazing fire.’ (Quran 35: 6)
In virtually every religion there is the belief, the basis and the concept of good and evil; what is good is Godly and Heavenly; what is evil belongs to Satan and leads one onto the path to Hell.
Evil began many eons ago, in Islam the Quran says of the time when Allah created Adam and commanded the Angels to prostrate themselves before him, they all did except Iblis (Satan): ‘It is We who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels bow down to Adam, and they bowed down; not so Iblis (Satan); he refused to be of those who bowed down. Allah said: what prevented you from bowing down when I commanded you? He said: I am better than he, You created me from fire and him from clay’ (Quran 7: 11-12)
Following this misguided pride, Iblis (Satan) was cursed. Satan’s response was to ask Allah for reprieve till the day of resurrection. He appealed to Allah to give him a chance to mislead those who will follow in his (Satan’s) path: ‘Give me respite till the day they are raised up,…..lo! I will lie in wait for them on Your Straight Way: I will assault them from before them and from behind them’ (Quran 7:16-17).
Thereafter Satan tempted Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The Quran relates that Adam and Even were given freedom to enjoy the good things in the Garden, except forbidden to eat of a certain tree. It is at this point that Satan whispered suggestions to them that; ‘Your Lord forbade you to eat from this tree, lest you should become Angels or such beings as live forever’. (Quran 7:20). Having succumbed to the evil temptations of Satan, they broke God’s command, thus Adam and Eve were banished to this earth.
Therefore it is clear from Satan’s promise that he sets his trap for us and assails us from every angle to divert us from the path of righteousness by leading us astray, and those who follow his ‘whisperings’ are doomed. Most of us are aware of the menace of Satan that is ceaselessly trying to derail us from the path of righteousness, thus we should be ever watchful and take steps to protect ourselves from being deceived by him.
But whilst we do so, there is unfortunately the other enemy we should guard against, that enemy is within ourselves. If we are not aware of this evil side of our soul we can become a slave to our passions. This is the big challenge and struggle for us because it is from within the mind, soul, emotion, and wishes that instigates us with many of these evil thoughts. We entertain many vain passions and desires of this world so much so that some of us are completely seduced getting carried away and provoked in spending our lives chasing those dreams.
‘The Evil one threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly. Allah promises you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah cares for all and He knows all things’. (Quran 2: 268)
For example, there is nothing wrong in working towards improving our living standards or working towards making our lives more comfortable by improving our financial status and thereby securing our future – However this seduction should not become an obsession.
In the process of improving our worldly life many people dream of a posh home, a fancy car, the latest mobile apparatus, the fanciest television, wearing the best designer clothes and living a lavish lifestyle, but in pursuit of these desires we can become so obsessed that we can do anything to obtain them. Some of us will be willing to ‘break the bank’ as it were. ‘Men’s souls are swayed by greed…. But if you do good and practice self-restraint, Allah is well acquainted with all that you do’. (Quran 4:128)
Most of those earthly dreams and desires can only be satisfied by having more money, this unfortunately can become a driving force in amassing more money and wealth in order to gain a ‘higher’ status in life; we start throwing out self-restraint and that is when insatiable greed can set in. Unless we check ourselves it can become an obsession and this can lead to us onto the road of cheating, lying, deception and doing all sorts of other illegal things including stealing to achieve those dreams.
Once we reach a certain status level we can start breeding the elements and attitudes of selfishness, jealousy, arrogance and evil within the realm of that greed – usually it then becomes a game of arrogance. But once arrogance sets in, apart from chasing the glitter of this world we easily get side-lined and involved in many activities that are in direct conflict with our religious beliefs and dictates.
We can become pompous and begin to show off our new found status of having gone up the ladder. We begin to feel that we are above others and walk around on a cloud of superiority thinking that we are the special ones because of our status, hence worthy of broad respect. We tend to forget that respect is earned and is not a given.
‘You all know that the life of this world is but play and amusement, pomp and mutual boasting and multiplying in rivalry among yourselves, riches and children……but what is the life of this world but goods and chattels of deception?’ (Quran 57: 20)
This is the time for us to step back and ponder on the two sides of our souls; the good and the evil. We are not born evil it is only when we allow our evil side to overcome the good that we fall into the downward spiral of evil. Almighty Allah reminds us in the Quran: By the soul and Him who perfected it in proportion and inspired it to understand what is right and wrong for it. Truly he succeeds that purifies it. And he that fails that corrupts it’. (Quran 91: 7-10).
Believers should always be aware of the machinations of Satan, and should therefore train their minds to resist the evil and the corrupt onslaught of our avowed enemy. We should remember and turn to our Lord in prayer: ‘Verily, those who are pious, when an evil thought comes to them from Satan, they remember Allah, and indeed they then see aright’. (Quran 7: 201).
Intelligence and Security Service Act, which is a law that establishes the Directorate of Intelligence and Security Service (DIS), provides for establishment of a Parliamentary Committee. Recently, the President announced nine names of Members of Parliament he had appointed to the Committee.
This announcement was preceded by a meeting the President held with the Speaker and the Leader of Opposition. Following the announcement of Committee MPs by the President, the opposition, through its leader, made it clear that it will not participate in the Committee unless certain conditions that would ensure effective oversight are met. The opposition acted on the non-participation threat through resignation of its three MPs from the Committee.
The Act at Section 38 provides for the establishment of the Committee to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Directorate. The law provides that the Parliamentary Committee shall have the same powers and privileges set out under the National Assembly (Powers and Privileges) Act.
On composition, the Committee shall consist of nine members who shall not be members of Cabinet and its quorum shall be five members. The MPs in the Committee elect a chairperson from among their number at their first meeting.
The Members of the Committee are appointed by the President after consultation with the Speaker of the National Assembly and Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly. It is the provision of the law that the Committee, relative to its size, reflect the numerical strengths of the political parties represented in the National Assembly.
The Act provides that that a member of the Committee holds office for the duration of the Parliament in which he or she is appointed. The Committee is mandated to make an annual report on the discharge of their functions to the President and may at any time report to him or her on any matter relating to the discharge of those functions.
The Minister responsible for intelligence and security is obliged to lay before the National Assembly a copy of each annual report made by the Committee together with a statement as to whether any matter has been excluded from that copy in pursuance of the provision of the Act.
If it appears to the Minister, after consultation with the Parliamentary Committee, that the publication of any matter in a report would be prejudicial to the continued discharge of the functions of the Directorate, the Minister may exclude that matter from the copy of the report as laid before the National Assembly.
So, what are the specific demands of the Opposition and why are they not participating in the Committee? What should happen as a way forward? The Opposition demanded that there be a forensic audit of the Directorate. The DIS has never been audited since it was set up in 2008, more than a decade ago.
The institution has been a law unto itself for a longtime, feared by all oversight bodies. The Auditor General, who had no security of tenure, could not audit the DIS. The Directorate’s personnel, especially at a high level, have been implicated in corruption. Some of its operatives are in courts of law defending corruption charges preferred against them. Some of the corruption cases which appeared in the media have not made it to the courts.
The DIS has been accused of non-accountability and unethical practices as well as of being a burden on the fiscus. So, the Opposition demanded, from the President, a forensic audit for the purpose of cleaning up the DIS. They demand a start from a clean slate.
The second demand by the Opposition is that the law be reviewed to ensure greater accountability of the DIS to Parliament. What are some of the issues that the opposition think should be reviewed? The contention is that the executive cannot appoint a Committee of Parliament to scrutinize an executive institution.
Already, it is argued, Parliament is less independent and it is dominated by the executive. It is contended that the Committee should be established by the Standing Orders and be appointed by a Select Committee of Parliament. There is also an argument that the Committee should report to Parliament and not to the President and that the Minister should not have any role in the Committee.
Democratic and Parliamentary oversight of the intelligence is relatively a new phenomenon across the World. Even developed democracies are still grappling with some of these issues. However, there are acceptable standards or what might be called international best practices which have evolved over the past two or so decades.
In the UK for instance, MPs of the Intelligence and Security Committee are appointed by the Houses of Parliament, having been nominated by the Prime Minister in consultation with the Leader of the Opposition. This is a good balancing exercise of involvement of both the executive and the legislature. Consultation is taken for granted in Botswana context in the sense that it has been reduced to just informing the Leader of Opposition without much regard to his or her ideas; they are never taken seriously.
Furthermore, the current Committee in the UK has four Members of the ruling party and five MPs from the opposition. It is a fairly balanced Committee in terms of Parliamentary representation. However, as said above, the President of Botswana appointed six ruling party MPs and three from the opposition.
The imbalance is preposterous and more pronounced with clear intentions of getting the executive way through the ruling party representatives in the Committee. The intention to avoid scrutiny is clear from the numbers of the ruling party MPs in the Committee.
There is also an international standard of removing sensitive parts which may harm national security from the report before it is tabled in the legislature. The previous and current reluctance of the executive arms to open up on Defence and Security matters emanate from this very reason of preserving and protecting national security.
But national security should be balanced with public interest and other democratic principles. The decision to expunge certain information which may be prejudicial to national security should not be an arbitrary and exclusive decision of the executive but a collective decision of a well fairly balanced Committee in consultation with the Speaker and the minister responsible.
There is no doubt that the DIS has been a rogue institution. The reluctance by the President to commit to democratic-parliamentary oversight reforms presupposes a lack of commitment to democratization. The President has no interest in seeing a reformed DIS with effective oversight of the agency.
He is insincere. This is because the President loathes the idea losing an iota of power and sharing it with any other democratic institution. He sees the agency as his power lever to sustain his stay in the high office. He thought he could sanitize himself with an ineffective DIS Committee that would dance to his tune.
The non-participation of the opposition MPs renders the Committee dysfunctional; it cannot function as this would be unlawful. Participation of the opposition is a legal requirement. Even if it can meet, it would lack legitimacy; it cannot be taken seriously. The President should therefore act on the oversight demands and reform the DIS if he is to be taken seriously.
For years I have trained people about paradigm shifts – those light-bulb-switch-on moments – where there is a seismic change from the usual way of thinking about something to a newer, better way.
I like to refer to them as ‘aha’ moments because of the sudden understanding of something which was previously incomprehensible. However, the topic of today’s article is the complete antithesis of ‘aha’. Though I’d love to tell you I’d had a ‘eureka ‘, ‘problem solved’ moment, I am faced with the complete opposite – an ‘oh-no’ moment or Lost Leader Syndrome.
No matter how well prepared or capable a leader is. they often find themselves facing perplexing events, confounding information, or puzzling situations. Confused by developments of which they can’t make sense and by challenges that they don’t know how to solve they become confused, sometimes lost and completely clueless about what to do.
I am told by Jentz and Murphy (JM) in ‘What leaders do when they don’t know what to do’ that this is normal, and that rapid change is making confusion a defining feature of management in the 21st century. Now doesn’t that sound like the story of 2020 summed up in a single sentence?
The basic premise of their writing is that “confusion is not a weakness to be ashamed of but a regular and inevitable condition of leadership. By learning to embrace their confusion, managers are able to set in motion a constructive process for addressing baffling issues.
In fact, confusion turns out to be a fruitful environment in which the best managers thrive by using the instability around them to open up better lines of communication, test their old assumptions and values against changing realities, and develop more creative approaches to problem solving.”
The problem with this ideology however is that it doesn’t help my overwhelming feelings of fear and panic which is exacerbated by a tape playing on a loop in my head saying ‘you’re supposed to know what to do, do something’. My angst is compounded by annoying motivational phrases also unhelpfully playing in my head like.
Nothing happens until something moves
The secret of getting ahead is getting started
Act or be acted upon
All these platitudes are urging me to pull something out of the bag, but I know that this is a trap. This need to forge ahead is nothing but a coping mechanism and disguise. Instead of owning the fact that I haven’t got a foggy about what to do, part of me worries that I’ll lose authority if I acknowledge that I can’t provide direction – I’m supposed to know the answers, I’m the MD! This feeling of not being in control is common for managers in ‘oh no’ situations and as a result they often start reflexively and unilaterally attempting to impose quick fixes to restore equilibrium because, lets be honest, sometimes we find it hard to resist hiding our confusion.
To admit that I am lost in an “Oh, No!” moment opens the door not only to the fear of losing authority but also to a plethora of other troubling emotions and thoughts: *Shame and loss of face: “You’ll look like a fool!” * Panic and loss of control: “You’ve let this get out of hand!” * Incompetence and incapacitation: “You don’t know what you’re doing!”
As if by saying “I’m at a loss here” is tantamount to declaring “I am not fit to lead.” Of course the real problem for me and any other leader is if they don’t admit when they are disoriented, it sends a signal to others in the organisation stating it’s not cool to be lost and that, by its very nature encourages them to hide. What’s the saying about ‘a real man never asks for direction. ..so they end up driving around in circles’.
As managers we need to embrace the confusion, show vulnerability (remember that’s not a bad word) and accept that leadership is not about pretending to have all the answers but about having the courage to search with others to discover a solution.
JM point out that “being confused, however, does not mean being incapacitated. Indeed, one of the most liberating truths of leadership is that confusion is not quicksand from which to escape but rather the potter’s clay of leadership – the very stuff with which managers can work.”
2020 has certainly been a year to remember and all indications are that the confusion which has characterised this year will still follow us into the New Year, thereby making confusion a defining characteristic of the new normal and how managers need to manage. Our competence as leaders will then surely be measured not only by ‘what I know’ but increasingly by ‘how I behave when I accept, I don’t know, lose my sense of direction and become confused.
.I guess the message for all organizational cultures going forward is that sticking with the belief that we need all-knowing, omni-competent executives will cost them dearly and send a message to managers that it is better to hide their confusion than to address it openly and constructively.
Take comfort in these wise words ‘Confusion is a word we have invented for an order not yet understood’!