Verwoerd’s Offer Last week we closed with the observation that, due to the constant threat of incorporation into the Union of South Africa and/or the settler colony of Southern Rhodesia, for many decades during the colonial occupation nationalist minded Batswana were ironically often stronger advocates of imperial control than the imperialists themselves. The restoration of local sovereignty thus only became a viable option after the immediate threat of incorporation had receded.
There is no agreed moment from which to date the failure of South Africa's desire to politically incorporate the three High Commission Territories, modern Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. A final turning point arguably occurred at the end of 1963 in what the then Bechuanaland Resident Commissioner Sir Peter Fawcus, would later describe as “a last desperate effort to take over the High Commission Territories.”
In September 1963 the South African Prime Minister, Dr. Hedrick Verwoerd, made a lengthy speech in which he offered to facilitate the independence of each of the territories in the context of his broader vision of regional “separate development”. The apartheid regime would thus "become the guardian, the protector or helper of these adjacent Territories, instead of the United Kingdom." Verwoerd statement further argued:
“It is common knowledge that these territories are economically linked to, and dependent upon South Africa. Great Britain might guide them to political freedom but she is almost powerless to regulate the ultimate economic situation or to achieve economic viability of these areas for their people.
“If South Africa were to become the guardian of these territories, we could lead them to independence and economic prosperity far more quickly and efficiently than Britain. That would be our aim in accordance with our policy of separate development.
“Suppose these territories were South Africa’s responsibility and not the United Kingdom’s? Firstly we would aim at making them democratic states with natural native democracy. Secondly we would steer away from multi-racialism. Thirdly we would repurchase or exchange areas wrongly occupied in order to include them into white areas or black where the people belong. Fourthly we would be prepared to extend our border industries policy.”
The seriousness of Verwoerd’s initiative was underscored by Pretoria’s publication of his statement as a Department of Information “Fact Paper” entitled: “The Road to Freedom for Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland.”
Shortly thereafter, at the November 1963 sitting of the Legislative Council in Lobatse, Verwoerd’s offer was earnestly if naively championed by Tuli Block member Hendrik van Gass, who motioned that the South African leader be invited to personally present his case before the body.
The other members of the Council firmly rejected the motion. Leetile Raditladi set the tone for the debate by observing that:
“We believe in sharing the air together, enjoying peace in our country together, in striving to build the Bechuanaland nation together irrespective of colour or race…Apartheid and multi-racialism can never go together. We are preparing ourselves for self-government and independence.”
The Council’s other white members, along with the dikgosi were also dismissive. Kgosi Bathoen II curtly stated that he was unwillingly to even think about the proposal, while George Sim underscored Van Gass’s isolation by affirming that they did not want South African ideas replacing what Great Britain has already imparted, adding:
“I am proud of being born a South African but I am ashamed of the way she is going today.”
The opposition of Sim, along with such colleagues as Russell England and George Haskins, pulled the rug out from some of the other landowners within the “white” farming blocks of Ghanzi, Tati, the Tuli Strip and Lobatse, who at the time were scheming to have their areas transferred to bordering South African or Rhodesian administration. In the end Van Gass was prevailed upon by his colleagues to completely withdraw his motion.
It was Ketumile Masire, however, who most clearly articulated the long term danger of Verwoerd’s proposal as an opening gambit in a strategy to subtly manipulate rather than block Botswana’s path to independence:
“The so-called Dr. Verwoerd offer is in fact Dr. Verwoerd’s threat. Once we throw in our lot with the Republic of South Africa we shall become a South African ‘domestic issue’ and our affairs will be handled by South Africa without fear of influence from without.”
In a subsequent 5th of June 1964 statement Verwoerd confirmed that his government no longer wished to politically incorporate the High Commission Territories. Instead he advocated for the expansion of SACU into a regional “Commonwealth” of states that would ultimately include such envisaged Homelands (Bantustans) as Transkei and Kwazulu. This concept would endure into the 1980s, as reflected in P.W. Botha’s later rhetoric of a “Constellation” of Southern African states.
On hindsight, Verwoerd’s offer seems less like his regime’s “last desperate effort to take over the High Commission Territories” (to return to Sir Peter Fawcus’s characterisation), than an opening salvo in what would evolve into a sustained struggle over the quality of Botswana’s sovereignty in the shadow of apartheid. In this context the political independence of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland had by the early 1960s become something of a two edged sword in the eyes of the authorities in Pretoria, opening the door to potential opportunities as well as threats.
Seventy-seven years ago, on the evening of December 2, 1943, the Germans launched a surprise air raid on allied shipping in the Italian port of Bari, which was then the key supply centre for the British 8th army’s advance in Italy.
The attack was spearheaded by 105 Junkers JU88 bombers under the overall command of the infamous Air Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (who had initially achieved international notoriety during the Spanish Civil War for his aerial bombardment of Guernica). In a little over an hour the German aircraft succeeded in sinking 28 transport and cargo ships, while further inflicting massive damage to the harbour’s facilities, resulting in the port being effectively put out of action for two months.
Over two thousand ground personnel were killed during the raid, with the release of a secret supply of mustard gas aboard one of the destroyed ships contributing to the death toll, as well as subsequent military and civilian casualties. The extent of the later is a controversy due to the fact that the American and British governments subsequently covered up the presence of the gas for decades.
At least five Batswana were killed and seven critically wounded during the raid, with one of the wounded being miraculously rescued floating unconscious out to sea with a head wound. He had been given up for dead when he returned to his unit fourteen days later. The fatalities and casualties all occurred when the enemy hit an ammunition ship adjacent to where 24 Batswana members of the African Pioneer Corps (APC) 1979 Smoke Company where posted.
Thereafter, the dozen surviving members of the unit distinguished themselves for their efficiency in putting up and maintaining smokescreens in their sector, which was credited with saving additional shipping. For his personal heroism in rallying his men following the initial explosions Company Corporal Chitu Bakombi was awarded the British Empire Medal, while his superior officer, Lieutenant N.F. Moor was later given an M.B.E.
Remember: bricks and cement are used to build a house, but mutual love, respect and companionship are used to build a HOME. And amongst His signs is this: He creates for you mates out of your own kind, so that you may find contentment (Sukoon) with them, and He engenders love and tenderness between you; in this behold, there are signs (messages) indeed for people who reflect and think (Quran 30:21).
This verse talks about contentment; this implies companionship, of their being together, sharing together, supporting one another and creating a home of peace. This verse also talks about love between them; this love is both physical and emotional. For love to exist it must be built on the foundation of a mutually supportive relationship guided by respect and tenderness. As the Quran says; ‘they are like garments for you, and you are garments for them (Quran 2:187)’. That means spouses should provide each other with comfort, intimacy and protection just as clothing protects, warms and dignifies the body.
In Islam marriage is considered an ‘ibaadah’, (an act of pleasing Allah) because it is about a commitment made to each other, that is built on mutual love, interdependence, integrity, trust, respect, companionship and harmony towards each other. It is about building of a home on an Islamic foundation in which peace and tranquillity reigns wherein your offspring are raised in an atmosphere conducive to a moral and upright upbringing so that when we all stand before Him (Allah) on that Promised Day, He will be pleased with them all.
Most marriages start out with great hopes and rosy dreams; spouses are truly committed to making their marriages work. However, as the pressures of life mount, many marriages change over time and it is quite common for some of them to run into problems and start to flounder as the reality of living with a spouse that does not meet with one’s pre-conceived ‘expectations’. However, with hard work and dedication, couples can keep their marriages strong and enjoyable. How is it done? What does it take to create a long-lasting, satisfying marriage?
Below are some of the points that have been taken from a marriage guidance article I read recently and adapted for this purposes.
POSITIVITY Spouses should have far more positive than negative interactions. If there is too much negativity — criticizing, demanding, name-calling, holding grudges, etc. — the relationship will suffer. However, if there is never any negativity, it probably means that frustrations and grievances are not getting ‘air time’ and unresolved tension is accumulating inside one or both partners waiting to ‘explode’ one day.
“Let not some men among you laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor let some women laugh at others: it may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames.” (49:11)
We all have our individual faults though we may not see them nor want to admit to them but we will easily identify them in others. The key is balance between the two extremes and being supportive of one another. To foster positivity in a marriage that help make them stable and happy, being affectionate, truly listening to each other, taking joy in each other’s achievements and being playful are just a few examples of positive interactions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”
Another characteristic of happy marriages is empathy; understanding your spouses’ perspective by putting oneself in his or her shoes. By showing that understanding and identifying with your spouse is important for relationship satisfaction. Spouses are more likely to feel good about their marriage and if their partner expresses empathy towards them. Husbands and wives are more content in their relationships when they feel that their partners understand their thoughts and feelings.
Successful married couples grow with each other; it simply isn’t wise to put any person in charge of your happiness. You must be happy with yourself before anyone else can be. You are responsible for your actions, your attitudes and your happiness. Your spouse just enhances those things in your life. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers.”
Successful marriages involve both spouses’ commitment to the relationship. The married couple should learn the art of compromise and this usually takes years. The largest parts of compromise are openness to the other’s point of view and good communication when differences arise.
When two people are truly dedicated to making their marriage work, despite the unavoidable challenges and obstacles that come, they are much more likely to have a relationship that lasts. Husbands and wives who only focus on themselves and their own desires are not as likely to find joy and satisfaction in their relationships.
Another basic need in a relationship is each partner wants to feel valued and respected. When people feel that their spouses truly accept them for who they are, they are usually more secure and confident in their relationships. Often, there is conflict in marriage because partners cannot accept the individual preferences of their spouses and try to demand change from one another. When one person tries to force change from another, he or she is usually met with resistance.
However, change is much more likely to occur when spouses respect differences and accept each other unconditionally. Basic acceptance is vital to a happy marriage. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “It is the generous (in character) who is good to women, and it is the wicked who insults them.” “Overlook (any human faults) with gracious forgiveness.” (Quran 15:85)
COMPASSION, MUTUAL LOVE AND RESPECT
Other important components of successful marriages are love, compassion and respect for each other. The fact is, as time passes and life becomes increasingly complicated, the marriage is often stressed and suffers as a result. A happy and successful marriage is based on equality. When one or the other dominates strongly, intimacy is replaced by fear of displeasing.
It is all too easy for spouses to lose touch with each other and neglect the love and romance that once came so easily. It is vital that husbands and wives continue to cultivate love and respect for each other throughout their lives. If they do, it is highly likely that their relationships will remain happy and satisfying. Move beyond the fantasy and unrealistic expectations and realize that marriage is about making a conscious choice to love and care for your spouse-even when you do not feel like it.
Seldom can one love someone for whom we have no respect. This also means that we have to learn to overlook and forgive the mistakes of one’s partner. In other words write the good about your partner in stone and the bad in dust, so that when the wind comes it blows away the bad and only the good remains.
Paramount of all, marriage must be based on the teachings of the Noble Qur’an and the teachings and guidance of our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). To grow spiritually in your marriage requires that you learn to be less selfish and more loving, even during times of conflict. A marriage needs love, support, tolerance, honesty, respect, humility, realistic expectations and a sense of humour to be successful.
The past week or two has been a mixed grill of briefs in so far as the national employment picture is concerned. BDC just injected a further P64 million in Kromberg & Schubert, the automotive cable manufacturer and exporter, to help keep it afloat in the face of the COVID-19-engendered global economic apocalypse. The financial lifeline, which follows an earlier P36 million way back in 2017, hopefully guarantees the jobs of 2500, maybe for another year or two.
It was also reported that a bulb manufacturing company, which is two years old and is youth-led, is making waves in Selibe Phikwe. Called Bulb Word, it is the only bulb manufacturing operation in Botswana and employs 60 people. The figure is not insignificant in a town that had 5000 jobs offloaded in one fell swoop when BCL closed shop in 2016 under seemingly contrived circumstances, so that as I write, two or three buyers have submitted bids to acquire and exhume it from its stage-managed grave.