In his gospel, Luke relates that at the conclusion of Jesus’s Bar Mitzvah ceremony, Joseph and his family headed back to “Nazareth” in “Galilee”. To the superficial reader, that is “obvious” enough: it was the village of Nazareth in the province of Galilee. It wasn’t. Anybody who settles for the surface meaning of gospel narratives and takes that as the ultimate truth will never have the slightest smattering about the historical Jesus. The real Jesus story has to be deciphered using the pesher instrument.
Logic itself makes nonsense of the Holy family’s return to Galilee. Remember, the reason they sought refuge in Galilee was to escape the machinations of Herod Archelaus. Now that Archelaus was no longer in power, there was utterly no need for Joseph to beat a path back to Galilee. Furthermore, we have already underscored the fact that the village of Nazareth did not exist during gospel times.
Nazareth, according to the pesher – the underlying story encoded in the surface narrative as per deliberate design on the part of the Essenes – referred to any of those settlements in the Judean wilderness that were inhabited by Nazarites. Nazarites were Essenes who had taken a vow of special consecration to God and were celibates of varying periods of abstinence.
One such Nazareth was Mird. At this juncture, Mird was also referred to as Galilee since the Essene Bishop of Galilee was present, having arrived to celebrate the Passover feast which would soon be underway. You will be aware by now that if a certain VIP was visiting a place in the Qumran prencincts, or a particular sub–sect of the Essenes were at that point in time concentrated in that particular place, it was called after their name in their honour.
For example, Qumran was at times referred to as Egypt in that the Theraputae, whose headquarters was in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, now abounded there. Such a system of naming on the part of the Essenes was contrived: it was meant to confuse the Romans as well as the Jewish establishment in Jerusalem, particularly the Herodians.
PRINCES AND PRINCESSES OF JUDAH After siring Jesus and James, Joseph and Mary had six more children – three sons and three daughters. Their last born was a son, who was born in AD 22, the year before Joseph passed on. The order in which the children between James and the last born came is not documented. However, the Bible furnishes some hint as to the sequence in which the boys arrived and extra-biblical sources offer an idea as to the order in which the girls came.
The boys in descending order of seniority were Jesus, James, Joseph, Jude, and Simon (MARK 6:3 and MATTHEW 13:55-56). Christians claim they read the Bible everyday but if you were to ask any single one of them as to whether Jesus had siblings, almost all would recoil at the absurdity of such a suggestion. Pastors hardly ever preach about Jesus’s family: throughout my more than 30 years as a Christian, I have never heard a single sermon on the brothers of Jesus, not even on James, who was actually the spiritual “superstar” post-Calvary.
James’s given name was Cleopas. He was named after his uncle, one of Joseph’s twin brothers. As an adult, however, he was best known as James (Iah-mes in Aramaic, or Mes-iah the other way round) and as Jacob. Both names were titular. As James, he was the recognised messiah by the Palestinian Jews and the priestly family of Boethus because he was born procedurally and in the right month, September.
The Essenes and the Diaspora Jews, on the other hand, subscribed to Jesus as the true Davidic messiah. On his part, James was content to be only next in line after Jesus but the politics of the day caused him to vacillate from time to time, particularly that his mother Mary tacitly promoted him as the politically palatable messiah.
After the ostensible crucifixion of Jesus, James became the uncontested David King de facto. It was then that he assumed the name Jacob. Jacob was the title of the Davidic messiah since the time of Jesus’ grandfather Jacob-Heli. Before the crucifixion but after the death of his father, James’s other title was Joseph. Joseph was the title of the crown prince as indeed James was next in line after Jesus. It was James who succeeded Jesus as leader of the Jesus movement and not Paul or Simon Peter as Christendom wrongly believes. James is the author of the New Testament’s epistle of James. More will be said about James as the Jesus Papers progress.
When James became the Jacob after the crucifixion, his immediate younger brother accordingly became the Joseph, the name by which he was best-known. Other people abbreviated it and so addressed him as Joses (in today’s parlance we say “Joe”). His other names were Barsabbas and Justus. Following the death of Judas Iscariot, Joses made an unsuccessful tilt at replacing him among the Twelve: he was outvoted by a certain Matthias in a succession poll.
Jude is another rendering of the name Judas. Like Joses, Jude was sometimes referred to as Barsabbas, this being a titular surname of the sons of Joseph (Barsabbas means “Son of Seb”. Seb is another abbreviation of the name Joseph, the emphasis being on the “Seph” syllable). Jude is the writer of the epistle that comes just before Revelation
Simon, the lastborn, was best known as Silas, or Silvanus, in old age. It was he who replaced Barnabbas when the latter felt out with Paul. He was specially prized by Paul and the early church as he was a bold evangelist and a man of the people, very much like his elder brother Jesus. Once, he was even detained with Paul. If you thought the brothers of Jesus were peripheral to his ecumenical cause, you are in error: they were actually front and centre of the Jesus movement.
Although the three sisters of Jesus are not expressly specified as such in the gospels, they do make a kind of cameo appearance. Their names were Mary, Salome, and Joanna. All the three were present at the scene of the crucifixion according to the gospels. They are mentioned in MARK 15:47 and MATTHEW 28:1. Outside the canon, Epiphanius of Salamis (310-403 AD) mentioned them in his two works titled Panarion and Ancoratus, as well as Apostolic Constitutions, a fourth century book by one of the church fathers. Two apocryphal works, the Gospel of Phillip and the Protoevangelion of James, also makes mention of the sisters of Jesus by name.
According to a Dead Sea Scroll named the Damascus Document, the brothers of Jesus were collectively referred to as the Princes of Judah among the Essene community.
JESUS LEARNS ART OF SANGOMA! It has been said Jesus was not educated though he was strikingly sharp, wise, and knowledgeable. The truth is, Jesus underwent both formal and informal education. He did formal education at Qumran and not in a formal rabbinical school of the day.
The Essenes had a virtual continuous education process that ran practically all the way to age 30. The initial phase commenced at age 13 through age 18. It was segmented into elementary school at ages 13 and 14; middle elementary school at age 15; higher elementary school at age 16 and 17; and monastic education at age 18. The second phase began at age 24 and ended at age 27, the graduation age in respect of general academia. At age 28 commenced priestly education, which ended at age 30, when the highest grade was attained. What exactly did the Essenes teach in their exclusive academies in the Judean wilderness?
Evidently, the subjects must have included mathematics, numerology, astrology, astronomy, philosophy, gnosticism, spirituality and natural as well as spiritual healing. We know the Essenes studied the stars and the planets because the signs of the Zodiac constitute part and parcel of the Dead Sea texts.
Everything the Essenes did had to conform to mathematical propriety, ranging from the numerical equivalent of their titles to the distances between their settlements to the architecture of their Qumran temple. According to Flavius Josephus, the first century’s prima donna historian, Essenes were advocates of the famous Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras (we all know what Pythogoras Theorem is, don’t we?). The Essenes were specially interested in the mathematics which governed the order of the cosmos.
Their culture was to a large extent dominated by Pythagorean thought, the influence by and large of the Magi of West Manasseh and the Egyptian Theraputae. Josephus also records that the Essenes were practiced in the art of healing and received their therapeutic knowledge of roots and stones from the ancients. Certainly, the term Essene, a English rendering, must refer to this expertise as the Aramaic word Assaya meant physician and corresponded to the Greek word Essenoi.
In light of the above information, we now can understand why Jesus was so intellectually arresting and why he was a renowned healer and seer. This was nothing supernatural: it was not the result of his being a God-Man. It was all a learnt endowment, acquired through a rigorous educational process which left no stone unturned – pun intended. Jesus was not only a spiritual/natural healer but was a herbalist and even threw bones! If he lived in our time, we would not only call him an itinerant preacher but a fortune teller and Sangoma rolled into one.
JESUS DEFIES JOSEPH The gospels relate an incident (LUKE 41-50) where Jesus, aged 12, was left behind at the Jerusalem Temple at the conclusion of the Passover festival and when his parents returned to fetch him, they found him engaged in an intellectual slugfest with learned old geezers.
The passage reads as follows in part: “They found him in the temple courts, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions.  Everyone who heard him was amazed at his understanding and his answers.  When his parents saw him, they were astonished. His mother said to him, ‘Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously searching for you.’  ‘Why were you searching for me?’ he asked. ‘Didn't you know I had to be in my Father's house?’  But they did not understand what he was saying to them.”
Taken on face value, the above narrative is certain to be misunderstood. It can only be correctly grasped once one has read it through the pesher lenses and is familiar with the contents of the Dead Sea Scrolls as well as the happenings in and the politics of the first century as documented by contemporary historians. Jesus was not 12 years old: he was 23 and the year was AD 17. In AD 6, when he actually turned 12, the Essenes had introduced an unofficial parallel calendar.
AD 6 was a particularly dark year for them. Firstly, the Romans had assumed direct rule of Judea. Secondly, they had lost two of their shining beacons, High Priest Zechariah and Zealot Commander Judas of Galilee. They thus designated the year AD 6 as the Year of Wrath. Furthermore, they styled it as Year 1 in the parallel calendar. According to this calendar, Jesus was 12 years old in AD 17 though he was factually 23 years old.
Jesus had turned 20 in AD 14 and was conferred Grade 10 in the Essene pecking order. According to the Essene ascetic rule, he was at this age eligible for marriage and had to choose whether to indeed marry and lead a conventional, mainstream life or adopt a celibate lifestyle under the tutelage of the Essene sages.
In AD 14, Annas was still High Priest and so Jesus was still recognised as the Davidic heir. He therefore chose a celibate life style and being a dynastic heir, it meant he would only marry at age 36. In AD 17, he turned 23 and having chosen a celibate lifestyle he become an initiate, or a Grade 7 Essene. This was the age at which the Essene acknowledged one as a “man”: prior to this, one was still a “child” or “novice”.
The first stage of the Grade 7 ceremony was a second baptism, the first one having taken place at age 21. Joseph and Mary attended Jesus’ baptism ceremony in Jerusalem, then went ahead of him for the full initiation before rightwing Essenes at Mar Saba in the Judean wilderness. Jesus, however, stayed in Jerusalem to be initated by the metropolitan Essenes at the Essene Gate. What this entailed was simply the taking of an oral examination before a panel of priests.
It was at the Essene Gate where his parents finally located him after waiting for him at Mar Saba for three days. Rather than be awestruck by the intellectual prowess with which he transfixed the “professors”, they were mystified by his defiant attitude toward them when he had been so unfailingly heedful all along.
His response upon being interrupted by his parents that “I must be in my father’s house” has also been misinterpreted and unduly spiritualised. By “father”, he alluded to the incumbent High Priest Eleazer, the son of the now former High Priest Annas. All the Annas priests used the titles “Father” and “God”, just as the Pope uses the title “Holy Father”, and all of them advocated cooperation with Rome.
Thus the statement “I must be in my father’s house” was a philosophical one: it meant Jesus felt obligated to stick by the peace-with-the-Romans ethos of Eleazer rather than proceed with Joseph to Mar Saba and be initiated by the militaristic, anti-Roman Essene faction.
At an economically tumultuous juncture of our country’s history as we presently are, where unemployment has become something of a Gordian Knot conundrum, a promisingly ameliorational pursuit known as Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is well worth exploring as a salvavic option.
One pundit defines BPO as “a subset of outsourcing that involves contracting the operations and responsibilities for a particular business process to a third-party service provider.” Examples of BPO services, which invariably do not constitute a company’s core or primary mission, include inbound and outbound call centres, live chat, bookkeeping, web development, research marketing, accounting and finance, and after-hours call answering services. BPO is driven, fundamentally, by the imperative of cost-cutting and overrides national boundaries through the employment and deployment of technologies that make human and data communications easier, thus lending credence to the concept of the global village that is today’s world.
BPO had been in existence in its primordial form since as early as the 19th century but it was not until the 1980s that its latter-day incarnation loomed larger and the term outsourcing became part of daily business parlance. Today, every continent is into BPO, including the economic Dark Horse called Africa. The Global IT-BPO Outsourcing Deals Analysis segments BPO buyer regions into three categories. These are North and South America (42 percent); Europe, Africa, and the Middle East (35 percent); and Asia and Oceania 23 percent.
In a Third World country such as Botswana, overseas-oriented BPO is key to bringing in those paramount hard currencies besides engendering a radical turnaround in the all too dingy joblessness picture. But are we up to it folks? Have we gotten aboard the bandwagon or we are virtual spectators watching nonchalantly as the BPO locomotive streaks away at breakneck speed?
JAX’S FLASH-IN-THE-PAN SUCCESS
The extent to which BPO has taken root in Botswana is not apparent. The first time I heard of it was in August 2007, when the Botswana Qualifications Authority (BQA), then going by the name Botswana Training Authority (BOTA), put it on record at a one-day IFSC-organised conference that they were in the process of developing standards for the nascent BPO industry in Botswana whilst they benchmarked with Mauritius, the UK, and South Africa. Little, if anything at all, has been heard of their progress since.
In February 2018, The Botswana Guardian reported of the newly-established Direct BPO, a fully-owned subsidiary of Mascom, which was looking to employing 400 people at the very outset. Once again, details as to how Direct BPO, whose establishment coincided with Mascom’s 20-year anniversary, has fared to date remain sketchy.
Perhaps the most spectacular case of a BPO operation in Botswana was that of Oseg, a company begun by Majakathata Pheko, affectionately known as Jax, in 2003 under the Debtsolve franchise umbrella. Oseg, which comprised of three divisions, offered customer management and financial services solutions and operated out of Gaborone and Windhoek in Namibia, where it touted MTN as its principal client. Oseg did receivable management for local financial blue chips such as Barclays Bank, FNB, Bayport, MVA, Botswana Insurance Company, Letshego, and Standard Chartered, and in due course CEDA and Mascom. It also served the Australian offshore market. Its account receivable division was the biggest in Botswana, handling over 60,000 accounts and managing a portfolio of over P400 million.
At its height, Oseg employed 150 people and had spent over P15 million on cutting edge technology and manpower training. In 2007, Oseg was nominated for Best Non-European Contact Centre at the CCF Awards held that year in Birmingham, UK, the “Oscars of the industry”.
Then in 2016, the sky seemed to have fallen. Oseg found itself saddled with an odious P4.4 million debt, with its staff resultantly trimmed to just under 50. According to media reports, Jax pointed to his own bankrollers and their partners in the alleged crime as his rather devious saboteurs. “I have evidence that powerful people in the bank and a cabal of friends both inside and outside the bank were intentionally and aggressively looking for ways to weaken Oseg, tarnish its name and diminish its value as they were in the same competing business interests, in the call centre and the factoring business,” the then youthful entrepreneur, who was only 41 at the time, bemoaned.
Jax reported the matter to NBFIRA and what came of that, not to mention the continued viability of his business, I have not been able to establish. I just hope and trust that Jax personally weathered the tempest as I have it on good authority that he is doing fairly well.
BOTSWANA MISSING OUT ON DOLLAR-DENOMINATED BILLIONS
For emerging economies, and even peripheral Third World countries, the BPO business can be something of a gold mine. According to the latest McKinsey report, the global BPO industry is valued at $163 billon and is expected to grow at $183 billion by the year 2023.
In the Philippines, BPO, which began with a call centre setup way back in 1992, accounts for 11 percent of GDP, the single biggest contributor to the nation’s economic activity. It employs 1.3 million people in over 700 outsourcing companies. One company, called Teleperformance, alone employs 47,000 people in 21 sites. In 2019, the BPO sector generated revenues of the order of $26.3 billion.
In India, the BPO sector, now 30 years old, provides direct employment to 2 million people and indirect employment to 8 million. In 2019, the BPO income overall amounted to $8.6 billon. In Mauritius, the ICT/BPO sector contributed 6 percent to GDP in 2019, representing a key driver of the Mauritian economy. The BPO sector is responsible for 53 percent of the 27,000 people employed in the ICT/BPO superstructure in 850 companies.
According to the Economic Development Board of Mauritius, leading multinationals such as Accenture, Huawei, Aspen Pharmacare and Allianz have back office operations in Mauritius. In addition, a number of international payroll companies currently use Mauritius as a service delivery centre.
Kenya is also looking to position itself as a hub for global digital BPO, notably through government promotion schemes such as Ajira. According to the ITC Authority of Kenya, the market size for online work was estimated to be $4.8 billion in 2016 and was projected to generate $15 billon by 2020. With only 7000 people employed in the BPO industry in the country, we are talking about a modest figure though it is still brisk compared to the rather lugubrious situation in Botswana. Clearly, there are billions in US dollar terms to be had in BPO and we are missing out on these big time.
MZANZI LEAVES BW IN THE DUST
Yet it is Big Brother next door from whom we have precious much to glean as he is our immediate competitor potentially in the BPO race. Remember, if our IFSC continues to flounder to date, it is largely on account of the fact that in Mzansi, we have a formidable rival right on our doorstep.
As we speak, the South African BPO sector is valued at $461 million going by the invariably authoritative McKinsey survey. It employs 270,000 people in six cities, a figure projected to more than double to 775,000 by 2030. Of the current total staff base, 65,000 serve international clients. That South Africa has made such enormous strides in the BPO arena is meritoriously earned and not simply fortuitous. It has been voted the second most attractive BPO location in the world for three years on the trot.
The South African BPO sector is tipped to grow by 3 percent per annum over the next three years, a rate which is in line with the trends in the global BPO space. There are currently over 100 local and international BPO providers operating in South Africa, with local players in the main serving large multinational customers. The industry’s key offshore business clientele is domiciled in English-speaking countries, notably the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland, with 61 percent coming from the United Kingdom, 18 percent from the United States and Canada, and 11 percent from Australia.
In June this year, the $1.5 trillion-strong Amazon announced that it would be signing up a total of 3000 South Africans to help cater to its customers in North America and Europe, which is testament to the fact that the country’s BPO market continues to make waves in the Western world. If Jeff Bizos is impressed, you can count on the likes of Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg to follow suit too sooner rather than later.
A FORGONE OPPORTUNITY TO TURBO-CHARGE THE BPO INDUSTRY IN BOTSWANA
Empowerment Africa is an organisation that boasts a business network that enables established and emerging businesses to connect, partner, and create long-term value with Africa-based projects. With reportedly 3000 esteemed contacts, it liaises with governments, major corporations, and investors to facilitate business opportunities, deliver deal flow, and provide research across its network to the Empower Africa business community.
Empowerment Africa recommends seven countries in Africa with thriving outsourcing industries. They are Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Ghana, Mauritius, and Madagascar in that order. Botswana is conspicuous by its absence and that must be ample cause for concern to our Monetary Authorities, especially given that at least on paper, we are economically better off than three to four of these countries.
In 2015, Jax approached the Ministry of Youth, Sport and Culture and propositioned a joint partnership with Oseg in unlocking BPO potential in Botswana by looking at the public sector Debt Collection and Call Centre services for government. Jax reckoned that the total market for Receivables and Revenue collections sitting in Government and Parastatal organisations at the time amounted to over P3.5 billion, equivalent to 8% of the National Budget then. If the BPO sector was to be utilised to assist in collecting this debt, over 2700 jobs would be created.
Furthermore, considering that a typical government employee spent half the time attending to inquiries from members of the public, the exercise would result in improved efficiency delivery in government departments in addition to boosting government’s liquidity position.
This is what Jax said in a 50th independence anniversary publication in 2016 on the same subject. “Our estimations are that once all the collections work is outsourced, there is a potential to collect more than P100 million every month for the Government of Botswana.
The opportunity to create more than 2700 exists, which will help to mop out unemployed graduates and upskill them. The economic impact of 2700 jobs would support more than 15,000 people in the economy and also help to create jobs in other industries that support the BPO sector, and will stimulate the whole ICT sector. Over and above that, the outsourcing would stimulate the whole IT sector and help improve Botswana’s position as an ICT and Call Centre hub.”
Once again, I am not privy to what came of this proposition, but I am persuaded that had government acceded to it, the BPO business in the country would have quantum-leaped and we would today be waltzing on the proverbial Cloud 9 in terms of revenues generated. Even the road retarder Oseg encountered with its bankers would not have been a factor at all. As significant, we would in all probability have made it on Empowerment Africa’s short list for the continent’s pre-eminent BPO addresses.
THE INSTRUMENTALITY OF GOVERNMENT IN BOOSTING BPO FORTUNES
Granted, with the advent of the still latent E-Governance, the synergic potential with the Call Centre business is stupendous. As per Jax’s pitch to those who care to hear, “The outsourcing of the E-Governance and collections will greatly improve efficiency in service delivery in the government departments. Directing traffic and enquiries to a Call Centre would empower the BPO sector in such a way that would be able to help the public from all over the country from one central point 24 hours and 7 days week.
The Call Centres would also relieve Government of the pressure to develop brick and mortar representations/offices across the country. This would help to save billions of Pula as the public will be able to access the services from the comfort of their homes and villages. The Call Centre service would bridge the urban and rural division as everyone will now be able to access Government services and receive the same service.”
The real jackpot both to government and the broader citizenry, however, resides in the offshore market. With sales cycles in the BPO business taking up to 12 months, contracts typically run from five to seven years, which is sustained lucrativeness by any measure. It is in the direction of the overseas market that much of our energy should be focused, though wary that we do not recklessly neglect the domestic market, if we are to reinvigorate the BPO industry and get meaningful returns out of it.
Developed countries are all the more keen to outsource as one way to insulate their economies against severe hurt inflicted by globalwide economic tremors. For instance, it was thanks to offshore outsourcing that Australia so ably navigated the 2008 economic crisis. That year, IBM released a BPO report showing that 80% of Australian companies were willing to outsource from offshore companies to save 50% in expenses.
Here in Botswana, I would recommend that government be in the BPO vanguard by splashing on a whole host of catalytic factors. In South Africa, for instance, the Department of Industry, Trade and Competition devoted R1.3 billion between 2007 and 2018 to bolstering the BPO industry in one way or the other and committed a further R1.2 billion in 2019 alone, gestures which no doubt underlie the solid performance of the industry.
Even when the lockdowns were in progress, the industry was accorded essential services status so that it kept the momentum going. As if not to be outdone, the South African BPO industry body, Business Process Enabling South Africa (BPESA), has commendably done its part in aiding the growth of the industry by supporting skills development, sharing best practice, and providing its members with access to other business networks and associations that drive and influence the sector’s transition into the digital economy. In Mauritius, the Prime Minister himself, and not a man of lesser stature, directly oversees the BPO sector.
For Botswana to make a mark in the BPO arena, it has to build a reputation as a reliable, cost-effective, and high-quality destination for outsourced business services, attributes all of which South Africa excels in. In addition, South African BPO players provide higher-quality services owing to strength across five key areas: availability of skills, infrastructure, risk profile, business environment, and industry size. In Botswana, we will need to nurture some of these strengths with the instrumentality of government.
With the advent of COVID-19, it is of essence that traditional BPO providers build capabilities to enable rapid deployment and ramp-up of fully functional teams under crisis scenarios. Operational resilience, that is, the ability to pivot when an ordinarily disruptive set of circumstances hits, is key. South Africa demonstrated this capacity most eloquently when 90 percent of the workforce was able to switch to remote work in residential settings, when 50 percent of operations in key competing locations such as the Philippines and India came to a virtual standstill.
Lastly but by no means the least, a competitive currency is a reasonably efficacious undercutting strategy. In recent months, the South African Rand has significantly weakened against the US dollar, in which the cost of outsourcing is typically denominated, and this has enabled South African BPOs to compete more effectively with Asian offerings.
It concerns me that last year, the Pula appreciated by 1.6 percent against the SDR (Special Drawing Right), which is a compound of five currencies, namely the US dollar, the British Pound, the Euro, the Japanese Yen, and the Chinese Yuan. If that relatively ripped Pula trajectory persists, it will not help our BPO competitiveness at all Rre Moses Pelaelo.
Mighty Persian King ends Babylonian exile after 60 years
For all his euphoria and grandiose preparations for Nibiru King Anu’s prospective visit to Earth, General Atiku, Nebuchadnezzar didn’t live to savour this potentially highly momentous occasion. In fact, none of his next three bloodline successors were destined to witness up-close the return of the Planet of the Gods, as Nibiru was referred to in Sumerian and Egyptian chronicles.
Nebuchadnezzar died in 562 BC, having ruled for 43 years, missing Nibiru, which showed up circa 550 BC as we set down in The Earth Chronicles series, by a whisker. During the next 6 years, he had three successors in such an unconscionably short period of time. His immediate one was Merodach, his eldest son.
In Botswana, the Trade Disputes Act, 2016 (“the Act”) provides the framework within which trade disputes are resolved. This framework hinges on four legs, namely mediation, arbitration, industrial action and litigation. In this four-part series, we discuss this framework.
In last week’s article, we discussed the third leg of Botswana’s trade dispute resolution framework-industrial action. In this article, we discuss the fourth leg, namely litigation at the Industrial Court. The Act does not define the term litigation. Litigation is generally understood to mean a situation where parties to a trade dispute take their dispute to a court, in this case the Industrial Court, for determination by a judge.
Just like an arbitrator, a judge’s decision is binding on the parties though they can, of course, appeal it. However, while an arbitrator must be acceptable to both parties, a judge does not have to be acceptable to the parties. A party can, however, apply for the judges’ recusal from the case for such reasons as reasonable apprehension of bias.
Before discussing litigation at the Industrial Court, it is apposite that a brief background of the origins and evolution of the Industrial Court be given. The original Trade Disputes Act (No. 19/1982) provided for disputes to be adjudicated, inter alia, by a Permanent Arbitrator. This is confirmed in Veronica Moroka & 2 Others v The Attorney General and Another, Court of Appeal Civil Appeal No. CACGB-121-17 at para 11.
The Industrial Court replaced the institution of the Permanent Arbitrator (Dingake Collective Labour Law in Botswana 23) following the enactment of the Trade Disputes Act (No. 23/1997) which, as confirmed in the Veronica Moroka case supra, came into force on 9 October 1997.
As per Kirby JP, in the Veronica Moroka case supra, the Industrial Court’s status “as a court was uncertain and no provision was made for it to be served by a Registrar, with the usual powers and duties of such office”.
The Court of Appeal, in Botswana Railways Organization v Setsogo and Others, 1996 BLR 763 CA, remedied this defect. It held that the Industrial Court was not a mere statutory tribunal, but was, in line with Section 127(1) of the Constitution of Botswana, a subordinate court, having limited jurisdiction.
Following the change of the definition of subordinate court by Act 2/2002 to exclude the Industrial Court, along with the Court of Appeal, the High Court and a court martial, the Industrial Court became a superior court, albeit still with limited jurisdiction unlike the High Court, for instance, which has inherent unlimited jurisdiction.
Consequently, appeals from the Industrial Court were referred to the Court of Appeal. Perhaps most significantly, according to Veronica Moroka, Industrial Court judges were now, just like High Court judges, protected by, inter alia, security of tenure.
The Trade Disputes Act was further amended and replaced by the Trade Disputes Act, 2003 which commenced on 6 April 2004 as Act No. 15 of 2004. Section 16(8) of this Act provided for the appointment of the Registrar and an Assistant Registrar, but still had no section clothing them with specific powers.
It, through section 20(3), also bestowed, in the Court, the power to hear urgent applications and, in terms of section 18(1), the power to grant interdicts, thereby remedying the defects identified in Botswana Railways Organization v Setsogo & Others supra, but it still had no provision dealing with writs of execution and sales flowing therefrom.
In terms of section 18(1) of the Act, the Industrial Court’s jurisdiction includes the power to hear and determine all trade disputes except disputes of interest as well as, in terms of section 20(1) (b) of the Act, the power to interdict any unlawful industrial action and to grant general interdicts, declaratory orders or interim orders.
In terms of section 20(1) (c) of the Act, the Industrial Court is also clothed with the power to hear appeals and reviews of the decisions of mediators and arbitrators respectively. It, in terms of section 20(1) (d) of the Act, has the power to direct the Commissioner to assign a mediator to mediate a dispute if it is of the opinion that the matter has not been properly mediated or requires further mediation.
In terms of section 20(1) (e) of the Act, the Industrial Court also has the power to direct the Commissioner to refer a dispute that is before the Court for arbitration. In terms of section 20(1) (f) of the Act, it has the power to refer any matter to an expert and, at the Court’s discretion, to accept the expert’s report as evidence in the proceedings.
The Industrial Court also has the power to give such directions to parties to a trade dispute provided the object of such directions is the expedient and just hearing and determination or disposal of any dispute before it.
In terms of section 20(2) of the Act, any matter of law and any question as to whether a matter for determination is a matter of law or a matter of fact is decided by the presiding judge. In terms of section 20(3) of the Act, with respect to all issues other than those referred to under section 20 (2), the decision of the majority of the Court prevails.
Where there is no majority decision under section 20 (3), the decision of the judge prevails. In terms of section 24(2) of the Act, any interested party in any proceedings under the Act may appear by legal representation or may be represented by any other person so authorised by that party.
In terms of section 28(2) of the Act, a decision of the Industrial Court has the same force and effect as a decision of the High Court, and because, unlike South Africa, Botswana has no Labour Appeal Court, decisions of the Industrial Court, just like those of the High Court, are, in terms of section 20(5) of the Act, appealable to the highest court in the land, that is, the Court of Appeal.
The Trade Disputes Act went through another amendment in 2016. Section 14 of the Act ensures the continuation of the Industrial Court. It outlines its functions as the settlement of trade disputes as well as the securing and maintenance of good industrial relations in Botswana.
In terms of section 15(1) of the Act, the judges of the Industrial Court are appointed by the state President from among persons possessing the qualifications to be judges of the High Court as prescribed under section 96 of the Constitution.
In terms of section 15(2) of the Act, these judges are headed by the President of the Industrial Court designated by the state President from among the judges.
In terms of section 15(4) of the Act, a judge of the Industrial Court who is not a citizen of Botswana or who is not appointed on permanent and pensionable terms may be appointed on contract basis and is eligible for reappointment.
In terms of section 15(5) of the Act, Judges of the Industrial Court sit with two nominated members, one of whom is selected by the judge from among persons nominated by the organisation representing employees or trade unions in Botswana and the other selected by the judge from among persons nominated by the organisation representing employers in Botswana.
In terms of section 15(6) of the Act, where, for any reason, the nominated members are or either of them is absent for any part of the hearing of a trade dispute, the jurisdiction of the court may be exercised by the judge alone or with the remaining member of the Court, whichever the case may be, unless the judge, for good reason, decides that the hearing should be postponed.
In terms of section 18(1) of the Act, An Industrial Court judge vacates office on attaining the age of 70 years, provided that the state President may permit him or her to continue in office for such period as may be necessary to enable him or her to deliver judgment or to do any other thing in relation to proceedings that had commenced before him or her.
In terms of section 18(2) of the Act, in accordance with the provisions of the proviso to section 96(6) of the Constitution, a person appointed to act as an Industrial Court judge vacates that office on attaining the age of 75 years.
In terms of section 19(1) (a) and (b) of the Act, an Industrial Court judge may be removed from office only for inability to perform the functions of his or her office, whether arising from infirmity of body or mind, or from any other cause or for serious misconduct.
In terms of section 19(2) of the Act, the power to remove an Industrial Court judge from office vests in the state President acting in accordance with the procedure provided under section 97 of the Constitution for the removal of High Court judges.
*Ndulamo Anthony Morima, LLM(NWU); LLB(UNISA); DSE(UB); CoP (BAC); CoP (IISA) is the proprietor of Morima Attorneys. He can be contacted at 71410352 or email@example.com