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Thursday, 18 April 2024

Astrologers Endorse Jesus

Columns

Benson C Saili
THIS EARTH, MY BROTHER

They use gold, frankincense, and myrrh as emblems of their affirmation

In gospel times, politics and religion were intertwined, just as they today are in jurisdictions like the Vatican and parts of the Islamic world. Reading the gospels, the surface impression one gets is that Jesus was strictly a spritual crusader and politics was a turf only of the occupying Romans, the priesthood such as Caiphas and Annas, and the Herodian dynasty. The fact of the matter is that Jesus too was part of the politics of his day: he was very much in the thick of it.

His arrest and death sentence stemmed not from the arrant nonsense that he claimed to be divine: they were a political fallout. The gospels do provide hints about this state of affairs, such as when Pontius Pilate categorically stated in writing that Jesus was crucified not because he claimed to be God but because he claimed to be “the King of the Jews”, which was a boldfaced dig at the overarching authority of  the mighty Caesar.


Yet politics was not a purely extraneous factor as far as Jesus was concerned. There was politics right in the bosom of his family (see next week’s piece). Let us not forget that Joseph was the Davidic heir and therefore all eyes in Judea and Galilee in particular were focused on him. It was he who was expected to produce Israel’s messiah, Christ in Greek. The Jewish messiah was not the spiritual messiah that Paul spun into a popular and abiding dogma. He was a political messiah who was expected to liberate Israel from the Roman yoke and turn it into a global super power. 

Thus the Romans were not to know about who this messiah was. The Herodian dynasty was to be made to think that he would always be subordinate to them. The priesthood at the Jerusalem temple were to know who he was and even be counted upon to surreptitiously bolster his cause but since they so bountifully benefitted from Roman patronage, they were content that he be no more than a symbolic messiah. Only the Essenes genuinely deferred to him although they too used tact as the highest rank he could provisionally occupy in their hierarchy was that of third.


The temple priesthood, however, were not in total unanimity as to the messiahship of Jesus. Whether Jesus was the rallying-cry messiah or otherwise depended on which priestly clan was in office at the time. One clan, the House of Annas, so recognised him: the other, the House of Boethus, sidelined him and promoted his younger brother James instead.

MAGI’S WRONG TIMING
We have already made the case that Jesus was born not in the city of  Bethlehem but at Qumran. The Dead Sea Scrolls inform that the Essenes had code names for eminent persons in their ranks and for their settlements in the broader Judean wilderness. One of their code names for Qumran was Judea. The Queen’s House, the Qumran quarters for orphans, illegitimate children, and destitute women was nicknamed the Manger in that it had previously served as an animal paddock and even presently had a few domesticated animals milling around.

The other code name for the Queen’s House, so-called because it was administrated by the Davidic Queen – Mary at the time – was Bethlehem of Judea. It was here that Jesus was born in March 7 BC. He was born in such an ignoble surroundings because the incumbent High Priest of the Jerusalem temple, Simon Boethus, had pronounced that for a Davidic heir he was conceived in scandalous circumstances and so had to be born in a place of  illegitimate and parentless children and be raised likewise. As far as the Boethusians were concerned, Jesus would never be a Davidic heir as he had forfeited this right of primogeniture on account of the stigma of the manner of his conception.


The Essene priesthood on the other hand unequivocally subscribed to Jesus’ legitimacy as the Davidic heir.  The Magi were even more emphatically so.  The term Magi in those days meant astrologers. Founded by Menahem in 44 BC, the Magi were a branch of Essenes who had a more liberal outlook of the Essene  creed than the puritans of Qumran. Most of the Magi belonged to the tribe of West Manasseh, which was based in Samaria. It was the tribe of West Manasseh that constituted the bulk of the Diaspora Magi.

That the Essenes were astrologers who studied the stars and the planets for a clue on future developments is made very plain in the Dead Sea Scrolls, which bear unequivocal records of horoscopes (This was one reason the Vatican took 45 years to publish all the scrolls: the first 20 percent were reluctantly published in the mid 50s, with the remaining 80 percent being released only in 1991. The Vatican didn’t want Christians to know that the sect that produced Jesus were astrologers. Modern-day Christendom denounces astrology as secular and even sinister). In the gospel era, the Magi were also known as “Wise Men” because of their renowned capacity to project the future.


The Diaspora Magi, who had been eagerly looking forward to the  birth of Jesus, expected him to be born in September 7 BC as they were well aware of dynastic procreational  rules. They therefore arrived at Qumran in September 7 BC, their wagons loaded with gifts of the newly-born Jewish mascot. By that time, however, Jesus was six months old. Since they lived overseas, it had not come to their knowledge that Jesus had been conceived at the wrong time of the year and  was scheduled to be born not in September but in March.

HEROD IS DECEIVED
The gospels talk of a star that guided the Magi to a stable in which Jesus was born. That, as I explained at the outset of the Jesus Papers, was a astrotheological interpolation into the nativity story by redactors (editors) with vested interests (see “GREATEST STORY EVER SOLD”, Weekend Post edition of 6-12 September 2014). There was a star in the nativity story of course but this was not a heavenly body: it was a human being.


According to a Dead Sea Scroll text dubbed the Damascus Document, the Davidic heir also went by the nickname “Star of David” because the Star of David was the emblem of the descendents of David.  In 7 BC, the Davidic heir was Joseph. It was Joseph, therefore, who was the allegorical Star of the Magian story. Joseph guided the Magi in that it was he who had tipped them as to the whereabouts of Jesus’s birth – Qumran. Joseph invited them over so they could lend legitimacy to his newly-born son.


When the Magi, who were based in Persia (modern-day Iran)  arrived at Qumran, they were received by Simeon, the second-ranking Essene priest who also went by the name “Angel Gabriel”.  The Magi inquired from him as to where exactly the future “King of the Jews” had been born so they could pay homage to him (“bow to him” in direct translation), not worship him. The exact place of his birth  would provide them a veritable clue as to the regard in which the Essene sages held Jesus, that is, whether they recognised him as the Davidic prince or had dismissed him as a bastard child. Simeon told them Jesus had been born at the Manger, the Queen’s House.

On the face of it, the implication this had was that he had been designated as an illegitimate kid. Simeon, however, explained to the Magi that Jesus had to be born at the Queen’s House simply to content the priesthood at the Jerusalem temple; otherwise, the Essene priesthood duly recognised him as the Davidic heir. On hearing this, the Magi broke into praise songs for the “Son of God”. The term Son of God carried two connotations. First, it was a title of  the Davidic King. Second, it was a honorific to Zechariah, the highest ranking Essene priest whose other title was “Lord God”.  


Now, although King Herod was the figurehead of both the Essene priesthood and that of the Jerusalem temple, he wasn’t made privy to every key development in Palestine. He was only part-Jew and a despot to boot and therefore he wasn’t trusted. Thus when Jesus was born, Herod was not  apprised of this development. However, since the Magi arrived in Judea with great fanfare, Herod got wind of their presence and the object of their mission through his spies. Herod didn’t know the whereabouts of Joseph and Mary nor of Mary’s pregnancy: all this was kept from him for fear that he could order their execution as the last thing he wanted was a Davidic aspirant to the Jewish throne.      


Gathering his advisors, he asked them as to where the Jewish messiah was to be born. Being patriotic Jews, his advisors answered him in the cryptic pesher language. They said the Messiah was prophesied to be born in “Bethlehem of Judea”.  To Herod, this meant the city of Bethlehem in the province of Judea. In pesher, however, “Bethlehem of Judea”  referred to the Queen’s House at Qumran. Herod, who had not been instructed in the pesher technique,  was therefore hoodwinked.


Next, Herod sent for the Magi themselves to establish from them as to when exactly the messiah was or would be born. Now, according to the Dead Sea Scrolls,  the Magi (as all Essenes) counted  time slightly differently from the Jerusalem establishment, the Herodians.  A Magian year was always two years ahead of  the Herodian year by deliberate design.  Some years also had specific designations.

For instance, 7 BC was dubbed the “southern generation year” in the Magian calendar. Since the Magian calendar was two years ahead, this meant that to the Herodians, the southern generation year was 5 BC. Thus when Herod asked the Magi as to when the Christ would be born, they simply said, “the southern generation year”. Herod automatically took that to be 5 BC, which was  two years away as the present year was 7 BC. We can now understand why according to the gospels, Herod waited two years before he ordered the massacre of all infants who were two years and below. The Magi had deceived him big time.

SYMBOLISM OF MAGIAN GIFTS
The Magi presented baby Jesus with three principal gifts. They were gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Christendom has typically over-spiritualised the gifts. It is frequently bellowed from the pulpits that gold was symbolic of Jesus’ divinity – God in the flesh; that frankincense (which was burnt as a pleasant offering to God as per EXODUS 30:34) was a symbol of his holiness and righteousness and his willingness to become a sacrifice for the whole of mankind at Calvary, analogous to a burnt offering; and that myrrh foreshadowed his tribulations leading to death, being a substance used in embalming the dead.


All the above is pure theology: it is wishful thinking. The Magi were not Christians. They were Essenes. Essenes did not believe in or conceive of a spiritual messiah who would suffer, be crucified, rise from the dead, and ascend to some fanciful utopia called Heaven. They looked forward to an here-on-earth  political messiah who would  free Jews from Roman overrule and establish a wordwide kingdom in which he would rule and in which the nation of Israel would reign supreme. The notion of a spiritual messiah was invented by Pauline Christianity after Jesus turned out to be a feckless and pacifist messiah who didn’t live up to his politico-revolutionary billing.


In light of the above gainsayal, what did the three gifts stand for? In antiquity, gold was a gift for kings. For instance, everything King Solomon owned was made of gold because dignitaries from far-flung domains presented him with cartfuls of gold whenever they called at his courts. By presenting Jesus with gold, the Magi asserted that they recognised him as the Davidic King and not as an illegitimate kid born of fornication as per the stance of the priesthood of the Jerusalem temple.


Frankincense was an incense used by priests when they made offerings to God. What this gift betokened, therefore,  was that not only did the Magi recognise Jesus as the Davidic King but they also recognised him as a Priest-King – the Melchizedek.


As for the myrrh, this was not meant for Jesus. It was meant for his mother Mary. According to the Song of Solomon, an Old Testament romantic book that lyrically documents the fervid passion between the King (Solomon) and his bride (the future Queen), myrrh was a perfume of marriage because it was reckoned to be amongst the best fragrances. The myrrh symbolism, therefore, was that the Magi saluted Mary as Joseph’s Queen and not as an outcast fornicator courtesy of the Jerusalem temple establishment.


In short, the Magian  gesture was both a veneration of baby Jesus as Israel’s Priest-King and an endorsement of  Joseph’s marriage to Mary. There was nothing spiritual, theological, or prophetic about it.

NEXT WEEK: A RIVAL IN THE FAMILY

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GONE FISHING

28th March 2023

In recent years, using personal devices in working environments has become so commonplace it now has its own acronym, BOYD (Bring Your Own Device).  But as employees skip between corporate tools and personal applications on their own devices, their actions introduce a number of possible risks that should be managed and mitigated with careful consideration.  Consider these examples:

Si-lwli, a small family-run business in Wales, is arguably as niche a company as you could find, producing talking toys used to promote the Welsh language. Their potential market is small, with only some 300,000 Welsh language speakers in the world and in reality the business is really more of a hobby for the husband-and-wife team, who both still have day jobs.  Yet, despite still managing to be successful in terms of sales, the business is now fighting for survival after recently falling prey to cybercriminals. Emails between Si-Iwli and their Chinese suppliers were intercepted by hackers who altered the banking details in the correspondence, causing Si-Iwli to hand over £18,000 (around P ¼ m) to the thieves. That might not sound much to a large enterprise, but to a small or medium business it can be devastating.

Another recent SMB hacking story which appeared in the Wall Street Journal concerned Innovative Higher Ed Consulting (IHED) Inc, a small New York start-up with a handful of employees. IHED didn’t even have a website, but fraudsters were able to run stolen credit card numbers through the company’s payment system and reverse the charges to the tune of $27,000, around the same loss faced by Si-Iwli.  As the WSJ put it, the hackers completely destroyed the company, forcing its owners to fold.

And in May 2019, the city of Baltimore’s computer system was hit by a ransomware attack, with hackers using a variant called RobinHood. The hack, which has lasted more than a month, paralysed the computer system for city employees, with the hackers demanding a payment in Bitcoin to give access back to the city.

Of course, hackers target governments or business giants  but small and medium businesses are certainly not immune. In fact, 67% of SMBs reported that they had experienced a cyber attack across a period of 12 months, according to a 2018 survey carried out by security research firm Ponemon Institute. Additionally, Verizon issued a report in May 2019 that small businesses accounted for 43% of its reported data breaches.  Once seen as less vulnerable than PCs, smartphone attacks are on the rise, with movements like the Dark Caracal spyware campaign underlining the allure of mobile devices to hackers. Last year, the US Federal Trade Commission released a statement calling for greater education on mobile security, coming at a time when around 42% of all Android devices are believed to not carry the latest security updates.

This is an era when employees increasingly use their smartphones for work-related purposes so is your business doing enough to protect against data breaches on their employees’ phones? The SME Cyber Crime Survey 2018 carried out for risk management specialists AON showed that more than 80% of small businesses did not view this as a threat yet if as shown, 67% of SMBs were said to have been victims of hacking, either the stats are wrong or business owners are underestimating their vulnerability.  A 2019 report by PricewaterhouseCoopers suggests the latter, stating that the majority of global businesses are unprepared for cyber attacks.

Consider that a workstation no longer means a desk in an office: It can be a phone in the back of a taxi or Uber; a laptop in a coffee shop, or a tablet in an airport lounge.  Wherever the device is used, employees can potentially install applications that could be harmful to your business, even from something as seemingly insignificant as clicking on an accidental download or opening a link on a phishing email.  Out of the physical workplace, your employees’ activities might not have the same protections as they would on a company-monitored PC.

Yet many businesses not only encourage their employees to work remotely, but assume working from coffee shops, bookstores, and airports can boost employees’ productivity.  Unfortunately, many remote hot spots do not provide secure Wi-Fi so if your employee is accessing their work account on unsecured public Wi-Fi,  sensitive business data could be at risk. Furthermore, even if your employee uses a company smartphone or has access to company data through a personal mobile device, there is always a chance data could be in jeopardy with a lost or stolen device, even information as basic as clients’ addresses and phone numbers.

BOYDs are also at risk from malware designed to harm and infect the host system, transmittable to smartphones when downloading malicious third-party apps.  Then there is ransomware, a type of malware used by hackers to specifically take control of a system’s data, blocking access or threatening to release sensitive information unless a ransom is paid such as the one which affected Baltimore.  Ransomware attacks are on the increase,  predicted to occur every 14 seconds, potentially costing billions of dollars per year.

Lastly there is phishing – the cyber equivalent of the metaphorical fishing exercise –  whereby  cybercriminals attempt to obtain sensitive data –usernames, passwords, credit card details –usually through a phoney email designed to look legitimate which directs the user to a fraudulent website or requests the data be emailed back directly. Most of us like to think we could recognize a phishing email when we see it, but these emails have become more sophisticated and can come through other forms of communication such as messaging apps.

Bottom line is to be aware of the potential problems with BOYDs and if in doubt,  consult your IT security consultants.  You can’t put the own-device genie back in the bottle but you can make data protection one of your three wishes!

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“I Propose to Diana Tonight”

28th March 2023

About five days before Princess Diana and Dodi Al Fayed landed in Paris, General Atiku, a certain Edward Williams was taking a walk in a woods in the Welsh town of Mountain Ash. Williams, then 73, was a psychic of some renown. He had in the past foretold assassination attempts on US President Ronald Reagan, which occurred on March 30, 1981, and Pope John Paul II, which came to pass on May 13, 1981.

As he trudged the woods, Williams  had a sudden premonition that pointed to Diana’s imminent fate as per Christopher Andersen’s book The Day Diana Died. “When the vision struck me, it was as if everything around me was obscured and replaced by shadowy figures,” Williams was later to reminisce. “In the middle was the face of Princess Diana. Her expression was sad and full of pathos. She was wearing what looked like a floral dress with a short dark cardigan. But it was vague. I went cold with fear and knew it was a sign that she was in danger.”

Williams hastily beat a retreat to his home, which he shared with his wife Mary, and related to her his presentiment, trembling like an aspen leaf as he did so. “I have never seen him so upset,” Mary recounted. “He felt he was given a sign and when he came back from his walk he was deeply shaken.”

The following day, Williams frantically sauntered into a police station to inform the police of his premonition. The officer who attended to him would have dismissed him as no more than a crackpot but he treated him seriously in view of the accuracy of his past predictions. He  took a statement and immediately passed it on to the Special Branch Investigative  Unit.

The report read as follows:

“On 27 August, at 14:12 hrs, a man by the name of Edward Williams came to Mountain Ash police station. He said he was a psychic and predicted that Princess Diana was going to die. In previous years, he has predicted that the Pope and Ronald Reagan were going to be the victims of assassination attempts. On both occasions he was proved to be correct. Mr Williams appeared to be quite normal.”

Williams, General, was spot-on as usual: four days later, the princess was no more.

Meanwhile, General,  even as Dodi and Diana were making their way to the Fayed-owned Ritz Hotel in central Paris, British newspapers were awash with headlines that suggested Diana was kind of deranged. Writes Andrew Morton in Diana in Pursuit of Love: “In The Independent Diana was described as ‘a woman with fundamentally nothing to say about anything’. She was ‘suffering from a form of arrested development’. ‘Isn’t it time she started using her head?’ asked The Mail on Sunday. The Sunday Mirror printed a special supplement entitled ‘A Story of Love’; The News of the World claimed that William had demanded that Diana should split from Dodi: ‘William can’t help it, he just doesn’t like the man.’ William was reportedly ‘horrified’ and ‘doesn’t think Mr Fayed is good for his mother’ – or was that just the press projecting their own prejudices? The upmarket Sunday Times newspaper, which had first serialised my biography of the princess, now put her in the psychiatrist’s chair for daring to be wooed by a Muslim. The pop-psychologist Oliver James put Diana ‘On the Couch’, asking why she was so ‘depressed’ and desperate for love. Other tabloids piled in with dire prognostications – about Prince Philip’s hostility to the relationship, Diana’s prospect of exile, and the social ostracism she would face if she married Dodi.”

DIANA AND DODI AT THE RITZ

Before Diana and Dodi departed the Villa Windsor sometime after 16 hrs, General, one of Dodi’s bodyguards Trevor Rees-Jones furtively asked Diana as to what the programme for the evening was. This Trevor did out of sheer desperation as Dodi had ceased and desisted from telling members of his security detail, let alone anyone else for that matter, what his onward destination was for fear that that piece of information would be passed on to the paparazzi. Diana kindly obliged Trevor though her response was terse and scarcely revealing. “Well, eventually we will be going out to a restaurant”, that was all Diana said. Without advance knowledge of exactly what restaurant that was, Trevor and his colleagues’ hands were tied: they could not do a recce on it as was standard practice for the security team of a VIP principal.  Dodi certainly, General, was being recklessly by throwing such caution to the winds.

At about 16:30, Diana and Dodi drew up at the Ritz Hotel, where they were received by acting hotel manager Claude Roulet.  The front entrance of the hotel was already crawling with paparazzi, as a result of which the couple took the precaution of using the rear entrance, where hopefully they would make their entry unperturbed and unmolested. The first thing they did when they were ensconced in the now $10,000 a night Imperial Suite was to spend some time on their mobiles and set about touching base with friends, relations, and associates.  Diana called at least two people, her clairvoyant friend Rita Rogers and her favourite journalist Richard Kay of The Daily Mail.

Rita, General,  was alarmed that Diana had proceeded to venture to Paris notwithstanding the warning she had given Dodi and herself in relation to what she had seen of him  in the crystal ball when the couple had consulted her. When quizzed as to what the hell she indeed was doing in Paris at that juncture, Diana replied that she and Dodi had simply come to do some shopping, which though partially true was not the material reason they were there. “But Diana, remember what I told Dodi,” Rita said somewhat reprovingly. Diana a bit apprehensively replied, “Yes I remember. I will be careful. I promise.” Well,  she did not live up to her promise as we shall soon unpack General.

As for Richard Kay, Diana made known to him that, “I have decided I am going to radically change my life. I am going to complete my obligations to charities and to the anti-personnel land mines cause, but in November I want to completely withdraw from formal public life.”

Once she was done with her round of calls, Diana went down to the hair saloon by the hotel swimming pool to have her hair washed and blow-dried ahead of the scheduled evening dinner.

THE “TELL ME YES” RING IS DELIVERED

Since the main object of their Paris trip was to pick up the “Tell Me Yes” engagement ring  Dodi had ordered in Monte Carlo a week earlier, Dodi decided to check on Repossi Jewellery, which was right within the Ritz prencincts, known as the Place Vendome.  It could have taken less than a minute for Dodi to get to the store on foot but he decided to use a car to outsmart the paparazzi invasion. He was driven there by Trevor Rees-Jones, with Alexander Kez Wingfield and Claude Roulet following on foot, though he entered the shop alone.

The Repossi store had closed for the holiday season but Alberto Repossi, accompanied by his wife and brother-in-law,  had decided to travel all the way from his home in Monaco  and momentarily open it for the sake of the potentially highly lucrative  Dodi transaction.  Alberto, however, disappointed Dodi as the ring he had chosen was not the one  he produced. The one he showed Dodi was pricier and perhaps more exquisite but Dodi  was adamant that he wanted the exact one he had ordered as that was what Diana herself had picked. It was a ploy  on the part of Repossi to make a real killing on the sale, his excuse to that effect being that Diana deserved a ring tha was well worthy of her social pedigree.  With Dodi having expressed disaffection, Repossi rendered his apologies and assured Dodi he would make the right ring available shortly, whereupon Dodi repaired back to the hotel to await its delivery. But Dodi  did insist nonetheless that the pricier ring be delivered too in case it appealed to Diana anyway.

Repossi delivered the two rings an hour later. They were collected by Roulet. On inspecting them, Dodi chose the very one he had seen in Monte Carlo, apparently at the insistence of Diana.  There is a possibility that Diana, who was very much aware of her public image and was not comfortable with ostentatious displays of wealth, may have deliberately shown an interest in a less expensive engagement ring. It  may have been a purely romantic as opposed to a prestigious  choice for her.

The value of the ring, which was found on a wardrobe shelf in Dodi’s apartment after the crash,  has been estimated to be between $20,000 and $250,000 as Repossi has always refused to be drawn into revealing how much Dodi paid for it. The sum, which enjoyed a 25 percent discount, was in truth paid for not by Dodi himself but by his father as was the usual practice.

Dodi was also shown Repossi’s sketches for a bracelet, a watch, and earrings which he proposed to create if Diana approved of them.

DIANA AND DODI GUSH OVER IMMINENT NUPTIALS

At about 7 pm,  Dodi and Diana left the Ritz and headed for Dodi’s apartment at a place known as the Arc de Trompe. They went there to properly tog themselves out for the scheduled evening dinner. They spent two hours at the luxurious apartment. As usual, the ubiquitous paparazzi were patiently waiting for them there.

As they lingered in the apartment, Dodi beckoned over to his butler Rene Delorm  and showed him  the engagement ring. “Dodi came into my kitchen,” Delorm relates. “He looked into the hallway to check that Diana couldn’t hear and reached into his pocket and pulled out the box … He said, ‘Rene, I’m going to propose to the princess tonight. Make sure that we have champagne on ice when we come back from dinner’.” Rene described the ring as “a spectacular diamond encrusted ring, a massive emerald surrounded by a cluster of diamonds, set on a yellow and white gold band sitting in a small light-grey velvet box”.

Just before 9 pm, Dodi called the brother of his step-father, Hassan Yassen, who also was staying at the Ritz  that night, and told him that he hoped to get married to Diana by the end of the year.

Later that same evening, both Dodi and Diana would talk to Mohamed Al Fayed, Dodi’s dad, and make known to him their pre-nuptial intentions. “They called me and said we’re coming back  (to London) on Sunday (August 31) and on Monday (September 1) they are

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RAMADAN – The Blessed Month of Fasting

28th March 2023

Ramadan is the fasting month for Muslims, where over one billion Muslims throughout the world fast from dawn to sunset, and pray additional prayers at night. It is a time for inner reflection, devotion to Allah, and self-control. It is the ninth month in the Islamic calendar. As you read this Muslims the world over have already begun fasting as the month of Ramadan has commenced (depending on the sighting of the new moon).

‘The month of Ramadan is that in which the Qur’an was revealed as guidance for people, in it are clear signs of guidance and Criterion, therefore whoever of you who witnesses this month, it is obligatory on him to fast it. But whoever is ill or traveling let him fast the same number of other days, God desires ease for you and not hardship, and He desires that you complete the ordained period and glorify God for His guidance to you, that you may be grateful”. Holy Qur’an  (2 : 185)

Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five pillars upon which the structure of Islam is built. The other four are: the declaration of one’s belief in Allah’s oneness and in the message of Muhammad (PBUH); regular attendance to prayer; payment of zakaat (obligatory charity); and the pilgrimage to Mecca.

As explained in an earlier article, fasting includes total abstinence from eating, drinking, smoking, refraining from obscenity, avoiding getting into arguments and including abstaining from marital relations, from sunrise to sunset. While fasting may appear to some as difficult Muslims see it as an opportunity to get closer to their Lord, a chance to develop spiritually and at the same time the act of fasting builds character, discipline and self-restraint.

Just as our cars require servicing at regular intervals, so do Muslims consider Ramadan as a month in which the body and spirit undergoes as it were a ‘full service’. This ‘service’ includes heightened spiritual awareness both the mental and physical aspects and also the body undergoing a process of detoxification and some of the organs get to ‘rest’ through fasting.

Because of the intensive devotional activity fasting, Ramadan has a particularly high importance, derived from its very personal nature as an act of worship but there is nothing to stop anyone from privately violating Allah’s commandment of fasting if one chooses to do so by claiming to be fasting yet eating on the sly. This means that although fasting is obligatory, its observance is purely voluntary. If a person claims to be a Muslim, he is expected to fast in Ramadan.

 

The reward Allah gives for proper fasting is very generous. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) quotes Allah as saying: “All actions done by a human being are his own except fasting, which belongs to Me and I will reward it accordingly.” We are also told by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that the reward for proper fasting is admittance into heaven.

Fasting earns great reward when it is done in a ‘proper’ manner. This is because every Muslim is required to make his worship perfect. For example perfection of fasting can be achieved through restraint of one’s feelings and emotions. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that when fasting, a person should not allow himself to be drawn into a quarrel or a slanging match. He teaches us: “On a day of fasting, let no one of you indulge in any obscenity, or enter into a slanging match. Should someone abuse or fight him, let him respond by saying: ‘I am fasting!’”

This high standard of self-restraint fits in well with fasting, which is considered as an act of self-discipline. Islam requires us to couple patience with voluntary abstention from indulgence in our physical desires. The purpose of fasting helps man to attain a high degree of sublimity, discipline and self-restraint. In other words, this standard CAN BE achieved by every Muslim who knows the purpose of fasting and strives to fulfill it.

Fasting has another special aspect. It makes all people share in the feelings of hunger and thirst. In normal circumstances, people with decent income may go from one year’s end to another without experiencing the pangs of hunger which a poor person may feel every day of his life. Such an experience helps to draw the rich one’s conscience nearer to needs of the poor. A Muslim is encouraged to be more charitable and learns to give generously for a good cause.

Fasting also has a universal or communal aspect to it. As Muslims throughout the world share in this blessed act of worship, their sense of unity is enhanced by the fact that every Muslim individual joins willingly in the fulfillment of this divine commandment. This is a unity of action and purpose, since they all fast in order to be better human beings. As a person restrains himself from the things he desires most, in the hope that he will earn Allah’s pleasure, self-discipline and sacrifice become part of his nature.

The month of Ramadan can aptly be described as a “season of worship.” Fasting is the main aspect of worship in this month, because people are more attentive to their prayers, read the Qur’an more frequently and also strive to improve on their inner and outer character. Thus, their devotion is more complete and they feel much happier in Ramadan because they feel themselves to be closer to their Creator.

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