President Mokgweetsi Masisi has coined the De Beers 50/50 partnership with Botswana Government as a â€œmarriageâ€ and at the last Diamond Conference he spoke of â€œrenewal of vowsâ€ referring to talks between the two parties.
The Botswana-De Beers diamond sales deal was renewed into a 10 year union in 2010, it lapses this year in September. However there is a widespread concern that ever since the ongoing talks began, the talks have been taking place in secrecy in Gaborone and London boardrooms. But a lot of public curiosity is about the two parties publicly appearing to be diplomatic about their negotiations and promoting an unbreakable five decade bond.
Masisi borrowed all the metaphors of a long standing and flourishing love or romantic relationship while De Beers group CEO Bruce Cleaver last year, brandishing a huge smile before reporters at the Diamond Conference, spoke of not even dreaming of â€œany better partner than Botswana.â€ Antagonist see this with an eye of scepticism, some just sense a lot of flattery by lovers who would not talk about what happens when alone in private, in bedroom. Some observers or the opposition see this as just sweet nothings on public display, while a lot is happening behind closed doors.
Owner of De Beers, Anglo American, has recently indirectly released a hint red flagging on how dicey it is for the company to be in a business partnership with governments, like the deal with Botswana through their subsidiary. Anglo American owns 85 percent of De Beers while the Government of the Republic of Botswana owns the remaining 15 percent. On the other hand De Beers has a 50/50 venture with Botswana government which resulted in the birth of Debswana.
Another offspring of the partnership is Diamond Trading Company Botswana (DTCB), also a 50 -50 venture, DTCB avails 85 percent of their sorted and valued diamonds to De Beers Global Sight holder Sales (DBGSS) and 15 percent to Okavango Diamond Company (ODC) which is wholly owned by Botswana Government. In its recently released annual financial report and notice of AGM, Anglo American hinted that in a deal with Botswana through De Beers there could be, â€œuncertainty over future business conditions leads to a lack of confidence in making investment decisions, which can influence future financial performance.â€
Anglo American wanted to highlight â€œprincipal risksâ€ that come with the companyâ€™s business and political and regulatory concerns were in the basket, with a worry that a deal with government may bring unexpected and uncalculated future changes. There could be, â€œuncertainty and adverse changes to mining industry regulation, legislation or tax rates can occur in any country in which we operate.â€
â€œThe Group has no control over political acts, actions of regulators, or changes in local tax rates. Our licence to operate through mining rights is dependent on a number of factors, including compliance with regulations,â€ said Anglo American. Anglo American will be watching the De Beers-Botswana talks with hope that it does not end up in what many predict as â€œto bring shocking changes.â€ Masisi has told journalist last year that he wants more for Botswana in this deal, sitting next to Cleaver who maintained a diplomatic PR esque grin.
What is reported by those who eavesdropped the De Beers-Botswana talks from a distance are saying there has been a possibility to discuss the issue of Botswana being ripped off along the way as the stones leave Debswana operations crossing borders to diamond trading centres around the globe. Another issue expected inside the talks is the increase in percentage volume of ODCâ€˜s uptake from DTCB. The argument has always been that Botswana as one of the largest diamond producers in the world has the capacity and ability to develop its own price book through its own independent window outside De Beersâ€™ channels. It has been said that currently ODC rakes in sales in the region of $500 Million annually (approximately P5 billion).
The 2011 negotiations were seen to have brought the positive being the relocation of DBGSS from London to Gaborone, transferring De Beersâ€™ operations consolidated rough diamond sales into Gaborone, bringing alongside professionals, skills, and the worldâ€™s biggest rough diamond transactions to Africa. The year 2011 also gave life to ODC which found its feet to move a year later in 2012.
Debswana is also expected to start investing in other sectors outside its core business of mining diamonds. Some see Masisi to be playing hard-ball on the deal despite his diplomatic talks with Bloomberg in May 2018 of, â€œwe have had a wonderful relationship with De Beers and we expect that relationship to be even more cemented, there is a way of actually achieving a win-win for both, we want to participate more on cutting, polishing and retail.â€
Veil of secrecy
Tax Justice Network -a tax watchdog- in its 2020 report portrays Botswana as too secretive and the countryâ€™s dealing with De Beers was attributed as â€œhighly secretive.â€Â Tax Justice Network quoted a recent Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) study titled â€˜Botswanaâ€™s Diamond Deceptionâ€™ which says, â€œBotswanaâ€™s paper success does not translate to the kinds of gains the country should be receiving. Disclosure of key information and removal of De Beersâ€™ monopoly would liberate the economy and its democracy.â€
The study said initially Botswana held a 15 percent share, but several years later when exceptional diamonds were unearthed, Botswanaâ€™s share was increased to 50 percent. â€œDe Beers wanted to ensure it could keep its monopoly and control production so this find would not disrupt market prices. Then in 2004, Botswana acquired a 15 percent share in De Beers itself, an unprecedented entangling of a sovereign country with a single private company.â€
According to the OSISA paper, the exact structure of this deal between Botswana and De Beers is complex and confidential in a few key places, but it promises Botswana continued revenue while handing power of the diamond industry to De Beers. OSISA study alleges De Beers has â€œa relationship with the ruling BDP. â€œDe Beers and the BDP have knit the political and corporate structures together in such a way that they undermine accountability and regulatory systems with a culture of secrecy (framed by De Beers as â€œconfidentialityâ€).
As a private entity, De Beersâ€™ dealings are largely protected from scrutiny. Unlike the EU and U.S., where governments once banned or prosecuted De Beers for price-fixing and other anti-competitive activities, Botswanaâ€™s government and its ruling party have been direct collaborators.â€
Anglo American further uncertainties in politics staining a sparkling diamond business
In last yearâ€™s divisive national polls this country could have been dragged into what looked like a civil shake up with the former President fighting with his successor, the diamond industry was watching with crossed fingers. Anglo American in its recent annual financial report says: â€œPolitical instability can also result in civil unrest and nullification or nonrenewal of existing agreements, mining permits, sales agreements or leases. These may adversely affect the Groupâ€™s operations or performance of those operations.â€
In the run-up to elections Botswana opposition was also posing serious threat, with an influential figure like the former President throwing his weight behind the block, this could have scared De Beers mother Anglo American as her child (De Beers) is only used to the red interior designs of the ruling BDP 53 year old walls. Opposition could have painted the walls with a different colour and worse enough chased away Anglo Americanâ€™s De Beers. A new party might change laws and policies to be closer to its political ideology.
Anglo American in that situation envisage possible change in laws which might be unfavourable like; increased costs can be incurred through additional regulations or resource taxes, while the ability to execute strategic initiatives that reduce costs or divest assets may also be restricted, all of which may reduce profitability and affect future performance. This could lead to, â€œuncertainty over future business conditions leads to a lack of confidence in making investment decisions, which can influence future financial performance.â€
Anglo American also explained of a scenario where global economic conditions can have a significant impact on countries whose economies are exposed to commodities, placing greater pressure on governments to find alternative means of raising revenues, and increasing the risk of social and labour unrest. These factors could increase the political risks faced by the Group, says Anglo American
According to the mining giant, as mitigation to deal with political uncertainties that may hamper the companyâ€™s progress, Anglo American has an active engagement strategy with governments, regulators and other stakeholders within the countries in which we operate, or plan to operate, as well as at an international level.
The Bulb World Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and entrepreneur, Ketshephaone Jacob has been selected as a 2021 Top 50 Africa’s Business Hero.
Jacob was chosen from a pool of 12,000 applicants – many of whom are highly-skilled and accomplished entrepreneurs.
Africa’s Business Hero, sponsored by technology entrepreneur, Jack Ma, aims to identify, support and inspire the next generation of African entrepreneurs who are making a difference in their local communities, working to solve the most pressing problems, and building a more sustainable and inclusive economy for the future.
The initiative is as inclusive as possible and applications were open in English and French to entrepreneurs from all African countries, all sectors, and all ages who operate businesses formally registered and headquartered in an African country, and that have a 3 year-track record.
Every year, finalists are selected to compete in the ABH finale pitch competition and participate in a TV Show that will be broadcast online and across the continent.
The finalists will compete for a share of US $1.5 million in grant money.
The Bulb World, is home grown LED light manufacturing company, which was partly funded by Citizen Entrepreneurial Development Agency (CEDA) at the tune of P4 million, to manufacture LED lighting bulbs for both commercial and residential use in 2017.
The Bulb World operate from the Special Economic Zone of Selibe Phikwe. Early this year, The BulB World announced its expansion to South Africa, setting in motion its ambitious Africa expansion plan.
During the first quarter of 2021, production in Botswana’s economic nucleus- the mining sector contracted by 12 percent. This is according to Mining Production Index released by Statistics Botswana this week.
The country’s central data body revealed that Index of Mining production stood at 74.4 during the first quarter of 2021, showing a negative year on-year growth of 12.0 percent, from 84.6 registered during the first quarter of 2020.
The main contributor to the decline in mining production came from the Diamonds sector, which contributed negative 11.7 percentage points. Soda Ash was the only positive contributor in the mining production, contributing 0.1 of a percentage point. However Soda Ash’s contribution was insignificant to offset the negative contribution made by Diamonds.
The quarter-on-quarter analysis by Statistics Botswana experts shows an increase of 16.3 percent from the index of 64.0 during the fourth quarter of 2020 to 74.4 observed during the period under review.
Diamond production decreased by 12.1 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of the previous year. The decrease was as a result of planned strategy to align production with weaker trading conditions mostly linked to Covid-19 protocols restrictions.
Botswana’s diamond sector is underpinned by Debswana, the country’s flagship rough producer- a 50-50 joint venture between government and global mining giant De Beers Group. The other producer is Canadian based Lucara Diamond Corp through its wholly owned Karowe Mine which is a relatively small but significant production that has made a name for itself worldwide with rare diamond recoveries of unprecedented carat size.
On the other hand, quarter-on quarter analysis shows that production has improved, registering a positive growth of 17.5 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the preceding quarter – 2020 Q4.
Though production was significantly lower in the first quarter, the two producers ended Q2 with rare diamond recoveries. Debswana early last month found the world’s third largest gem diamond – weighing 1098 carat at Jwaneng Mine, its flagship gem quality diamonds producer, also regarded the world’s richest diamond mine.
A week later Lucara announced its second biggest recovery, the 1174 carat clivage near-gem dug from its Karowe Mine. The diamond is the world third in carat size after the plus-3000 carat Cullinan found in South Africa back in 1905 and the 1758 carat Sewelo unearthed at its Karowe mine in 2019. Debswana and Lucara are investing billions of pulas in underground mining projects to extend the life of its mines, Jwaneng & Karowe respectively.
In terms of Gold which is produced at Mupani mine near Botswana’s second city of Francistown output decreased by 17.9 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of the previous year.
Similarly, quarter-on-quarter analysis reflects that production decreased by 21.4 percent during the first quarter of 2021, compared to the preceding quarter. The decrease was as a result of the deteriorating lifespan of the mine as well as the impact of COVID-19 which slowed down the mining activities.
Soda Ash production increased by 11.1 percent during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the same quarter of the previous year. In terms of quarter-on-quarter Soda Ash production also showed an increase, picking up by 2.1 percent during the period under review. The increase in production is attributable to the effectiveness of the plant following refurbishment which occurred in the third quarter of 2020.
Salt production decreased by 34.0 percent during the first quarter of 2021, compared to the same quarter of the previous year. Similarly, the quarter-on-quarter analysis shows that salt production registered a decrease of 32.9 percent during the period under review. Both salt and Sodash are produced by partly government owned Botswana Ash (BotsAsh) operating from Sowa town near Makgadikgadi pans.
Coal production decreased by 11.2 percent during the first quarter of 2021, compared to the corresponding quarter of the previous year. The decrease was attributed to the reduced demand from Morupule B Power Station following the remedial works being undertaken, as one boiler was in operation during the period under review.
Although production fell, Statistics Botswana says there was no shortfall in supply of coal due to stockpiling. On the other hand, the quarter-on-quarter comparison shows that coal production increased by 20.4 percent compared to the preceding quarter.
Botswana’s flagship coal producer is Morupule Coal Mine; a wholly state owned mining company located in Palapye producing primarily for Botswana Power Corporation (BPC)’s power generation plants Morupule A & B.
The other coal producer is Botswana Stock Exchange listed Minergy which operates a 390 MT Coal Resource mine in Masama near Media in the southwestern edge of the Mmamabula Coalfields.
Department of Mines in the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Green Technology & Energy Security has awarded mining licence to Tshukudu Metals-a subsidiary of Aussie firm Sandfire Resources ,giving the company a green light to start piecing the ground at its Motheo Copper Project near Gantsi.
Lefoko Moagi, minister in charge of mineral resources in Botswana confirmed to weekendpost on Tuesday. Minister Moagi revealed that “the licence has been approved , but Sandfire Resources as a listed company will report to its shareholders and investors then make an official public statement” he said.
Based on a forecast copper price of US$3.16/lb (reflecting current long-term consensus pricing) the Base Case 3.2Mtpa – Ghantsi copper project is forecast to generate US$664 million (over P7 billion) in pre-tax free cash-flow and US$987 million (over P10 billion) in EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortisation), at a forecast all-in sustaining cost of US$1.76/lb over its first 10 years of operations.
In December 2020, the Board of Sandfire Resources approved the commercial development of the Motheo Copper Mine located in the Kalahari Copper Belt in Botswana, marking a key step in its transformation into a global, diversified, and sustainable mining company.
Tshukudu Metals Botswana (Pty) Limited (Tshukudu) a 100% owned subsidiary will be the owner and operator of the Motheo Copper Mine which is scheduled to produce up to 30,000 tonnes per annum of copper in concentrate over a 12 year mine life.TMB is targeting development of its Motheo Copper Mine in 2021 and 2022, with its first production in 2023.
GOVERNMENT NOT TAKING UP 15 % STAKE ON OFFER
Beginning of this year presentations were made to the Department of Mines as part of the Mining Licence approval process and to the Ghanzi Regional Council, additional information was requested by Department of Mines in April and was duly supplied by the company.
As part of the Mining Licence approval process, the Government of Botswana has a right to acquire up to a 15% fully contributing interest in all mining projects locally. Quizzed on whether government through Mineral Development Corporation Botswana (MDCB) would be taking up stake in the project Minister Moagi said, “No consideration is being made on that regard”.
“Government is not considering taking up a stake in the Ghantsi Copper Mine project, every opportunity is assessed on all risks, but Government makes money all the while from leases, taxes and royalties, remember if you take stake you are liable for liabilities of the project as well,” Moagi said.
Last month Sandfire announced that it has awarded over P5 billion worth mining contract to African Mining Services (AMS), a subsidiary of Perenti, to deliver the open cast operation.
The contract, which has an estimated value of US$496 million (over 5 billion), is the largest single operational contract for the new Motheo Project covering a period of 7 years and 3 months, with provision for a one-year extension.
The contract according to Sandfire Resources was awarded following a competitive 3-stage tender process which saw a number of key factors taken into consideration when selecting the preferred contractor.
These included Citizen Economic Empowerment, safety culture, equipment suitability and availability, commercial terms and identified improvement opportunities. Under the terms of the contract, AMS has agreed to form a 70:30 Joint Venture with a suitable local Botswana partner or partners.
The JV is expected to be finalized ahead of commencement of mining in early 2022. African Mining Services has been operating in Africa for over 30 years. AMS’ parent company, ASX listed diversified mining services group Perenti, already has a presence in Botswana through Barminco, their underground mining division, at the large-scale Khoemacau Copper Mine located 200km north-east of Motheo.
Last month Sandfire executives said the award of the open pit mining contract represents another key milestone in advancing the Motheo Project towards production, with all components of the contract in line with the key parameters outlined in the December 2020 Definitive Feasibility Study (DFS).
The company said full-scale construction of the US$279 million (over P 3 billion ) mine development is expected to commence immediately upon receipt of the Mining Licence, with mining scheduled to commence in early 2022 ahead of first production in early 2023. This week Sandfire Resources advertised over 10 positions in calling on applications from geologists, mining engineers and geotechnical engineers.
The Motheo mine has an initial mine life of 12.5 years based on production from the T3 pit. The initial development is expected to generate approximately 1,000 jobs during the construction phase and 600 direct full-time jobs during operations, with at least 95% of the total mine workforce expected to be made of up of Botswana citizens.
Later in the week Sandfire Resources announced in the company website that it has received the licence. Sandfire’s Managing Director and CEO, Mr Karl Simich, said the award of the Mining Licence represented a major milestone that would see a significant increase in construction and development activities on site.
“We are absolutely delighted to now be in a position to move to full-scale construction at Motheo, with our construction crews expected to mobilise to site over the next few days. I would like to thank the Government of Botswana for their support throughout the approvals process, which will see Motheo come on-stream in 2023 as one of very few new copper mines commencing production globally.”
Simich said the project is expected to generate approximately 1,000 jobs during construction and 600 full-time jobs during operations, and represents the foundation for Sandfire’s long-term growth plans in Botswana.
“Our vision is that Motheo will form the centre of a new, long-life copper production hub in in the central portion of the world-class Kalahari Copper Belt, where we hold an extensive ground-holding spanning Botswana and Namibia,” he said.