The Political Economy Analysis Energy and Water Sectors Report says Botswana has a poor service provision in water and energy sectors, saying the transition from Department of Water Affairs and Sanitation to Water Utilities Corporation perceived to have not been well planned.
According to the report, some villages perceived to be worse-off under the current arrangement. Political economy analysis is concerned with the interaction of political and economic processes in a society, the distribution of power and wealth between different groups and individuals as well as the processes that create, sustain and transform these relationships over time.
The study aims to situate development intervention within an understanding of the prevailing political and economic processes in society- specifically, the incentives, relationships, and distribution and contestation of power between different groups and individuals. In 2016, the then President Ian Khama said universal access to energy and water is a major strategy of the regional leadership for transforming socio-economic wellbeing of the region’s citizenry. He said energy and water are critical ingredients to the SADC region’s efforts aimed at advancing economic development, regional integration and poverty reduction strategies.
The report reiterated that water supply in Botswana is made up of international rivers at 49%, while dams score sits at 42% and ground water as well as recycled water are at 8% and 1% respectively. Water demand is forecast to reach 285.8 cubic mega metres a year by 2030, whereas demand was only 193.4 mega metres 19 years ago. The national per-capita consumption has remained generally unchanged at 0.15 cubic metres.
Botswana government strategy-universal access to drinking water by all citizens says all urban households have access to drinking water sources at 100%, and half of rural households have access to drinking water sources at 90%, a growing proportion of households have water inside their yard and house. The report also indicated that sanitation facility access rate is 85% of the total population. However, Botswana has domestic water access compared to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
However, Botswana has high variability of annual run-off related to highly variable rainfall patterns, and most surface water resources are subjected to the SADC protocol on shared water courses, shared in a fair, equitable and sustainable way with other countries. The report also said Botswana has limited groundwater resources, and high variations in recharge rates saline groundwater in large parts of western and northern Botswana and escalating domestic, urban and peri-urban water demand.
It was indicated that stakeholder and private sector participation is also a barrier, as the involvement of the private sector or civil society in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of water supply systems is relatively low. Further, end users have limited role in policy formulation. Thermal energy for household applications has no established institution for promoting these applications, the report said.
The report underlined that there is no availability variety of appliances, no supply chain established and no promotion of local manufacturing job creation. Households and end users do not have financing to acquire appliances and are not convinced about utility of appliances. Government of Botswana does not have control over harvesting of fuel wood, and appliances may not be adapted enough to meet cultural requirements, it said.
The report identified gaps and barriers in the power sector, saying there is no standard power purchases agreement, renewable energy feed in tariffs only cater for small capacities, no mandatory framework for energy audits and management. The country is also said to be have no dedicated RE/EE institutions-tendency for uncoordinated planning.
As for the supply chain, capacity of grid to connect RE has not been established, and there are high costs of RE and EE appliances, no local manufacturing of RE technologies and low appreciation of RE benefits both from long terms cost benefits and clean energy. It was also shared that connection grid by consumers still unaffordable for the low income groups.
Green energy sector also has many gaps, the report established. Government has no established potential demand to warrant policy, and there is limited institutional support for focusing on productive use of modern energy. As for the supply chain, there are no well-established technology suppliers, designers, installers and maintenance capacity. The report also said there are high landed costs and no local manufacturing of some systems.
End users do not have focused credit financing for productive uses, high upfront costs, cost and benefits are not well communicated, small systems and high transaction costs are some of the barriers households come across within the green energy sector, the report said. Moreover, the report indicated that the policies are generally top-down and not fully address the right to energy and water as human rights. It said there is lack of energy policy, as current policy has been at draft stage since 2015. The absence of the policy, it said, decried to limit the opining up of the sector of individual power generators especially with regard to renewable energy.
The report recommended that there is a need to establish a political contract around energy and water-issue-based politics. Making energy and water a more prominent political priority is also critical, and this can be made through strengthened awareness raising, education and communication on energy and water issues, which receives inadequate attention in Botswana.
The political contract can also be made possible through the identification and support of reform champions within government who would be prepared to champion energy and water at higher political levels, as well as evidence based and credible research through local research institutions to influence government and the building of citizen campaigns, to redefine political obligations around energy and water supply.
Here is how one Permanent Secretary encapsulates the clear tension between democracy and bureaucracy in Botswana: “President Mokgweetsi Masisi’s Government is behaving like a state surrounded with armed forces in order to capture it or force its surrender. The situation has turned so volatile, for tomorrow is not guaranteed for us top civil servants.
These are the painful results of a personalized civil service in our view as permanent secretaries”. Although his deduction of the situation may be summed as sour grapes because he is one of the ‘victims’ of the reshuffle, he is convinced this is a perfect description of the rationale behind frequent changes and transfers characterising the current civil service.
The result of it all, he said, is that “there is too much instability at managerial and strategic levels of the civil service leading to a noticeable directionless civil service.” He continued: “Changes and transfers are inevitable in the civil service, but to a permissible scale and frequency. Think of soccer team coach who changes and transfers his entire squad every month; you know the consequences?”
The Tsunami has hit hard at critical departments and Ministries leaving a strong wave of uncertainty, many demoralised and some jobless. In traditional approaches to public administration, democracy gives the goals; and bureaucracy delivers the technical efficiency required for implementation. But the recent moves in the civil service are indicative of conflicting imperatives – the notion of separation between politicians and administrators is becoming blurred by the day.
“Look at what happened to Prisons and BDF where second in command were overlooked for outsiders, and these are the people who had sacrificially served for donkey’s years hoping for a seat at the ladder’s end. The frequency of the changes, at times affecting the same Ministry or individual also demonstrates some level of ineptitude, clumsiness and lack of foresight from those in charge,” remarked the PS who added that their view is that the transfers are not related to anything but “settling scores, creating corruption opportunities and pushing out perceived dissident and former president, Ian Khama’s alleged loyalists and most of these transfers are said to be products of intelligence detection.”
Partly blaming Khama for the mess and his unwillingness to let go, the PS dismissed Masisi for falling to the trap and failing to outgrow the destructive tiff. “Khama is here to stay and the sooner Masisi comes to terms with the fact that he (Masisi) is the state President, the better. For a President to still be making these changes and transfers signals signs of a confused man who has not yet started rolling his roadmap, if at all it was ever there. I am saying this because any roadmap comes with key players and policies,” he concluded.
The Ministry of Health and Wellness seems to be the most hard-hit by the transfers, having experienced three Permanent Secretaries changes within a year and a half. Insiders say the changes have everything to do with the Ministry being the centre of COVID-19 tenders and economic opportunities. “The buck stops with the PS and no right-thinking PS can just allow glaring corruption under his watch as an accounting officer. Technocrats are generally law abiding, the pressure comes with politically appointed leaders racing against political terms to loot,” revealed a director in the Ministry preferring anonymity.
The latest transfer of Kabelo Ebineng she says was also motivated by his firm attitude against the President’s blue-eyed Task Team boys. “The Task Team wants to own the COVID-19 pandemic and government interventions and always cry foul when the Ministry reasserts itself as mandated by law,” said the director who added that Masisi who was always caught between the crossfire decided on sacrificing Ebineng to the joy of his team as they (Task Team) were in the habit of threatening to resign citing Ebineng as the problem.
Ebineng joins the Office of the President as a deputy Coordinator (government implementation and coordination office).The incoming PS is the soft-spoken Grace Muzila, known and described by her close associates as a conformist albeit knowledgeable.
One of the losers in the grand scheme is Thato Raphaka who many had seen as the next PSP because of his experience and calm demeanour following a declaration of interest in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Secretary post by the current PSP, Elias Magosi.
But hardly ten months into his post, Raphaka has been transferred out to the National Strategy Office in what many see as a demotion of some sort. Other notable changes coming into OP are Pearl Ramokoka formerly with the Employment, Labour and Productivity Ministry coming in as a Permanent Secretary and Kgomotso Abi as director of Public Service Reforms.
One of the ousted senior officers in the Office of the President warned that there are no signs that the changes and transfers will stop anytime soon: “If you are observant you would have long noticed that the changes don’t only affect senior officers but government decisions as well. A decision is made today and the government backtracks on it within a week. Not only that, the President says this today, and his deputy denies it the following day in Parliament,” he warned.
Some observers have blamed the turmoil in the civil service partly to lack of accountable presidential advisers or kitchen cabinet properly schooled on matters of statecraft. They point out that politicians or those peripheral to them should refrain from hampering the technical and organizational activities of public managers – or else the party (reshuffling) won’t stop.
In the view expressed by some Permanent Secretaries, Elias Magosi, has not really been himself since joining the civil service; and has cut a picture of indifference in most critical engagements; the most notable been a permanent secretaries platform which he chairs. As things stand there is need to reconcile the imperatives of democracy and democracy in Botswana. Peace will rein only when public value should stand astride the fault that runs between politicians and public managers.
Former Permanent Secretary to the President, Carter Morupisi, is fighting for survival in a matter in which the State has charged him and his wife, Pinnie Morupisi, with corruption and money laundering.
Morupisi has joined a list of prominent figures that served in the previous administration and who have been accused of corruption during their tenure in office. While others have been emerging victorious, Morupisi is yet to find that luck. The High Court recently dismissed his no case to answer application.
United States President, Joe Biden, is faced with a decision to make relating to the Covid-19 vaccine intellectual property after 175 former world leaders and Nobel laurates joined the campaign urging the US to take “urgent action” to suspend intellectual property rights for Covid-19 vaccines to help boost global inoculation rates.
According to the world leaders, doing so would allow developing countries to make their own copies of the vaccines that have been developed by pharmaceutical companies without fear of being sued for intellectual property infringements.
“A WTO waiver is a vital and necessary step to bringing an end to this pandemic. It must be combined with ensuring vaccine know-how and technology is shared openly,” the signatories, comprising more than 100 Nobel prize-winners and over 70 former world leaders, wrote in a letter to US President Joe Biden, according to Financial Times.
A measure to allow countries to temporarily override patent rights for Covid related medical products was proposed at the World Trade Organization by India and South Africa in October, and has since been backed by nearly 60 countries.
Former leaders who signed the letter included Gordon Brown, former UK Prime Minister; François Hollande, former French President; Mikhail Gorbachev, former President of the USSR; and Yves Leterme, former Belgian Prime Minister.
In their official communication, South Africa and India said: “As new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines for Covid-19 are developed, there are significant concerns [about] how these will be made available promptly, in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices to meet global demand.”
While developed countries have been able to secure enough vaccine to inoculate their citizens, developing countries such as Botswana are struggling to source enough to swiftly vaccine their citizens, something which world leaders believe it would work against global recovery therefore proving counter-productive.
Since the availability of vaccines, Botswana has been able to secure only 60 000 doses of vaccines, 30 000 as donation as from the Indian government, while the other 30 000 was sourced through COVAX facility. Canada, has pre-ordered vaccines in surplus and it will be able to vaccinate each of its citizens six times over. In the UK and US, it is four vaccines per person; and two each in the EU and Australia.
For vaccines produced in Europe, developing countries are forced to pay double what European countries are paying, making it more expensive for already financially struggling economies. European countries however justify the price of vaccines and that they deserve to buy them cheap since they contributed in their development.
It is evident that vaccines cannot be made available immediately to all countries worldwide with wealthy economies being the only success story in that regard, something that has been referred to as a “catastrophic moral failure”, head of the World Health Organisation (WHO), Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.
The challenge facing developing countries is not only the price, but also the capacity of vaccine manufactures to be able to do so to meet global demand within a short time. The proposal for a patent waiver by India and South Africa has been rejected by developed countries, known for hosting the world leading pharmaceutical companies such US, European Union, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland.
According to the Financial Times, US business groups including pharmaceutical industry representatives, have urged Biden to resist supporting a waiver to IP rules at the WTO, arguing that the proposal led by India and South Africa was too “vague” and “broad”.
The individuals who signed the letter, including Nobel laureates in economics as well as from across the arts and sciences, warned that inequitable vaccine access would impact the global economy and prevent it from recovering.
“The world saw unprecedented development of safe and effective vaccines, in major part thanks to US public investment,” the group wrote. “We all welcome that vaccination rollout in the US and many wealthier countries is bringing hope to their citizens.”
“Yet for the majority of the world that same hope is yet to be seen. New waves of suffering are now rising across the globe. Our global economy cannot rebuild if it remains vulnerable to this virus.” The group warned that fully enforcing IP was “self-defeating for the US” as it hindered global vaccination efforts. “Given artificial global supply shortages, the US economy already risks losing $1.3tn in gross domestic product this year.”