Animal bites pose a major public health problem in children and adults worldwide.
The health impacts of animal bites are dependent on the type and health of animal species, the size and health of the bitten person, and accessibility to appropriate health care. Numerous animal species have the potential to bite humans; however the most important are tabhose arising from snakes, dogs, cats and monkeys.
Worldwide, up to five million people are bitten by snakes every year. Of these, poisonous or envenoming snakes cause considerable morbidity and mortality. There are an estimated 2.4 million envenomation’s, or poisonings from snake bites and between 94 and 125 thousand deaths annually, with an additional 400 thousand amputations and other severe health consequences, such as infection, tetanus, scarring, contractures, and psychological sequelae. Poor access to health care and scarcity of antivenom increases the severity of the injuries and their outcomes.
According to World Health Organization WHO report, the majority of snake bites occur in Africa and South-East Asia. Snake bites are most common among people living in rural, resource-poor settings, who subsist on low-cost, non-mechanical farming and other field occupations. Agricultural workers, women and children are the groups most frequently bitten by snakes. Adding to the burden of these injuries is their socioeconomic impact on families and communities. Adult victims are often the wage earners or care providers of the family unit; and child victims can suffer lifelong disability intensifying demands on families and communities.
Approximately 600 species of snake are venomous and approximately 50-70 per cent of bites by these cause envenomation. At the time of a bite, the cornerstone of care is complete immobilization of the affected boy part and prompt transfer to a medical facility. Tourniquets and cutting wounds can worsen the effects of the venom and should not be used as first aid. Frequently, victims of snake bites will require treatment with antivenom. The report said it is important that the antivenom is appropriate for snakes endemic to the region. Additional measures include wound cleansing to decrease infection risk, supportive therapy such as airway support, and administration of tetanus vaccine upon discharge if the person has been inadequately vaccinated against tetanus.
According to the report, snake bites can be prevented by avoiding tall grassy areas, wear protective shoes, keeping storage areas clear of rodents as well as removing rubbish, woodpiles and lowering brush from around the home. To prevent or limit the serious health consequences of snake bites, health-care providers should be educated on snake-bite management, including proper use and administration of antivenom. Public health authorities and policy- makers should ensure appropriate supplies of safe and effective antivenoms to communities, countries and regions where they are most needed, and prioritize research initiatives that will further determine the burden of these injuries.There are no global estimates of dog bites incidence; however studies suggest that dog bites account for tens of millions of injuries annually.
In the United States of America for example, approximately 4.5 million people are bitten by dogs every year. Of these, nearly 885 thousand seek medical care; 30 thousand have reconstructive procedures; 3-18 per cent develop infections and between 10 and 20 fatalities occur. Other high-income countries such as Australia, Canada and France have comparable incidence and fatality rates.Low- and middle-income countries that are more fragmented, however some studies reveal that dogs account for 76-94 per cent of animal bite injuries.
Dog bite fatality rates are higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries as rabies is a problem in many of these countries, and there may be a lack of post-exposure treatment and appropriate access to health care. An estimated 59 thousand people die annually from rabies, and bites from rabid dogs account for the vast majority of these deaths.The report stressed that children make up the largest percentage of people bitten by dogs, with the highest incidence in mid-to-late childhood.
This risk of injury to the head and neck is greater in children than in adults, adding to increased severity, necessity for medical treatment and death rates. In some countries, male shave a higher frequency of dog bites than females. Dog bites account for over 50 per cent of animal-related injuries in people who are travelling.Further, the report recommended that health-care providers should be educated on the appropriate management of dog bites.
Health authorities and policy-makers should ensure rabies control within dog populations, ensure appropriate supplies of rabies vaccines for potential rabies exposure in people, and develop data collection systems to further document the burden of this problem.Worldwide, according to the report, cat bites account for 2-50 per cent of injuries related to animal-bites. They are commonly second to dog bites in terms of incidence. In Italy for example, the incidence of cat-related injuries is 18 per cent per 100 000 population, while in the United States of America, there are an estimated 400 thousand cat bites and 66 thousand visits to hospital emergency departments every year. Female adults have the highest rate of cat bites, according to the WHO report.
Furthermore, monkey bites also account for 2-21 per cent of animal bite injuries. In India for example, two studies found monkeys to be second to dogs as the most common source of animal bite injuries. Monkey bites are an important risk among travellers, being the second most common animal bite risk to travellers after dog bites.WHO said it is working to address the public health problem of animal bite injuries. For snake bites, WHO has launched several tools to help guide the appropriate development, distribution and administration of antivenom.
For rabies, the organization advocates greater access to post-exposure treatment through promoting increased production of rabies biological, continuing education in rabies prevention and control, and widespread immunization of dog populations.
Even though Botswana has over the years been performing extremely poorly at the Miss World competition, the country has confirmed that it will be hosting the beauty festival in 2026. Initially, the country was to host Miss World next year, something it failed to confirm before deadline. Director at Miss Botswana, Benjamin Raletsatsi, says Botswana will be ready then to host all participants. Miss Botswana Top 25 finalists left the boot camp yesterday. Quite shocking though, Miss Botswana team is still failing basics as responding to media inquiries on time yet it is dangerously hoping to host an event of high status
DJ Sway, the daring and ambitious on-air presenter of Yarona FM, played a crucial role in saving the radio station’s music awards, known as the YAMAs. The event was initially dry and disorganized, but DJ Sway, who co-hosted with Pearl Thusi, injected life into the show. However, things took a turn for the worse when Pearl Thusi abruptly left the stage, leaving DJ Sway to carry on alone. Despite the unexpected setback, DJ Sway rose to the occasion and captivated the audience, effectively putting an end to the drama caused by Pearl Thusi.
In an exclusive interview after the YAMAs, DJ Sway revealed the behind-the-scenes chaos that unfolded during the event. He acknowledged the script editors, Phalana and Hope, who worked tirelessly to reedit the script and adapt it to a one-host format. Despite the last-minute changes, DJ Sway remained composed and focused, thanks to the support of his colleagues, such as Owen Rampha, Katlego Rakola, Tshepang Motsisi (DJ Easy), and LB.
When asked about his initial reaction to the unexpected turn of events, DJ Sway admitted to feeling saddened by how things ended. However, he credited Pearl Thusi for giving him a much-needed confidence boost during his moment of doubt. She reminded him that he was destined for greatness and that he didn’t need big stars to succeed. With her words of encouragement, DJ Sway regained his composure and approached the rest of the show with the same professionalism and charisma he displays on the radio.
To overcome the challenges he faced, DJ Sway relied on his radio skills and calm personality. He engaged with the audience as if he were speaking to a single person, pointing out individuals in the crowd to create a more intimate connection. He also expressed gratitude for his backstage team, who provided support and ensured the smooth running of the show.
DJ Sway expressed satisfaction in being seen as the saving grace of the YAMAs. He believed that he fulfilled his role as a host and brought joy to the Yarona FM board, his family, and his fans. Despite his success, DJ Sway’s journey has not been without hardships. He has experienced the loss of his mother and sister, which has left a lasting impact on him. While he continues to grieve, he seeks solace in therapy sessions and relies on his father for emotional support.
DJ Sway’s dedication to his craft and ability to overcome adversity make him a remarkable figure in the radio industry. His vibrant personality and deep knowledge of music have made him a perfect fit for Yarona FM. Despite the challenges he has faced, DJ Sway remains determined to make a positive impact and bring joy to his listeners. With his talent and resilience, there is no doubt that DJ Sway will continue to thrive in his career and leave a lasting legacy in the world of radio.
Chef Gustos, the renowned hitmaker, recently experienced what can only be described as a walk of shame at the 8th edition of the Yarona FM Music Awards (YAMAs). Despite being nominated a whopping seven times, he failed to secure a single win. Ouch!
The night was filled with surprises, drama, and controversy, but the biggest winner of the evening was Han C, who walked away with three awards, including Best Pop and Best Male Single for his hit song, “Sebinki.” Han C graciously announced that he would be donating P10,000 from his winnings to his fellow nominees, promoting a spirit of togetherness among artists. What a noble gesture!
Meanwhile, Chef Gustos found himself on the losing end of several categories, including People’s Choice Artist of the Year, which he had won in the past. He seemed unfazed by the loss, stating, “People know that ‘Away’ was big, but they won’t stop me.” It’s clear that Chef Gustos is determined to continue making music, regardless of the awards he receives.
However, he did express his frustration with the outcome, suggesting that the awards may be corrupt. He declined to comment further, citing the need to protect his brand and maintain good relationships with corporate clients. It’s understandable that he wants to avoid any potential damage to his future prospects.
In fact, Chef Gustos went so far as to request that Yarona FM not nominate him for future YAMAs. It seems he wants to distance himself from the disappointment and focus on his music without the pressure of awards. Perhaps this decision will allow him to create freely and without the burden of expectations.
While Chef Gustos may have experienced a walk of shame at the YAMAs, it’s important to remember that awards do not define an artist’s talent or success. His fans still appreciate his music, and he continues to have gigs with corporate clients. So, despite the disappointment, Chef Gustos remains optimistic about his future in the industry.
In the end, the YAMAs may have been a letdown for Chef Gustos, but he’s determined to keep moving forward. He won’t let a lack of awards dampen his spirits or hinder his creativity. And who knows, maybe next time he’ll come back stronger and prove that he’s deserving of recognition. After all, the true measure of an artist’s success lies in the hearts of their fans, not in shiny trophies.