Business leaders continue to cite lack of skilled workers in Botswana as the biggest constraint to business expansion.
The Grant Thornton International Business Report 2014 is drawn from drawn from data sources such as Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) together with the views of 200 business leaders in Botswana and 12,500 globally, over 12 months.
A significant 40 percent of businesses surveyed cite a lack of skilled labour as a restraining factor though 48 percent plan to increase their workforce in the next 12 months.
Further, 84 percent of business leaders say they would support quotas for the number of women in executive boards while 52 percent plan on promoting women in 2014.
Globally, the issue of taking time out for motherhood is seen as a restrictive factor to women reaching the boardroom. In Botswana the issue is addressed by means of flexible working initiatives in 84 percent of businesses while 79 percent offer the option to buy holiday time or take unpaid leave.
Other challenges that the business community face include regulations and red tape which also continue to be cited as constraining business growth; however, the number of business leaders reporting it as a restraint has reached a 5 year low of 35 percent, lower than South Africa (39 percent) and the African average of 37 percent.
Rising energy costs have posed a serious challenge for more than 44 percent of businesses in Botswana, however a significant decrease from Q2 2014 at 66 percent; Q1 2014 at 56 percent and Q4 2013 at 54 percent. This reflects the stabilisation of recent power supply shortages in the country.
Complaints about Information and Communications Technology (ICTs) infrastructure as a constraining factor have reduced by half from 2013, with only 16 percent of businesses – just below the global average of 19 percent – seeing it as a limiting factor to growth.
Improvement has also been noted in the survey of business leaders in the area of transport infrastructure, with just 13 percent businesses citing it as a growth restrictor in 2014, an improvement from the 31 percent registered in 2013.
THE PROSPECTS Business optimism in Botswana in Q3 rose sharply to 58 percent compared to only 30 percent 12 months ago, reflecting more than double the African average of 27 percent. As much as 80 percent expect to see revenue growth in the next 12 months. Profitability expectations are on a seven high in Botswana, reaching 88 percent, also clocking the highest figure from 34 economies surveyed.
With the prevailing circumstances, business leaders are seen to be prioritizing investment in a number of growth initiatives, such as marketing (76 percent) while 50 percent have plans in place to launch new products and over 36 percent aim to expand their businesses locally.
This century is always looking at improving new super high speed technology to make life easier. On the other hand, beckoning as an emerging fierce reversal force to equally match or dominate this life enhancing super new tech, comes swift human adversaries which seem to have come to make living on earth even more difficult.
The recent discovery of a pandemic, Covid-19, which moves at a pace of unimaginable and unpredictable proportions; locking people inside homes and barring human interactions with its dreaded death threat, is currently being felt.
Member of Parliament for Kanye North, Thapelo Letsholo has cautioned Government against excessive borrowing and poorly managed debt levels.
He was speaking in Parliament on Tuesday delivering Parliament’s Finance Committee report after assessing a motion that sought to raise Government Bond program ceiling to P30 billion, a big jump from the initial P15 Billion.
Government Investment Account (GIA) which forms part of the Pula fund has been significantly drawn down to finance Botswana’s budget deficits since 2008/09 Global financial crises.
The 2009 global economic recession triggered the collapse of financial markets in the United States, sending waves of shock across world economies, eroding business sentiment, and causing financiers of trade to excise heightened caution and hold onto their cash.
The ripple effects of this economic catastrophe were mostly felt by low to middle income resource based economies, amplifying their vulnerability to external shocks. The diamond industry which forms the gist of Botswana’s economic make up collapsed to zero trade levels across the entire value chain.
The Upstream, where Botswana gathers much of its diamond revenue was adversely impacted by muted demand in the Midstream. The situation was exacerbated by zero appetite of polished goods by jewelry manufacturers and retail outlets due to lowered tail end consumer demand.
This resulted in sharp decline of Government revenue, ballooned budget deficits and suspension of some developmental projects. To finance the deficit and some prioritized national development projects, government had to dip into cash balances, foreign reserves and borrow both externally and locally.
Much of drawing was from Government Investment Account as opposed to drawing from foreign reserve component of the Pula Fund; the latter was spared as a fiscal buffer for the worst rainy days.
Consequently this resulted in significant decline in funds held in the Government Investment Account (GIA). The account serves as Government’s main savings depository and fund for national policy objectives.
However as the world emerged from the 2009 recession government revenue graph picked up to pre recession levels before going down again around 2016/17 owing to challenges in the diamond industry.
Due to a number of budget surpluses from 2012/13 financial year the Government Investment Account started expanding back to P30 billion levels before a series of budget deficits in the National Development Plan 11 pushed it back to decline a decline wave.
When the National Development Plan 11 commenced three (3) financial years ago, government announced that the first half of the NDP would run at budget deficits.
This as explained by Minister of Finance in 2017 would be occasioned by decline in diamond revenue mainly due to government forfeiting some of its dividend from Debswana to fund mine expansion projects.
Cumulatively since 2017/18 to 2019/20 financial year the budget deficit totaled to over P16 billion, of which was financed by both external and domestic borrowing and drawing down from government cash balances. Drawing down from government cash balances meant significant withdrawals from the Government Investment Account.
The Government Investment Account (GIA) was established in accordance with Section 35 of the Bank of Botswana Act Cap. 55:01. The Account represents Government’s share of the Botswana‘s foreign exchange reserves, its investment and management strategies are aligned to the Bank of Botswana’s foreign exchange reserves management and investment guidelines.
Government Investment Account, comprises of Pula denominated deposits at the Bank of Botswana and held in the Pula Fund, which is the long-term investment tranche of the foreign exchange reserves.
In June 2017 while answering a question from Bogolo Kenewendo, the then Minister of Finance & Economic Development Kenneth Mathambo told parliament that as of June 30, 2017, the total assets in the Pula Fund was P56.818 billion, of which the balance in the GIA was P30.832 billion.
Kenewendo was still a back bench specially elected Member of Parliament before ascending to cabinet post in 2018. Last week Minister of Finance & Economic Development, Dr Thapelo Matsheka, when presenting a motion to raise government local borrowing ceiling from P15 billion to P30 Billion told parliament that as of December 2019 Government Investment Account amounted to P18.3 billion.
Dr Matsheka further told parliament that prior to financial crisis of 2008/9 the account amounted to P30.5 billion (41 % of GDP) in December of 2008 while as at December 2019 it stood at P18.3 billion (only 9 % of GDP) mirroring a total decline by P11 billion in the entire 11 years.
Back in 2017 Parliament was also told that the Government Investment Account may be drawn-down or added to, in line with actuations in the Government’s expenditure and revenue outturns. “This is intended to provide the Government with appropriate funds to execute its functions and responsibilities effectively and efficiently” said Mathambo, then Minister of Finance.
Acknowledging the need to draw down from GIA no more, current Minister of Finance Dr Matsheka said “It is under this background that it would be advisable to avoid excessive draw down from this account to preserve it as a financial buffer”
He further cautioned “The danger with substantially reduced financial buffers is that when an economic shock occurs or a disaster descends upon us and adversely affects our economy it becomes very difficult for the country to manage such a shock”