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Wish-List for the Youth Constituency


This time of the year is well-known for wish-lists, individuals and collectives are busy updating and circulating their desired whish-lists for the festive season and/or the year(s) ahead. A 'Wish-list' is simply a record of desired items or occurrences (Oxford Dictionaries; 2014). The list's author(s) will then distribute copies of their wish-list to stakeholder(s) who are capable of transforming the wish-list for the would-be recipient(s). The fundamental goal of any wish-list is to facilitate communication between the author(s) and respective stakeholder(s). Wish-lists normally contain realistic expectations that stakeholder(s) can fulfill directly and/or indirectly.

Therefore, it is fitting for me and like minded youth advocates to circulate our desired wish-list, on behalf of our constituents, with hope that relevant authorities find it worthy to grant Youth some, if not all their desires in this list. That is, if they find Youth deserving of such wishes, we are mindful of the fact that, wishes can only be granted those considered deserving.

This wish-list is more than a gradient of desired expectations; it also serves as a ‘needs based’ template for youth advocates, legislatures and policy makers alike. Youth development is a stubborn and escalating problem in Botswana. This reality persists despite frequent establishment of numerous youth development initiatives/projects plus pleasing financial and political will. Youth in Botswana are faced with divers and equally pressing socio-economic challenges, these inform and guide this ‘Youth Constituency’ wish-list.  

We wish for equitable distribution of wealth and resources, we want the enormous and growing gap between the ‘Rich’ and the ‘Poor’ to be completely obliterated. Our country should translate its remarkable Economic Growth to remarkable Economic Development. Our Gini Index is in excess of 0.64, one of the highest in the whole world. Best practice approaches to equitable economic development are obvious and well known, these include; decentralization, genuine citizen participation, needs based programing and transparency.

Equitable economic development hurdles are obvious and well known, these include; corruption, centralization, top-down apprach and, nepotism. We refuse to accept that countries such as; Mauritius and Denmark are mere fairytales; we should emulate, and surpass such countries. We want Decentralization over Recentralization; services should go to the people not vice versa.  Botswana is characterized by disturbing levels of rapid Rural-Urban migration; this is because all economic development opportunities and basic public services are centralized in one area.

The socio-economic impacts of Rural-Urban migration on both urban & rural communities are well known and at play in our motherland. The recent land pandemonium in Odi and overwhelming poverty in rural settlements are classic signs of rapid Rural-Urban migration.  This decentralization should incorporate youth socio-economic integration through; Cooperatives, Localization, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) and, the Economic Diversification Drive (EDD).

We yearn for permanent decent jobs and sustainable livelihoods: Unemployment in our country has been around 20 percent since 2007. Not only have we failed to create new jobs since 2007, we have correspondingly failed to protect the few jobs in our economy. About 70% of our total unemployment is youth unemployment, furthermore youth fall within the intermediate sector with low paying jobs. Youth face a new phenomenon of skilled and unskilled labor exploitation/servitude termed ‘underemployment’.

This reality restricts ‘majority’ of youth from living sustainable livelihoods, resulting in undesirable socio-economic tribulations, like the recent Thamaga ‘Merubisi’ invasion. Furthermore, we yearn for earnest sustainable 'socioeconomic safety nets' that bring youth to mainstream economic membership, instead of keeping them in the sidelines. We wish for improved Education and Skills Development; we want BIUST to be fully and eternally operational by January. We hope troubled Botswana Accountancy College (BAC) survives or recovers from its apparent P3 million debt legal battle. We yearn for appropriate management and leadership at Good-Hope Senior School, Tonota College of Education and other troubled institutions, for proper teaching and learning to prevail. We wish universal public Early Childhood Education provision will take-off soon.

Though we should, we will not dwell much on ‘Curriculum Review’, in this regard, we fittingly refer you to recommendations of the Kedikilwe Education Commission (1993) and the Education with Production principle by renowned educationalist, Patrick van Rensburg. We wish for better and efficient Monitoring and Evaluation of Tertiary Institutions, to ensure their services gratify market demands and our citizens get value for money. We yearn for expansion and diversification of our education system; it ought to vigorously incorporate ‘Non-Formal’ and ‘Out of School Education’. These should focus on life and entrepreneurial skills instead of basic literacy and numeracy skills.
 
We genuinely yearn for land; the revised Tribal Land Act (1993) and the Constitution of Botswana (section 14 and 15) assurance us land ownership anywhere in the country is our constitutional right. Though decent shelter and accommodation is our right, today we do not plead on constitutional/legal grounds. We simply plead for land as a socio-economic and human development basic need as demonstrated by renewed psychologist, Abraham Maslow, in his distinguished ‘Hierarchy of Needs’  theory. We desire effective and equitable distribution of land; we know there is plenty to go around for everyone.

We want to be allocated tribal land from 18yrs or earlier, why should we wait for 21yrs? We also know the waiting list stands at, 140 000 in Mogoditshane, 16 348 in Palapye and, 5 146 in Mochudi, but we refuse to believe this is the best our country can do. We know about the six year old Land Administration, Procedures and Systems (LAPCAS), but we have our reservations. We refuse to believe the land situation in countries like France is a fairy-tale and luck; it is a result of deliberate policy interventions and unquestionable political will. We should emulate, and surpass such countries.

We yearn for genuine Youth participation; to be precise we yearn for ratification of the African Youth Charter (AYC). AYC is a legal framework to guide and support policies, programs and actions for youth development and empowerment across Africa (Mac-Ikemenjima; 2009). We also plead for ‘needs based’ programing through a ‘bottom-up approach’ opposed to the current ‘top-down and one size fits all approach’. We yearn for bottom-up policy approach because it is the only approach best placed to address the diverse youth development challenges across our country.

This approach is cognizant of the fact that; youth are not a ‘homogenous group’ they confront diverse realities. Their differences in age, gender, experience, marital status, interests and preferences, family background, income, and religion, amongst others, creates a wide gap between the needs, aspirations and expectations of youth in our country. The options and constraints they face vary widely; so does their description of opportunities. Therefore, there can never be a universal initiative that addresses all youth challenges at once. In this regard, we also yearn for the overdue Youth Parliament. 

Empowerment of young women is also our wish; traditional and contemporary hardships facing young women are well and widely documented. We cannot pretend these social, cultural, political and economic hardships do not exist. Hence, we yearn for ratification and compliance to among others; SADC Gender Protocol and Conventions on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDA. Our disturbing youth development situation affects females more than their male counterparts. Therefore if any significant strides are to be actualized, sustainable empowerment and development of young women should be a deliberate action item.

Unfortunately we have exceeded the word-count; hence we shall stop here. There is a lot more we wish to include in our ‘youth constituency’ wish-list. We will certainly find a way of advancing all wishes left out in this list.   

* Taziba is Youth Advocate & Researcher with keen interest in Youth Policy, Civic Engagement, Social Inclusion and Capacity Building
(7189 0354/gtaziba@yahoo.co.uk)

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Opinions

The Taiwan Question: China ramps up military exercises to rebuff US provocations

18th August 2022

US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan has violated the One-China policy, and caused the escalation of tensions across the Taiwan Strait. Experts and political observers across the spectra agree that Pelosi’s actions and subsequent pronouncements by US President Joe Biden gave impetus to an already simmering tension in the Taiwan Strait, provoking China to strengthen its legitimate hold on the Taiwan Strait waters, which the US and Taiwan deem as ‘international waters’.

Pelosi’s visit to China’s Taiwan region has been heavily criticised across the globe, with China arguing that this is a serious violation of the one-China principle and the provisions of the three China-US Joint Communiqués.  In response to this reckless move which seriously undermined China’s sovereignty, and interfered in China’s internal affairs, the expectation is for China to give a firm response. Pelosi visit violated the commitments made by the U.S. side, and seriously jeopardized peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait.

To give context to China’s position over Taiwan region, the history behind gives us perspective. It is also important to note that the history between China and Taiwan is well documented and the US has always recognized it.

The People’s Republic of China recognises Taiwan as its territory. It has always been  the case even before the Nationalist Republic of China government fled to the previously Japanese-ruled Island after losing the civil war on the mainland in 1949. According to literature that threat was contained for decades — first with a military alliance between the US and the ROC on Taiwan, and after Washington switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC in 1979 by the US One China policy, which acknowledges Beijing’s position that Taiwan is part of One China. Effectively, Taiwan’s administration was transferred to the Republic of China from Japan after the Second World War in 1945, along with the split between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) as a consequence of the Chinese Civil War. Disregarding this history, as the US is attempting to do, will surely initiate some defence reaction on the side of China to affirm its sovereignty.

However, this history was undermined since Taiwan claimed to democratise in the 1990s and China has grown ever more belligerent. Furthermore, it is well documented that the Biden administration, following the Trump presidency, has made subtle changes in the way it deals with Taipei, such as loosening restrictions on US officials meeting Taiwanese officials – this should make China uneasy. And while the White House continues to say it does not support Taiwanese independence, Biden’s words and actions are parallel to this pledge because he has warned China that the US would intervene militarily if China attacked Taiwan – another statement that has provoked China.

Pelosi, in her private space, would know that her actions amount to provocation of China. This act of aggression by the USA seriously undermines the virtues of sovereignty and territorial integrity which has a huge potential to destabilize not only the Taiwan Strait but the whole of the Asia- Pacific region.  The Americans know very well that their provocative behavior is deliberately invoking the spirit of separatism masqueraded as “Taiwan independence”.  The US is misled to think that by supporting separatism of Taiwan from China that would give them an edge over China in a geopolitics. This is what one Chinese diplomat said this week: “The critical point is if every country put their One-China policy into practice with sincerity, with no compromise, is going to guarantee the peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait.”  Therefore, it was in the wake of US House speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan, that China, in a natural response revealed plans for unprecedented military exercises near the island, prompting fears of a crisis in the Taiwan Strait and the entire Asia-Pacific region. The world community must promote and foster peace, this may be achieved when international laws are respected. It may also happen when nations respect the sovereignty of another. China may be in a better space because it is well capacitated to stake its territorial integrity, what about a small nation, if this happens to it?

As to why military exercises by Beijing; it is an expected response because China was provoked by the actions of Pelosi. To fortify this position, Chinese President, Xi signed a legal basis for China’s People’s Liberation Army to “safeguard China’s national sovereignty, security and development interests”. The legal basis will also allow military missions around disaster relief, humanitarian aid and peacekeeping. In addition the legal changes would allow troops to “prevent spillover effects of regional instabilities from affecting China, secure vital transport routes for strategic materials like oil, or safeguard China’s overseas investments, projects and personnel.  It then follows that President Xi’s administration cannot afford to look weak under a US provocation. President Xi must protector China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, of which Taiwan is a central part.” Beijing is very clear on One-China Policy, and expects all world players to recognize and respect it.

The People’s Liberation Army has made it clear that it has firepower that covers all of Taiwan, and it can strike wherever it wants. This sentiments have been attributed to Zhang Junshe, a researcher at the PLA Navy Research Institute. Zheng further said, “We got really close to Taiwan. We encircled Taiwan. And we demonstrated that we can effectively stop intervention by foreign forces.” This is a strong reaction from China to warn the US against provocation and violation of the One-China Policy.

Beijing’s military exercises will certainly shake Taiwan’s confidence in the sources of its economic and political survival. The potential for an effective blockade threatens the air and shipping routes that support Taiwan’s central role in global technology supply chains. Should a humanitarian situation arise in Taiwan, the blame would squarely be on the US.

As China’s military exercises along the Taiwan Strait progress and grow, it remains that the decision by Nancy Pelosi to visit China’s Taiwan region gravely undermined peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, and sent a wrong signal to “Taiwan independence” separatist forces. This then speaks to international conventions, as the UN Secretary-General António Guterres explicitly stressed that the UN remains committed to the UN General Assembly Resolution 2758. The centerpiece is the one-China principle, namely, there is but one China in the world, the government of the People’s Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China, and Taiwan is a part of China. It must be noted that the US and the US-led NATO countries have selectively applied international law, this has been going on unabated. There is a plethora of actions that have collapsed several states after they were attacked under the pretext of the so-called possession of weapons of mass destruction illuminating them as threats – and sometimes even without any valid reason. to blatantly launch military strikes and even unleash wars on sovereign countrie

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Opinions

Internal party-democracy under pressure

21st June 2022

British novelist, W. Somerset Maugham once opined: “If a nation values anything more than freedom, it will lose its freedom; and the irony of it is that if it is comfort or money that it values more, it will lose that too.”

The truism in these words cannot be underestimated, especially when contextualizing against the political developments in Botswana. We have become a nation that does not value democracy, yet nothing represent freedom more than democracy. In fact, we desire, and value winning power or clinging to power more than anything else, even if it harms the democratic credentials of our political institutions. This is happening across political parties — ruling and opposition.

As far as democracy is concerned, we are regressing. We are becoming worse-off than we were in the past. If not arrested, Botswana will lose its status as among few democratic nations in the Africa. Ironically, Botswana was the first country in Africa to embrace democracy, and has held elections every five years without fail since independence.

We were once viewed as the shining example of Africa. Those accolades are not worth it any more. Young democracies such as South Africa, with strong institutions, deserves to be exalted. Botswana has lost faith in democracy, and we will pay a price for it. It is a slippery slope to dictatorship, which will bring among other excess, assault on civil liberties and human rights violations.

Former President, Festus Mogae once stated that Botswana’s democracy will only become authentic, when a different party, other than the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) wins elections, and when the President of such party is not from Serowe.

Although many may not publicly care to admit, Mogae’s assertion is true. BDP has over the years projected itself as a dyed-in-the-wool proponent of democracy, but the moment its stay in power became threatened and uncertain, it started behaving in a manner that is at variance with democratic values.  This has been happening over the years now, and the situation is getting worse by the day.

Recently, the BDP party leadership has been preaching compromise and consensus candidates for 2024 general elections. Essentially, the leadership has lost faith in the Bulela Ditswe dispensation, which has been used to selected party candidates for council and parliament since 2003. The leadership is discouraging democracy because they believe primary elections threaten party unity. It is a strange assertion indeed.

Bulela Ditswe was an enrichment of internal party democracy in the sense that it replaced the previous method of selection of candidates known as Committee of 18, in which a branch committee made of 18 people endorsed the representatives. While it is true that political contest can divide, the ruling party should be investing in political education and strengthening in its primary elections processes. Democracy does not come cheap or easy, but it is valuable.

Any unity that we desire so much at the expense of democracy is not true unity. Like W. Somerset Maugham said, democracy would be lost in the process, and ultimately, even the unity that was desired would eventually be lost too. Any solution that sacrifice democracy would not bring any results in the long run, except misery.

We have seen that also in opposition ranks. The Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) recently indicated that its incumbent Members of Parliament (MPs) should not be challenged for their seats. While BDP is sacrificing democracy to stay in power, UDC is sacrificing democracy to win power. It is a scary reality given the fact that both parties – ruling and opposition — have embraced this position and believe democracy is the hindrance to their political ambitions.

These current reality points to one thing; our political parties have lost faith in democracy. They desire power more than, the purpose of power itself. It is also a crisis of leadership across the political divide, where we have seen dissenting views being met with persecution. We have seen perverting of political process endorsed by those in echelons of power to manipulate political outcomes in their favour.

Democracy should not be optional, it should be mandatory. Any leader proposing curtailing of democracy should be viewed with suspicion, and his adventures should be rejected before it is too late. Members of political parties, as subscribers of democracy, should collectively rise to the occasion to save their democracy from self-interest that is becoming prevalent among Botswana political parties.

The so-called compromise candidates, only benefits the leadership because it creates comforts for them. But for members, and for the nation, it is causing damage by reversing the gains that have been made over the years. We should reject leaders who only preach democracy in word, but are hesitant to practice it.

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Opinions

The Big Deal About Piracy

21st June 2022
piracy

Piracy of all kinds continues to have a massive impact on the global creative industry and the economies of the countries where it thrives.

One of the biggest misconceptions around piracy is that an individual consumer’s piracy activities, especially in a market the size of Botswana’s, is only a drop in the pool of potential losses to the different sectors of the economy piracy affects.

When someone sitting in Gaborone, Botswana logs onto an illegal site to download King Richard online, they don’t imagine that their one download will do anything to the production house’s pocket or make a dent in the actors’ net worth. At best, the sensitivity towards this illegal pirating activity likely only exists when contemplating going about pirating a local musician’s music or a short film produced locally.

The ripple effects of piracy at whatever scale reach far beyond what the average consumer could ever imagine. Figures released by software security and media technology company, Irdeto, show that users in five major African territories made approximately 17,4 million total visits to the top 10 identified piracy sites on the internet.

The economic impact of this on the creative industry alone soars to between 40 and 97.1 billion dollars, according a 2022 Dataprot study. In addition, they estimate that “illegally streamed copyrighted content consumes 24% of global bandwidth”.

As Botswana’s creative industry remains relatively slight on the scale of comparison to industries such as Nollywood and Nilewood where the creative industry contributes a huge proportion to West and East Africa’s respective GDPs, that does not imply that piracy activities in Botswana do not have a similar impact on our economy and the ability of our creative industry to grow.

When individuals make decisions to illegally consume content via internet streaming sites they believe they are saving money for themselves in the name of enjoying content they desire to consume. Although this is a personal choice that remains the prerogative of the consumer, looking beyond the fact that streaming on illegal content sites is piracy, the ripple effect of this decision also has an endless trail of impact where funds which could be used to grow the local creative industry through increased consumption, and revenue which would otherwise be fed back into Botswana’s economy are being diverted.

“Why can’t our local creative industry grow?” “Why don’t we see more home-grown films and shows in Botswana?” are questions constantly posed by those who consume television content in Botswana. The answer to this lies largely in the fact that Botswana’s local content needs an audience in order for it to grow. It needs support from government and entities which are in a position to fund and help the industry scale greater heights.

Any organisational body willing to support and grow the local creative industry needs to exist and operate in an economy which can support its mandates. Content piracy is a cycle that can only be alleviated when consumers make wiser decisions around what they consume and how.

This goes beyond eradicating piracy activities in so far as television content is concerned. This extends to the importation and trade in counterfeit goods, resale of goods and services not intended for resale across the border, outside its jurisdiction, and more. All of these activities stunt the growth of an economy and make it nearly impossible for industries and sectors to propel themselves to places where they can positively impact society and reinvest into the country’s economy.

So what can be done to turn the tide here in Botswana in order to see our local production houses gain the momentum required to produce more, license more and expand their horizons? While those who enforce the law continue to work towards minimizing piracy activities, it’s imperative that as consumers we work to make their efforts easier by being mindful of how our individual actions play a role in preventing the success of our local creative networks and our economy’s growth.

Whether you are pirating a Hollywood Blockbuster, illegally streaming a popular Motswana artist’s music, or smuggling in an illegal decoder to view content restricted to South Africa only, your actions have an impact on how we as a nation will make our mark on the global landscape with local creative productions. Thembi Legwaila is Corporate Affairs Manager, MultiChoice Botswana

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