Unresolved issues at the Ministry of Education and Skills Development (MoESD) are likely to disrupt the teaching practice in the coming year unless the government comes up with a very good strategy before the beginning of the year.
Firstly, the Ministry has to find a way of absorbing all the displaced teachers who it has been paying for the past twelve months for sitting idle at home without any work.
At the beginning of this year, the Ministry decided to pilot the schools of excellence policy on Music subject at senior schools and has failed to provide the teachers with students.
According to one of the music teachers, the Ministry is failing to provide the students because the music syllabus chosen is too complex and students fail the subject every year.
“Students are not choosing the subject because they do not want to spoil their overall results. The syllabus is very difficult than the one used at the local Colleges of Education, hence the Ministry had to send teachers for further training outside the country,” the teacher explained.
Sometimes in 2011, the Ministry decided that the subjects of Music, Physical Education and Design and Technology will only be taught in what they referred to as schools of excellence. The implication of the decision was that the teaching of the three subjects will be reduced to take place in selected schools each, across the country.
The decision was allegedly taken without due consultation especially with the teacher’s unions as custodians of teacher welfare. As a consequence some of the teachers spent the whole year without teaching owing to the fact that the schools have been reduced hence reducing the vacancies within the subject.
“These subjects have been operating on pilot for the past twelve years without any paths of progression and our view is that these teachers have been subjected to very unfair and discriminatory labour practice,” explained the Secretary General of Botswana Sector of Educators Trade Union (BOSETU), Tobokani Rari.
Rari alleges that consideration was not given to what would happen to teachers offering those subjects when the number of schools offering them was being shrinked to only five. He further stated that the consequence of this not so well unthought-of decision has now come to haunt not only the Ministry of Education, but the teachers as well.
Another problem that the Ministry has to deal with urgently is the payment of overtime allowances for teachers or it would be slapped with lawsuits and the teachers would refuse to do extra works.
BOSETU insists that it would no longer tolerate a situation whereby teachers conduct remedial lessons, enrichment activities and supervise course work after hours and sporting activities during weekends unless the Ministry compensate them accordingly.
BOSETU secretary general, Tobokani Rari says his union is of the view that the government is all out to exploit teachers by making them work extremely long hours and not compensate them.
“Teachers who have worked both after hours and during the rest days have not been compensated. In our view such exploitation and disregard of the statutes can no longer be tolerated,” Rari pointed out.
The conflict on this issue dates back to year 2010 when the Public Service replaced the teaching service Act and introduced fixed working hours for all the civil service employees. When the Public Service Act (PSA) was implemented it became apparent that teachers needed to comply with the provisions of the Employment Act and the international labour standards regulating the hours of work.
The act required that employees could work for a maximum of 8 hours in a day unless if engaged to work overtime. This meant that a lot of other activities such as remedial lessons, enrichment activities, supervision of coursework, sporting activities, and others fell outside the realm of the stipulated hours.
At transitional negotiations in 2010, that is, negotiations meant for the purposes of a swift movement from the old act (Teaching Service Act) to the new Act (PSA), trade unions proposed a separate arrangement of working hours of teachers because of the peculiarity of the job. The trade unions proposed a 26 day model as a way of resolving the hours of work issue.
The Directorate of Public Service Management (DPSM) however thought that the proposed model was too complex and would be costly and the unions maintained that it would be much cheaper as it would only add ten extra hours per week for the teachers. From the ten hours, eight hours will constitute a day hence the sixth day in a week. This would make teachers to transform to a bracket of employees who are paid for 26 days at the end of the month hence having an additional remuneration of four days per month.
“This is a model that we have persistently put forward to government as the lasting solution to the notorious hours of work issue. Government instead has not been forthcoming to discuss the 26 day model as proposed by the trade unions, but instead has resorted to engaging teachers on overtime.”
However the Government had previously expressed the fear that the 26 day model will be expensive and preferred to resort to engaging teachers on overtime. In spite of this believe by government, it is now proving that overtime is not coming any cheaper. Of recent the employer has been decreeing huge expenditure on overtime for teachers and made desperate attempts to alter overtime rules as provided for in the Employment Act.
The Ministry of Education and Skills Development insist on payment of fifty percent of hours worked as days off and another half paid off in monetary terms, but BOSETU has advised its members to desist from carrying overtime in case that the employer pre – determines the conditions under which the overtime is to be worked in such a plot.
“We have seen government clearly and fragrantly bypassing and bending the laws regulating overtime through unlawful savingrams authored by DPSM and the Ministry of Education. Such instructions have put teachers and school managements on a collision course. We have huge number of teachers whose authorized overtime engagements have not been paid out as government shifts goal posts on overtime payments.”
BOSETU is of the view that Education Ad hoc Sectoral Bargaining structure which worked well during Minister Pelonomi Venson-Moitoi and Permanent Secretary Grace Muzila’s management has become defunct and has ceased to meet.
The union has therefore called on the Vice President who doubles as the Minister of Education and Skills Development, Mokgweetsi Masisi and the Permanent Secretary Dr Richard Matlhare to get the structure up again and resolve the mess that is besieging their Ministry. The structure according to the union did help in addressing issues of industrial relations and teacher welfare.
For the past two years, the world has been at combat with various COVID-19 variants. A new variant of concern which is considered to have a combination of the greatest hits (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta) has sent alarm bells around the world.
Botswana’s COVID-19 genomic surveillance, which actively monitors COVID-19 variants in Botswana, picked four samples that were concerning and discovered a completely new variant. In accordance with international obligations, as a responsible member state under the International Health Regulations of 2005, Botswana submitted the suspected new variant for the entire global scientific community to respond to this early finding. Shortly after, the Republic of South Africa, also submitted a similar concerning variant.
The new variant, ‘Omicron’ is named after the 15th letter of the Greek Alphabet to avoid public confusion and stigma. The news spread like wild fire which resulted in European Union member states, the United Arab Emirates and United States of America imposing travel bans on Botswana and other sister SADC nations, resulting in drawing a wedge between nations.
In his address on the occasion of an update on Government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic President Dr Mokgweetsi Masisi has shunned the response by some countries to Botswana’s detection of the Omicron variant stating that it is unfortunate as it appears to have caused unnecessary panic amongst the public across the world. He considers it defeating the spirit of multilateral cooperation in dealing with this global pandemic.
“The decision to ban our citizens from travelling to certain countries was hastily made and is not only unfair but is also unjustified while remain confident that reason and logic will prevail, the harshness of the decision has the effect of our shaking our belief in the sincerity of declared friendship and commitment of equality and economic prosperity for us,” he said.
President Masisi has appealed to the nations that have imposed travel restrictions on Botswana to reflect and review their travel restrictions stance against the Southern African region.
African leaders and heads of state are in agreement on a matter. Some stating that the travel bans are ‘uncalled for, afro phobic, unscientific, strict, unfair and unjustified’. They have come out to bash the unilateral travel bans and request immediate upliftment of the restrictions imposed on SADC member states by European Union member states, the United Arab Emirates and United States of America.
While Batswana are banned from international travel, locally as at 26th November 2021, a total of 195 068 COVID19 cases and 2 418 deaths had been reported since the beginning of the pandemic.
“We have been steadily witnessing a decrease in the number of new cases and deaths in the last three months. We are currently reporting an average of less 10 infections per 100 000 people compared to 648 cases per 100 000 people at the peak of the third wave. We have also observed a gradual decline in hospitalizations across the country with an average of less than 10 patients at a time at Sir Ketumile Masire Teaching Hospital (SKMTH) and our other health facilities countrywide,” pointed out President Masisi.
Masisi encouraged Batswana not to despair as to date, all the nations’ key indicators remain stable. “This is comforting although it still does not warrant any complacency on our part in terms of behaviour and other attitudinal patterns towards this dreadful disease. We are actively monitoring the evolving situation in view new variant of concern,’’ he sternly advised.
Government through the different Ministries leading the different sectors, has been working tirelessly to prepare for potential outbreaks and a fourth (4th) wave. This will be achieved through; installing oxygen generating plants and increasing skilled human capacity.
With regards to the vaccination programme; as of 29th November 2021, an estimated One Million and Fifty Three Thousand Three Hundred and Sixty One (1 053 361) people translating to 75.7% of the target Batswana citizens and residents over the age of 18 years have received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccines. A total of Nine Hundred and Fifty Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy Three (950 973) people translating to 68.4% have been fully vaccinated. This number exceeds the 64% target Botswana has set to achieve by end of December 2021.
Masisi enthusiastically revealed that; “We are one of the three countries in Africa that have achieved the World Health Organisation target of vaccinating at least 40% of the entire population by December 2021. We are committed to ensure that all is done to reduce the transmission of the virus in the country.
More vaccines are being procured to ensure availability for those who have not yet received any dose. Government is also considering booster doses for those who may be identified as qualifying for them.”
President Masisi urged Batswana to continue observing the COVID-19 health protocols of social distancing, washing hands or sanitizing and wearing masks and avoid unnecessary travelling.
As COVID-19 pandemic continues to shake the world, China has promised to donate a billion coronavirus vaccines, advance billions of dollars for African trade and infrastructure, and write off interest-free loans to African countries to help the continent recover from the coronavirus pandemic. All these promises emerged at the Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) held in Senegal at the end of November 2021.
Chinese President Xi Jinping announced that China will provide one billion doses of vaccines to Africa when delivering keynote speech at the Eighth Ministerial FOCAC via video link on 29th November. Of those, 600 million would be via donations and the rest would be produced jointly by African countries and Chinese companies. In addition, China would send medical teams to help the continent deal with the pandemic.
President Xi also announced nine programmes that China will work closely with African countries in the next three years. He mentioned the medical and health program, the poverty reduction and agricultural development program, the trade promotion program, the investment promotion program, the digital innovation program, the green development program, the capacity building program, the cultural and people-to-people exchange program, the peace and security program. President Xi hailed China-Africa relations as a shining example for building a new type of international relations.
Furthermore, Xi said Beijing would pump US$10 billion into African financial institutions for onward lending to small and medium enterprises. He promised to extend another US$10 billion of its International Monetary Fund allocation of special drawing rights, which would help stabilise foreign exchange reserves. In addition, China will write-off interest-free loans due this year, to help the economies that had been ravaged by the pandemic. Last year, China also promised to write off interest-free loans due at the end of 2020.
Beijing pledged US$60 billion to finance Africa’s infrastructure at the forum in Johannesburg in 2015, and a similar amount when the gathering was held in the Chinese capital in 2018. But in the past few years, Chinese lenders, including the policy banks – Exim Bank of China and China Development Bank – have become more cautious and are now demanding bankable feasibility studies amid debt distress in the continent.
Besides seeking more money for projects, Xi said China would encourage more imports of African agricultural products, and increase the range of zero-tariff goods, aiming for US$300 billion of total imports from Africa in the next three years.
China would also advance US$10 billion of trade financing to support African exports into China. He said the country would also advance another US$10 billion to promote agriculture in Africa, send 500 experts and establish China-Africa joint agro-technology centres and demonstration villages. African countries are pushing to grow exports of agricultural products into China. At the moment, Beijing maintains an enormous trade surplus over the continent. African imports from China include machinery, electronics, construction equipment, textiles and footwear.
Meanwhile, State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi summarized FOCAC achievements when meeting with journalists ahead the 8th FOCAC Ministerial Conference. Wang said that the FOCAC is a crucial platform for collective dialogue between China and Africa and an effective mechanism for practical cooperation.
He said since the inception of the FOCAC 21 years ago, Chinese enterprises have built over 10,000 kilometers of railways, nearly 100,000 kilometers of roads, nearly 1,000 bridges, nearly 100 ports, and over 80 large-scale power facilities in Africa.
In addition, they have assisted Africa in building over 130 medical facilities, 45 gymnasiums and more than 170 schools, and training over 160,000 professionals in various fields. Chinese medical teams have provided medical service to an accumulated number of 230 million, and China’s network service has covered around 700 million user terminals.
Yi said that the Eighth FOCAC Ministerial Conference was a great success. According to Yi, the success of the conference confirmed the strong will of China and Africa to work together to overcome difficulties and seek common development, and showed the huge potential and bright prospects of China-Africa cooperation.
Wang summarized the most important consensus reached at the conference as following: 1) both sides will promote the spirit of China-Africa friendship and cooperation; 2) China and Africa will work together to defeat the pandemic; 3) both sides will work to enrich China-Africa cooperation in the new era; 4) the two sides will work together to practice true multilateralism; 5) China and Africa will jointly build a China-Africa community with a shared future in the new era.
FOCAC, is one of the developments that came as a major shift in the dynamics of the China-Africa relationships came about in the 1980s when China embarked upon its “Opening up and Reform Policy” –a wide-ranging policy that gave birth to the new China. Economic and geo-strategic interests rather than the desire to export a specific political philosophy drive China’s current relationship with Africa.
For Africa though, the key problem is that our economies are weak in value creation. As argued by one economist, what workers and factories produce is produced more efficiently, with better quality and at lower cost, by other economies. “In such circumstances, making money is easier through rent than through value creation.
African governments should be capable of guiding their private sector towards value creation, a key factor for achieving a sustainable competitive edge in the global market. Furthermore, partnerships that Africa forges should be targeted to enhance such an environment”. The question remains as to whether China’s intervention in Africa will help address this challenge.
A report by The Economist Intelligence Unit (The EIU) has given its outlook for the rise and fall of living costs around the world.
The report is based on current and past trends impacting the cost of living, including currency swings, local inflation and commodity shocks. In addition, it compares more than 400 individual prices across over 200 products and services in 173 cities.
The Worldwide Cost of Living (WCOL) rankings continue to be sensitive to shifts brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, which have pushed up the cost of living across the world’s major cities. Although most economies are now recovering as covid-19 vaccines are rolled out, the world’s major cities still experience frequent surges in cases, prompting renewed social restrictions. In many cities this has disrupted the supply of goods, leading to shortages and higher prices.
The report highlights that “the inflation rate of the prices tracked in the EIU’s WCOL across cities is the fastest recorded over the past five years. It has accelerated beyond the pre-pandemic rate, rising by 3.5% year on year in local-currency terms in 2021, compared with an increase of just 1.9% in 2020 and 2.8% in 2019.”
However; supply-chain problems, as well as exchange-rate shifts and changing consumer demand, have led to rising prices for commodities and other goods. The most rapid increases in the WCOL index were for transport, with the price of a litre of petrol up by 21% on average.
Tel Aviv, a city on Israel’s Mediterranean coast tops the WCOL rankings for the first time ever, making it the most expensive city in the world to live in. The Israeli city climbed from fifth place last year, pushing Paris down to joint second place with Singapore. Tel Aviv’s rise mainly reflects its soaring currency and price increases for around one-tenth of goods in the city, led by groceries and transport, in local-currency terms. Property prices (not included in the index calculation), have also risen, especially in residential areas.
The cheapest cities are mainly in the Middle East and Africa, or in the poorer parts of Asia. Damascus has easily retained its place as the cheapest city in the world to live in. It was ranked the lowest in seven of the ten pricing categories, and was among the lowest in the remaining three. While prices elsewhere have generally firmed up, in Damascus they have fallen as Syria’s war-torn economy has struggled. Tripoli, which also faces political and economic challenges, is ranked second from the bottom in our rankings, and is particularly cheap for food, clothing and transport.
“Over the coming year, we expect to see the cost of living rise further in many cities. Inflationary expectations are also likely to feed into wage rises, further fuelling price rises. However, as central banks cautiously raise interest rates to stem inflation, price increases should moderate from this year’s level. We forecast that global consumer price inflation will average 4.3% in 2022, down from 5.1% in 2021 but still substantially higher than in recent years. If supply-chain disruptions die down and lockdowns ease as expected, then the situation should improve towards the end of 2022, stabilising the cost of living in most major cities.”
“The survey has been designed to enable human resources and finance managers to calculate cost-of-living allowances and build compensation packages for expatriates and business travellers. It can also be used by consumer-goods firms and other companies to map pricing trends and determine optimum prices for their products across cities. In addition, the data can be used to understand the relative expense of a city to formulate policy guidelines,” highlights the report.