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Land Crisis: What land crisis


Late in 2014, more than ten thousands of Batswana descended on the Kgatleng area to apply for a piece of land, land that many of them are not going to get. There was no land to be allocated to begin with. As the Kgatleng Land Board puts it, the call for applications was to gauge the demand for land. And that’s exactly what they got, perhaps even more than what they bargained for. It’s quite clear that majority of Batswana are desperate for land in and around Gaborone.

The proximity of some areas (Ramotswa, Tlokweng, Oodi etc) to Gaborone has made them to be highly sought areas due to the lucrative property market. The dramatic events have led to what many say is the land crisis of our time. But is this really the case? Is there land crisis in Botswana? The answer is no, what we have is a case of poor planning, failed policies and poor regulation.

The Botswana Housing Corporation has failed in providing affordable housing. Instead they embarked on building houses that are not only expensive but have taken up huge tracts of land. Their short term visions have resulted in a long term problems.

One would have expected BHC to focus on building apartments that maximizes the size of land allocated. The use of apartments has allowed cities like New York and Tokyo to provide housing to millions of people. But the BHC in their wisdom decided to waste land in building houses that could easily be mistaken for those of private estate developers, sprawling houses that take much of the land. Instead of providing housing, they are now actually selling land.

The shortage of housing is further compounded by access to credit. Recent studies have pointed to a worrying trend of rising households debts in Botswana. This is hardly surprising, with so many loan schemes available Batswana have been enticed into getting some of these loans, and some even hold several of them. But the irony is the loan that Batswana are really desperate for can’t even get it. Getting a mortgage is very difficult in Botswana; there are two reasons for this.

First reason is their disposable incomes make many of them ineligible to qualify for a mortgage and the second one is lack of concerted efforts from the government. The lack of concerted efforts from the government takes various dimensions but I will focus on one: as part of benefits given to employees, lack of support for home loans has been conspicuous. Instead employees are enticed with short term benefits like car loans.

The booming property market in Gaborone has distorted the prices of land, particularly in Gaborone. Simple economics dictates that whenever demand exceeds supply, prices invariably go up. It doesn’t help that land in Gaborone is controlled by a small group of people and businesses, leading to an inflated artificial prices. In the South of Gaborone, you have the all powerful Roman Catholic controlling vast pieces of land, there is also Mokolodi and Notwane that remains a preserve of those with large amounts of money. In the Northern parts, there is the Phakalane estate and Ruretse.

Furthermore, those who already own properties in Gaborone are playing to the market’s tune, drive the prices up, after all demands exceed supply. An un-serviced plot in Gaborone easily goes for more than P100000. That’s how lucrative land has become in the nation’s capital.

It will be wrong to assume there is land crisis in Botswana. With a population density of about 3.7 km squared, Botswana remains sparsely populated. The key question then is what is driving this scramble for land in Gaborone and surrounding areas other than then attractive property prices that only exists in Gaborone? There are three reasons.

The most obvious reason is rural-urban migration. The movement of people villages to the city is chiefly responsible for the demand for land in Gaborone. People move to cities for better jobs that attract high wages. Almost everything is centralised in Gaborone making it the ideal place to live in.

Economists Michael Todaro and Stephen Smith put this to what they term city bias and urban giantism problem. First city bias is when the country’s largest city receives a disproportionately large share of public investment and incentives for private investment in relation to the country’s second city largest city and other smaller towns. As a result, the first city receives large share of population.

Urban giantism sets in when economic activity is concentrated in a single city. The concentration in turn attracts more firms and consumers. However this has put a pressure on the availability of land. Furthermore, the misguided urban-planning policies have exacerbated the land problem.

Secondly, the failure of rural development policies has created the structural imbalances. The government has invested heavily in Gaborone much to the detriment of other towns and villages. The movement of able bodied and skilled labour to the city has depleted villages of human capital.

There is so much potential in Botswana yet government policies have been lacking in tapping into opportunities presented by other villages. For example, Maun and Kasane are the driving forces of Botswana’s tourism, yet the two villages have been neglected in terms of developments. With proper development strategies, Maun and Kasane could easily offer an alternative to Gaborone.

The third reason is poor record keeping. There are lies, damned lies and statistics. The lack of proper record keep by land boards has led to maladministration, corruption and unfair allocation of land. Statistics are important because they allow policy makers to draft policies that reflect the reality on the ground.

At the moment the picture that is being painted is that there is land crisis in Botswana. If there is any, then it self created due to decisions based on poor statistics. Statistics are found in an effective and efficient record keeping environment. It is essential to understand how some people were able to acquire so much property while others can’t even get one plot.

So what must happen?

The government needs to come up with rural development policies that work. Botswana has plenty of land that is under utilised. It’s amazing what the United Arab Emirates has done with its land which is basically a desert. To solve the land crisis in Gaborone, the government needs to develop the surrounding areas, financing and building a new centre where land is relatively inexpensive. Moreover, there is an urgent need to invest in villages and towns such as Selebi Phikwe, Palapye, Ghanzi, Maun, Kasane, Francistown and other areas.

The trick lies in decentralization. But that requires full commitment and provision of conditions necessary for such transition. These include an efficient transport system that makes it possible for people to live outside the city yet work in the city. Currently the transport system in Botswana leaves a lot to be desired: narrow roads, old and uncomfortable buses and malfunctioning traffic lights make it a nightmare to commute.

Inducements such tax breaks for business that operate outside the city will help in creating jobs outside the city. It’s important to note that the government is in the process of implementing Land Administration, Processes, Capacity and Systems (LAPCAS) project. The project seeks to create a database for land ownership and facilitate and improving record management at land authorities.
 

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Botswana to Become a Vaccinated Nation: Pandemic Anxiety Over?

30th March 2021

OSCAR MOTSUMI

This is a question that should seriously exercise the mind of every Botswana citizen and every science researcher, every health worker and every political leader political.

The Covid-19 currently defines our lives and poses a direct threat to every aspect and every part of national safety, security and general well-being. This disease has become a normative part of human life throughout the world.

The first part of the struggle against the murderous depredation of this disease was to protect personal life through restrictive health injunctions and protocols; the worst possibly being human isolation and masks that hid our sorrows and lamentations through thin veils. We suffered that humiliation with grace and I believe as a nation we did a great job.

Now the vaccines are here, ushering us into the second phase of this war against the plague; and we are asking ourselves, is this science-driven fight against Covid-19 spell the end of pandemic anxiety? Is the health nightmare coming to an end? What happy lives lie ahead? Is this the time for celebration or caution? As the Non State Actors, we have being struggling with these questions for months.

We have published our thoughts and feelings, and our research reviews and thorough reading of both the local and international impacts of this rampaging viral invasion in local newspapers and social media platforms.

More significantly, we have successfully organised workshops about the impact of the pandemic on society and the economy and the last workshop invited a panel of health experts, professionals, and public administers to advance this social dialogue as part of our commitment to the tripartite engagement we enjoy working with Government of Botswana, Civil Society and Development partners. These workshops are virtual and open to all Batswana, foreign diplomatic missions based in Gaborone, UN agencies located in Gaborone and international academic researchers and professional health experts and specialists.

The mark of Covid-19 on our nation is a painful one, a tragedy shared by the entire human race, but still a contextually painful experience. Our response is fraught with grave difficulties; limited resources, limited time, and the urgency to not only save lives but also avert economic ruin and a bleak future for all who survive. Several vaccines are already in the  market.

Parts of the world are already doing the best they can to trunk the pestilential march of this disease by rolling out mass-vaccinations campaigns that promise to evict this health menace and nightmare from their public lives. Botswana, like much of Africa, is still up in the disreputable, and, unenviable, preventative social melee of masked interactions, metered distances, contactless commerce.

We remain very much at the mercy of a marauding virus that daily runs amuck with earth shattering implications for the economy and human lives. And the battle against both infections and transmissions is proving to be difficult, in terms of finance, institutional capacities and resource mobilization. How are we prepared as government, and as citizens, to embrace the impending mass-vaccinations? What are the chances of us  succeeding at this last-ditch effort to defeat the virus? What are the most pressing obstacles?

Does the work of vaccines spell an end to the pandemic anxieties?

Our panellists addressed the current state of mass-vaccination preparedness at the Botswana national level. What resources are available? What are the financial, institutional and administrative operational challenges (costs and supply chains, delivery, distribution, administering the vaccine on time, surveillance and security of vaccines?) What is being done to overcome them, or what can be done to overcome them? What do public assessments of preparedness tell us at the local community levels? How strong is the political will and direction? How long can we expect the whole exercise to last? At what point should we start seeing tangible results of the mass-vaccination campaign?

They also addressed the challenges of the anticipated emerging Vaccinated Society. How to fight the myths of vaccines and the superstitions about histories of human immunizations? What exactly is being done to grow robust local confidence in the science of vaccinations and the vaccines themselves? More significantly, how to square these campaigns vis-vis personal rights, moral/religious obligations?

What messages are being sent out in these regards and how are Batswana responding? What about issues of justice and equality? Will we get the necessary vaccines to everyone who wants them? What is being done to ensure no deserving person is left behind?

They also addressed issues of health data. To accomplish this mass-vaccination campaign and do everything right we need accurate and complete data. Poor data already makes it very hard to just cope with the disease. What is being done to improve data for the mass-vaccination campaign? How is this data being collected, aggregated and prepared for real life situation/applications throughout Botswana in the coming campaign?

We know in America, for example, general reporting and treatment of health data at the beginning of vaccinations was so poor, so chaotic and so scattered mainstream newspapers like The Atlantic, Washington Post and the New York Times had to step in, working very closely with civil society organizations, to rescue the situation. What data-related issues are still problematic in Botswana?

To be specific, what kind of Covid-19 data is being taken now to ready the whole country for an effective and efficient mass-vaccination program?

Batswana must be made aware that the  end part of vaccination will just mark the beginning of a long journey to health recovery and national redemption; that in many ways Covid-19 vaccination is just another step toward the many efforts in abeyance to fight this health pandemic, the road ahead is still long and painful.

For this purpose, and to highlight the significance of this observation we tasked our panellists with  the arduous imperative of  analysing the impact of mass-vaccination on society and the economy alongside the pressing issues of post-Covid-19 national health surveillance and rehabilitation programs.

Research suggests the aftermath of Covid-19 vaccination is going to be just as difficult and uncertain world as the present reality in many ways, and that caution should prevail over celebration, at least for a long time. The disease itself is projected to linger around for some time after all these mass-vaccination campaigns unless an effort is made to vaccinate everyone to the last reported case, every nation succeeds beyond herd immunity, and cure is found for Covid-19 disease. Many people are going to continue in need of medications, psychological and psychiatric services and therapy.

Is Botswana ready for this long holdout? If not, what path should we take going into the future? The Second concern is , are we going to have a single, trusted national agency charged with the  mandate to set standards for our national health data system, now that we know how real bad pandemics can be, and the value of data in quickly responding to them and mitigating impact? Finally, what is being done to curate a short history of this pandemic? A national museum of health and medicine or a Public Health Institute  in Botswana is overdue.

If we are to create strong sets of data policies and data quality standards for fighting future health pandemics it is critical that they find ideological and moral foundations in the artistic imagery and photography of the present human experience…context is essential to fighting such diseases, and to be prepared we must learn from every tragic health incident.

Our panellists answered most of these questions with distinguished intellectual clarity. We wish Batswana to join us in our second Mass-vaccination workshop.

*Oscar Motsumi: Email:oscar.motsumi@gmail.com

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Opinions

The women you see in the news matter. Here’s why

9th March 2021
Jane Godia

Jane Godia

Today is International Women’s Day – it’s a moment to think about how much better our news diet could be if inequities were eliminated. In 1995, when the curtains fell in one of the largest meetings that have ever brought women together to discuss women in development, it was noted that women and media remain key to development.

Twenty-six years later, the relevant “Article J” of the Beijing Platform for Action, remains unfulfilled. Its two strategic objectives with regard to Women and Media have not been met. They are
Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication

Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.

Today, as we mark International Women’s Day, it’s an indictment on both media owners and civil society that women remain on the periphery of news-making. They cannot claim equal space in either the structures of newsrooms or in the content produced, be that as sources of news or as the subjects of reports. Indeed, the latest figures from WAN-IFRA’s Women in News Programme show just one in five voices in news belong to women*, be they as sources, as the author or as the main character of the news report.

Some progress was evident several years back, with stand-out women being named as chief executive officers, editors in chief, managing editors and executive editors. But these gains appear short lived in most media organisations. Excitement has turned to frustration as one-step forward has been replaced with three steps backwards. In Africa, the problem is acute. The decision-making tables of media organisations remain deprived of women and where there are women, they are surrounded by men.

Few women have followed in the footsteps of Esther Kamweru, the first woman managing editor in Kenya, and indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Today’s standout women editors include Pamela Makotsi-Sittoni (Nation Media Group, Kenya), Barbara Kaija (New Vision, Uganda), Mary Mbewe (Daily Nation, Zambia), Margaret Vuchiri (The Monitor, Uganda), Joyce Shebe (Clouds, Tanzania), Tryphinah Dongwana (Weekend Post, Botswana), Joyce Mhaville (Independent Television -ITV, Tanzania) and Tuma Abdallah (Standard Newspapers,Tanzania). But they remain an exception.

The lack of balance between women and men at the table of decision making has a rollback effect on the content that is produced. A table dominated by men typically makes decisions that benefit men.

So today, International Women’s Day is a grim reminder that things are not rosy in the news business. Achieving gender balance in news and in the structure of media organisations remains a challenge. Unmet, it sees more than half of the population in our countries suffer the consequences of bias, discrimination and sexism.

The business of ignoring the other half of the population can no longer be treated as normal. It’s time that media leaders grasp the challenge, not only because it is the right thing to do, but because it also makes a whole lot of business sense: start covering women, give them space and a voice in news-making and propel them to all levels of decision making within your organisation.

We can no longer afford to imagine that it’s only men who make and sell the news and bring in the shillings to fund the media business. Women too are worthy newsmakers. In all of our societies, there are women holding decision making positions and who are now experts in once male-only domains such as engineers, doctors, scientists and researchers.

They can be deliberately picked out to share their perspectives and expertise and bring balance to the profile of experts quoted on our news pages. Media is the prism through which society sees itself and women are an untapped audience. So, as we celebrate International Women’s Day, let us embrace diversity, which yields better news content and business products, and in so doing eliminate sexism. We know that actions and attitudes that discriminate against people based on their gender is bad for business.

As media, the challenge is ours. We need to consciously embrace and reach the commitments made 26 years ago when the Beijing Platform for Action was signed globally. As the news consuming public, you have a role to play too. Hold your news organization to account and make sure they deliver balanced news that reflects the voices of all of society.

Jane Godia is a gender development and media expert who serves as the Africa Director of Women in News programme.  
WOMEN IN NEWS is WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media. www.womeninnews.org

Jane Godia, Director, Africa, Women in News

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Opinions

Why is the media so afraid to talk about sexual harassment?

9th March 2021

MELANIE WALKER

The eve of International Women’s Day presents an opportunity for us to think about gender equality and the long and often frustrating march toward societies that are truly equal.

As media, we are uniquely placed to drive forward this reflection and discussion. But while focusing on the challenges of gender in society, we owe it to our staff and the communities we serve to also take a hard look at the obstacles within our own organisations.

I’m talking specifically about the scourge of sexual harassment. It’s likely to have happened in your newsroom. It has likely happened to a member of your team. It happens to all genders but is disproportionately directed at women. It happens in every industry, regardless of country, culture or context. This is because sexual harassment is driven by power, not sex. Wherever you have imbalances in power, you have individuals who are at risk of sexual harassment, and those who abuse this power.

I’ve been sexually harassed. The many journalists and editors, friends and family members who I have spoken to over the years on this subject have also been harassed. Yet it is still hard for leaders to recognize that this could be happening within their newsrooms and boardrooms. Why does it continue to be such a taboo?

Counting the cost of sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is, simply put, bad for business. It can harm your corporate reputation. It is a drain on the productivity of staff and managers. Maintaining and building trust in your brand is an absolute imperative for media organisations globally. If and when a case gets out of control or is badly handled – this can directly impact your bottom line.

It is for this reason that WAN-IFRA Women in News has put eliminating sexual harassment as a top priority in our work around gender equality in the media sector. This might seem at odds with the current climate where social interactions are fewer and remote work scenarios are in place in many newsrooms and businesses. But one only needs to tune into the news to know that the abuse of power, manifested as verbal, physical or online harassment, is alive and well.

Preliminary results from an ongoing Women in News research study into the issue of sexual harassment polling hundreds of journalists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia indicate that more than 1 in 3 women media professionals have been physically harassed, and just under 50% have been verbally harassed. Just over 15% of men in African newsrooms reported being physically harassed, and slightly less than 1 in 4 reports being verbally harassed. The numbers for male media professionals in Southeast Asia are slightly higher than a quarter on both forms of harassment.

The first step in confronting sexual harassment is to talk about it. We need to strip away the stigma and discomfort around having open conversations about what sexual harassment is and isn’t. Media managers, it is entirely in your power to create dynamics in your own teams that are free from sexual harassment.

Publishers and CEOs, you set the organisational culture in your media company.

By being vocal in recognising that it happens everywhere, and communicating to your employees that you will not tolerate sexual harassment of any kind, you send a powerful message to your teams, and publicly. With these actions, you will help us overcome the legacy of silence around this topic, and in doing so take an important first step to create media environments that truly embrace equality.

Melanie Walker is Executive Director of Media Development of the World Association of News Publishers (WAN-IFRA). She is a creator of Women in News, WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media. www.womeninnews.org

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