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Saturday, 02 December 2023

Cooperatives: the Future we left behind


Whilst mastering an art known as ‘Systems Thinking’, ‘Systemic Thinking’ or ‘Fifth Discipline’ plus the wide-ranging work of renowned American systems scientist, Peter Senge, I learnt of the ‘11 Laws of the Fifth Discipline’ as a key tool of dealing with dynamic complexities and uncovering patterns. For this installment I focus on law Number 1, which reads, ‘Todays problems are a result of Yesterday’s solution’.

This simply means the problems we battle with ‘Today’ are largely a result of a series of solutions that seemed right ‘Yesterday’. In this regard I believe the greatest task for our generation is to learn to avoid sowing the seeds of Tomorrow’s problems with convenient, superficial, short term solutions ‘Today’.  ‘Today’ our communities and nation are battling various acute challenges that are largely a direct result of decisions taken in the past ‘Yesterday’.

These challenges include; the current persistent market and labour hardships as a direct result of disregarding the ‘Education with Production’ model proposed by legendary educationalist, Patrick van Rensburg; or the current unsettling basic education retention and completion challenges we face as a long term outcome of ignoring public Early Childhood  Education (ECE) suggested in the 1993 Kedikilwe Education Commission; or the sky-rocketing unemployment levels as a direct result of successfully exporting raw products at the expense of decent job creation through value addition industries; or the deliberate crippling of agricultural activities and industries in our country in pursuit of westernization, globalization and modernization, in the process creating food security and food self-reliance challenges whilst propelling abject poverty and malnutrition; or the heavy centralization of public and private goods and services which in the process excluded and marginalized many communities whilst fueling squatter settlements and spread of diseases in addition countless socioeconomic aches.  

One of the suicidal decisions (from Yesterday) that has started troubling us (Today) is the decision to permit Cooperatives to die a natural/unnatural death, this has directly contributed to the current disheartening levels of income inequalities, poverty and citizen exploitation. Cooperatives are associations of people who voluntarily cooperate for their mutual social, economic and/or cultural benefit (Herry etal, 1996). I know most people believe Cooperatives are an out-dated model with no space in modern society where capitalism (self-enrichment) and individualism are the order of the day.

I do not blame you; I also used to think that way till I comprehensively interrogated Kenya’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product) composition and learnt that Cooperatives account for at least 45% of the country’s GDP. ILO (2009) established that 63% of the Kenyan population derives their livelihoods from Cooperatives. In Kenya cooperatives are like diamonds in Botswana. I find the Kenya model is praiseworthy and inspirational. Cooperatives are not only preferred for their direct and huge link to GDP increase and Economic Diversification, they are also desired for their unique link to inclusive economic growth, employment creation and, fair wealth distribution among community members and households.

Among her many national development aches, Botswana continues to fight a seemingly hopeless battle against; high income inequalities, poverty, unemployment, constrained resources and, economic diversification among others. Unlike most development models and programs the Cooperatives model is one of the most strategic models as it has an direct upward linkage to these socioeconomic troubles.
The cooperative movement in Botswana is reported to have been in existence as early as independence as a means of empowering citizens to participate in the social and economic development process.

They (cooperatives) are reported to have done remarkably well for the first 2 decades and their performance thereafter has never been effective or satisfactory, eventually reaching a point of paralysis. Thus, they have not been able to create employment opportunities, provide socioeconomic protection to the members and, their economic output is negligible. In my opinion, cooperatives were fundamentally crippled by negligence or apathy if you like.

The negligence herein is at all levels of the cooperatives movement (political/legislative, administrative and operational). My principle is to always give credit where it’s due, hence I must admit, in the past few years our country has made and witnessed commendable progress in its desire to revitalize and revamp the cooperatives movement in Botswana.

To be more specific, the bulk of this progress materialized during Hon. Dorcas Makgato-Malesu’s term at the helm of the Ministry of Trade & Industry (MTI), these include; the strategic Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania benchmark and, landmark amendment of the Cooperative Society Act during the July 2013 parliamentary sitting.

Those that followed this transformation know very well how passionate she (Malesu) was/is about revitalization of the Cooperative Industries, only time can tell if her predecessors at Ministry the Trade & Industry will prioritize the same agenda in their to do list. I must also acknowledge the commendable work SPEDU (Selebi Phikwe Economic Diversification Unit) is doing in their endeavor to fruitfully revitalize the Cooperatives industries in Selebi Phikwe, I encourage likeminded institute to embrace a similar trend.

Though the multimillion pula Botswana Cooperative Training Center is faced with the usual public service challenges and delays, the little work they do and the remarkable work they intended to do is really commendable and inspiring, despite the fact that little is known about their existence, mandate and location. It would be deceitful for me to claim there is not even a single Cooperative existing and perhaps flourishing in Botswana, via the media and academic case-studies we learn there is a hand full of cooperatives that are surviving and somewhat doing well. We need to commend these cooperatives, celebrate them and use them to inspire establishment of more and more cooperatives in our mineral based economy.

Just like we did after realizing the significant link between agriculture, GDP, employment creation, food security and food self-reliance, we made and continue to make deliberate aggressive decisions to drive compatriots back to their abounded lands to resurrect ploughing and rearing livestock. It is equally important for us to extend the same urgency and will to aggressive resurrection of the Cooperative movement in Botswana, esp. among the Youth cohorts. The stigma and misconception erroneously associated with cooperatives ought to be demolished and its benefits persuasively publicized.  

Equally paramount for the Ministry of Youth and all Youth development stakeholders to embrace and aggressively mainstream the spirit of Cooperatives among the Youth from a very early age through its myriad and parallel Youth development initiatives. In an era were funds are said to be constrained or limited, it is essential for the Cooperatives model to be incorporated and mainstreamed into the Youth development agenda. This does not mean the Ministry of Youth setting up a new Youth program/initiative as it is tradition and expectation.

This simply means the Ministry of Youth should collaborate with Botswana Cooperative Training Center for the cooperatives training and counseling component. Secondly; the Ministry of Education and Skills Development, HRDC (Human Resource Development Council) and any other stakeholder responsible for the curriculum review and development process to ensure the element and tradition of cooperatives is incorporated in the curriculum and planted in the minds of our citizens from a very early age.

This will mean more and more young people are well empowered on Cooperatives from a tender age; hence they grow with sound understanding of the Cooperative industry.  In this trying national development times’ esp. exclusive growth, unequal distribution of wealth and employment creation, we have no choice; we are forced to remember and return to ‘the future we left behind’.

* Taziba is Youth Advocate, Columnist & Researcher with keen interest in Youth Policy, Civic Engagement, Social Inclusion and Capacity Development
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IEC Disrespects Batswana: A Critical Analysis

10th November 2023

The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) has recently faced significant criticism for its handling of the voter registration exercise. In this prose I aim to shed light on the various instances where the IEC has demonstrated a lack of respect towards the citizens of Botswana, leading to a loss of credibility. By examining the postponements of the registration exercise and the IEC’s failure to communicate effectively, it becomes evident that the institution has disregarded its core mandate and the importance of its role in ensuring fair and transparent elections.

Incompetence or Disrespect?

One possible explanation for the IEC’s behavior is sheer incompetence. It is alarming to consider that the leadership of such a critical institution may lack the understanding of the importance of their mandate. The failure to communicate the reasons for the postponements in a timely manner raises questions about their ability to handle their responsibilities effectively. Furthermore, if the issue lies with government processes, it calls into question whether the IEC has the courage to stand up to the country’s leadership.

Another possibility is that the IEC lacks respect for its core clients, the voters of Botswana. Respect for stakeholders is crucial in building trust, and clear communication is a key component of this. The IEC’s failure to communicate accurate and complete information, despite having access to it, has fueled speculation and mistrust. Additionally, the IEC’s disregard for engaging with political parties, such as the Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC), further highlights this disrespect. By ignoring the UDC’s request to observe the registration process, the IEC demonstrates a lack of regard for its partners in the electoral exercise.

Rebuilding Trust and Credibility:

While allegations of political interference and security services involvement cannot be ignored, the IEC has a greater responsibility to ensure its own credibility. The institution did manage to refute claims by the DISS Director that the IEC database had been compromised, which is a positive step towards rebuilding trust. However, this remains a small glimmer of hope in the midst of the IEC’s overall disregard for the citizens of Botswana.

To regain the trust of Batswana, the IEC must prioritize respect for its stakeholders. Clear and timely communication is essential in this process. By engaging with political parties and addressing their concerns, the IEC can demonstrate a commitment to transparency and fairness. It is crucial for the IEC to recognize that its credibility is directly linked to the trust it garners from the voters.


The IEC’s recent actions have raised serious concerns about its credibility and respect for the citizens of Botswana. Whether due to incompetence or a lack of respect for stakeholders, the IEC’s failure to communicate effectively and handle its responsibilities has damaged its reputation. To regain trust and maintain relevance, the IEC must prioritize clear and timely communication, engage with political parties, and demonstrate a commitment to transparency and fairness. Only by respecting the voters of Botswana can the IEC fulfill its crucial role in ensuring free and fair elections.


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Fuelling Change: The Evolving Dynamics of the Oil and Gas Industry

4th April 2023

The Oil and Gas industry has undergone several significant developments and changes over the last few years. Understanding these developments and trends is crucial towards better appreciating how to navigate the engagement in this space, whether directly in the energy space or in associated value chain roles such as financing.

Here, we explore some of the most notable global events and trends and the potential impact or bearing they have on the local and global market.

Governments and companies around the world have been increasingly focused on transitioning towards renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. This shift is motivated by concerns about climate change and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Africa, including Botswana, is part of these discussions, as we work to collectively ensure a greener and more sustainable future. Indeed, this is now a greater priority the world over. It aligns closely with the increase in Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing being observed. ESG investing has become increasingly popular, and many investors are now looking for companies that are focused on sustainability and reducing their carbon footprint. This trend could have significant implications for the oil and fuel industry, which is often viewed as environmentally unsustainable. Relatedly and equally key are the evolving government policies. Government policies and regulations related to the Oil and Gas industry are likely to continue evolving with discussions including incentives for renewable energy and potentially imposing stricter regulations on emissions.

The COVID-19 pandemic has also played a strong role. Over the last two years, the pandemic had a profound impact on the Oil and Gas industry (and fuel generally), leading to a significant drop in demand as travel and economic activity slowed down. As a result, oil prices plummeted, with crude oil prices briefly turning negative in April 2020. Most economies have now vaccinated their populations and are in recovery mode, and with the recovery of the economies, there has been recovery of oil prices; however, the pace and sustainability of recovery continues to be dependent on factors such as emergence of new variants of the virus.

This period, which saw increased digital transformation on the whole, also saw accelerated and increased investment in technology. The Oil and Gas industry is expected to continue investing in new digital technologies to increase efficiency and reduce costs. This also means a necessary understanding and subsequent action to address the impacts from the rise of electric vehicles. The growing popularity of electric vehicles is expected to reduce demand for traditional gasoline-powered cars. This has, in turn, had an impact on the demand for oil.

Last but not least, geopolitical tensions have played a tremendous role. Geopolitical tensions between major oil-producing countries can and has impacted the supply of oil and fuel. Ongoing tensions in the Middle East and between the US and Russia could have an impact on global oil prices further, and we must be mindful of this.

On the home front in Botswana, all these discussions are relevant and the subject of discussion in many corporate and even public sector boardrooms. Stanbic Bank Botswana continues to take a lead in supporting the Oil and Gas industry in its current state and as it evolves and navigates these dynamics. This is through providing financing to support Oil and Gas companies’ operations, including investments in new technologies. The Bank offers risk management services to help oil and gas companies to manage risks associated with price fluctuations, supply chain disruptions and regulatory changes. This includes offering hedging products and providing advice on risk management strategies.

Advisory and support for sustainability initiatives that the industry undertakes is also key to ensuring that, as companies navigate complex market conditions, they are more empowered to make informed business decisions. It is important to work with Oil and Gas companies to develop and implement sustainability strategies, such as reducing emissions and increasing the use of renewable energy. This is key to how partners such as Stanbic Bank work to support the sector.

Last but not least, Stanbic Bank stands firmly in support of Botswana’s drive in the development of the sector with the view to attain better fuel security and reduce dependence risk on imported fuel. This is crucial towards ensuring a stronger, stabler market, and a core aspect to how we can play a role in helping drive Botswana’s growth.  Continued understanding, learning, and sustainable action are what will help ensure the Oil and Gas sector is supported towards positive, sustainable and impactful growth in a manner that brings social, environmental and economic benefit.

Loago Tshomane is Manager, Client Coverage, Corporate and Investment Banking (CIB), Stanbic Bank Botswana

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Brands are important

27th March 2023

So, the conclusion is brands are important. I start by concluding because one hopes this is a foregone conclusion given the furore that erupts over a botched brand. If a fast food chef bungles a food order, there’d be possibly some isolated complaint thrown. However, if the same company’s marketing expert or agency cooks up a tasteless brand there is a country-wide outcry. Why?  Perhaps this is because brands affect us more deeply than we care to understand or admit. The fact that the uproar might be equal parts of schadenfreude, black twitter-esque criticism and, disappointment does not take away from the decibel of concern raised.

A good place to start our understanding of a brand is naturally by defining what a brand is. Marty Neumier, the genius who authored The Brand Gap, offers this instructive definition – “A brand is a person’s gut feel about a product or service”. In other words, a brand is not what the company says it is. It is what the people feel it is. It is the sum total of what it means to them. Brands are perceptions. So, brands are defined by individuals not companies. But brands are owned by companies not individuals. Brands are crafted in privacy but consumed publicly. Brands are communal. Granted, you say. But that doesn’t still explain why everybody and their pet dog feel entitled to jump in feet first into a brand slug-fest armed with a hot opinion. True. But consider the following truism.


Brands are living. They act as milestones in our past. They are signposts of our identity. Beacons of our triumphs. Indexes of our consumption. Most importantly, they have invaded our very words and world view. Try going for just 24 hours without mentioning a single brand name. Quite difficult, right? Because they live among us they have become one of us. And we have therefore built ‘brand bonds’ with them. For example, iPhone owners gather here. You love your iPhone. It goes everywhere. You turn to it in moments of joy and when we need a quick mood boost. Notice how that ‘relationship’ started with desire as you longingly gazed upon it in a glossy brochure. That quickly progressed to asking other people what they thought about it. Followed by the zero moment of truth were you committed and voted your approval through a purchase. Does that sound like a romantic relationship timeline. You bet it does. Because it is. When we conduct brand workshops we run the Brand Loyalty ™ exercise wherein we test people’s loyalty to their favourite brand(s). The results are always quite intriguing. Most people are willing to pay a 40% premium over the standard price for ‘their’ brand. They simply won’t easily ‘breakup’ with it. Doing so can cause brand ‘heart ache’. There is strong brand elasticity for loved brands.


Now that we know brands are communal and endeared, then companies armed with this knowledge, must exercise caution and practise reverence when approaching the subject of rebranding. It’s fragile. The question marketers ought to ask themselves before gleefully jumping into the hot rebranding cauldron is – Do we go for an Evolution (partial rebrand) or a Revolution(full rebrand)? An evolution is incremental. It introduces small but significant changes or additions to the existing visual brand. Here, think of the subtle changes you’ve seen in financial or FMCG brands over the decades. Evolution allows you to redirect the brand without alienating its horde of faithful followers. As humans we love the familiar and certain. Change scares us. Especially if we’ve not been privy to the important but probably blinkered ‘strategy sessions’ ongoing behind the scenes. Revolutions are often messy. They are often hard reset about-turns aiming for a total new look and ‘feel’.



Hard rebranding is risky business. History is littered with the agony of brands large and small who felt the heat of public disfavour. In January 2009, PepsiCo rebranded the Tropicana. When the newly designed package hit the shelves, consumers were not having it. The New York Times reports that ‘some of the commenting described the new packaging as ‘ugly’ ‘stupid’. They wanted their old one back that showed a ripe orange with a straw in it. Sales dipped 20%. PepsiCo reverted to the old logo and packaging within a month. In 2006 Mastercard had to backtrack away from it’s new logo after public criticism, as did Leeds United, and the clothing brand Gap. AdAge magazine reports that critics most common sentiment about the Gap logo was that it looked like something a child had created using a clip-art gallery. Botswana is no different. University of Botswana had to retreat into the comfort of the known and accepted heritage strong brand.  Sir Ketumile Masire Teaching Hospital was badgered with complaints till it ‘adjusted’ its logo.



So if the landscape of rebranding is so treacherous then whey take the risk? Companies need to soberly assess they need for a rebrand. According to the fellows at Ignyte Branding a rebrand is ignited by the following admissions :

Our brand name no longer reflects our company’s vision.
We’re embarrassed to hand out our business cards.

Our competitive advantage is vague or poorly articulated.
Our brand has lost focus and become too complex to understand. Our business model or strategy has changed.
Our business has outgrown its current brand.
We’re undergoing or recently underwent a merger or acquisition. Our business has moved or expanded its geographic reach.
We need to disassociate our brand from a negative image.
We’re struggling to raise our prices and increase our profit margins. We want to expand our influence and connect to new audiences. We’re not attracting top talent for the positions we need to fill. All the above are good reasons to rebrand.

The downside to this debacle is that companies genuinely needing to rebrand might be hesitant or delay it altogether. The silver lining I guess is that marketing often mocked for its charlatans, is briefly transformed from being the Archilles heel into Thanos’ glove in an instant.

So what does a company need to do to safely navigate the rebranding terrain? Companies need to interrogate their brand purpose thoroughly. Not what they think they stand for but what they authentically represent when seen through the lens of their team members. In our Brand Workshop we use a number of tools to tease out the compelling brand truth. This section always draws amusing insights. Unfailingly, the top management (CEO & CFO)always has a vastly different picture of their brand to the rest of their ExCo and middle management, as do they to the customer-facing officer. We have only come across one company that had good internal alignment. Needless to say that brand is doing superbly well.

There is need a for brand strategies to guide the brand. One observes that most brands ‘make a plan’ as they go along. Little or no deliberate position on Brand audit, Customer research, Brand positioning and purpose, Architecture, Messaging, Naming, Tagline, Brand Training and may more. A brand strategy distils why your business exists beyond making money – its ‘why’. It defines what makes your brand what it is, what differentiates it from the competition and how you want your customers to perceive it. Lacking a brand strategy disadvantages the company in that it appears soul-less and lacking in personality. Naturally, people do not like to hang around humans with nothing to say. A brand strategy understands the value proposition. People don’t buy nails for the nails sake. They buy nails to hammer into the wall to hang pictures of their loved ones. People don’t buy make up because of its several hues and shades. Make up is self-expression. Understanding this arms a brand with an iron clad clad strategy on the brand battlefield.

But perhaps you’ve done the important research and strategy work. It’s still possible to bungle the final look and feel.  A few years ago one large brand had an extensive strategy done. Hopes were high for a top tier brand reveal. The eventual proposed brand was lack-lustre. I distinctly remember, being tasked as local agency to ‘land’ the brand and we outright refused. We could see this was a disaster of epic proportions begging to happen. The brand consultants were summoned to revise the logo. After a several tweaks and compromises the brand landed. It currently exists as one of the country’s largest brands. Getting the logo and visual look right is important. But how does one know if they are on the right path? Using the simile of a brand being a person – The answer is how do you know your outfit is right? It must serve a function, be the right fit and cut, it must be coordinated and lastly it must say something about you. So it is possible to bath in a luxurious bath gel, apply exotic lotion, be facebeat and still somehow wear a faux pas outfit. Avoid that.

Another suggestion is to do the obvious. Pre-test the logo and its look and feel on a cross section of your existing and prospective audience. There are tools to do this. Their feedback can save you money, time and pain. Additionally one must do another obvious check – use Google Image to verify the visual outcome and plain Google search to verify the name. These are so obvious they are hopefully for gone conclusions. But for the brands that have gone ahead without them, I hope you have not concluded your brand journeys as there is a world of opportunity waiting to be unlocked with the right brand strategy key.

Cliff Mada is Head of ArmourGetOn Brand Consultancy, based in Gaborone and Cape Town.

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