British’s High Commissioner to Botswana, Nick Pyle
The British High Commission in Gaborone is aiding policy shift regarding lesbians, gays and bisexuals in Botswana.
The commission recently pumped money in support of a policy dialogue by the Botswana Network of Ethics, Law and HIV/AIDS (BONELA) and the Lesbians Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana whose aim was to enhance more debate on influencing perceptions and challenged Botswana’s legislative framework on dealing with lesbians, gays, intersex, bisexual, and the transgendered people.
WeekendPost has established that the parties had been unsettled by the recent Afro-barometer study which indicated that most Batswana disapprove homosexuality. Notwithstanding this, the dialogues come in the wake of a firm stance by Botswana government that prohibits and criminalizes consensual same-sex relationships.
The United States of America (USA) and Britain are well known unreserved advocacy and protection of human rights including homosexuality and prostitution. The advancement of the debate in Botswana by the British High Commission is seen by some observers as falling short of purely advancing the same sex relations.
In an interview with the WeekendPost this week, British’s High Commissioner to Botswana, Nick Pyle stated that the debate has nothing to do with promoting one particular lifestyle over another. “Nor is it about forcing anyone to change their beliefs.
It is about choice and tolerance of difference,” he added. From a human rights point of view, it is simply about protecting the right of all members of society to live their lives free from discrimination and the fear of violence, Pyle emphasized.
He cautioned against believing that talking about homosexuality is a Western agenda. “It is being talked about by all sorts of people in all sorts of places here in Botswana. People from a wide range of different backgrounds were at BONELA’s recent event,” he highlighted. As the trends in the recent Afro-barometer survey suggest, Pyle said, attitudes are changing and the debate is likely to increase in intensity.
“This debate must be grounded on human rights principles. This is not about tradition, culture or religion. I have the utmost respect for all of those. Often they help to build strong societies. But when people put them up as excuses to avoid the debate, that tells us that they don’t fully understand, or don’t want to understand the issue,” he added.
Pyle stressed that there are too many harrowing tales of people who have suffered physical violence or simply been excluded as a result of their sexual orientation, and indeed other personal characteristics or beliefs that society chooses to brand as “different.” “The United Kingdom’s support for human rights is about challenging that. Simply put, it is the belief that no-one should be left behind,” he said.
The UK Commissioner however would not say whether their agenda with BONELA would not likely cause uneasiness especially to the Botswana government which has a strong stance against homosexuality as espoused by its policy documents and some legislative frameworks including the country’s penal code.
Pyle only emphasized that the United Kingdom has made a strong global commitment to supporting human rights for all. “We believe that we will all be safer and better off if we put human rights at the heart of our values,” he said.
“But equally, here – as everywhere else – there is room to advance human rights further. And I believe the way in which the LGBTI community is viewed is one area where Batswana need to have a debate. Indeed, that is something that the Botswana government undertook to consider during a discussion at the Human Rights Council in 2013,” the UK High Commissioner said.
According to the BONELA policy paper, the policy dialogues was meant to promote social justice as a strategy and to advance and promote civil rights entitlements as enshrined in the Botswana constitution to influence policy and increased social protection for the LGBTI community in Botswana.
“The dialogue further seeks to propel a national discourse by facilitating broad societal tolerance that conforms to the natural laws of ‘botho’ and human rights principles which recognizes and provides a conducive environment for all citizens of this country to fully participate in the social, economic and political spheres of life, irrespective of sexual orientation, ethnic origin, gender, gender identity, possessions, race, religion or any other categorization,” it further stated.
British government and BONELA partnership
According to the BONELA Director, Cindy Kelemi, the duo (BONELA and British government) share one thing in common- promoting human rights. She said sexual orientation and gender identity are human rights issues, “It’s about the right to be treated with dignity and not discriminated against, irrespective of your identity, she said.
“The British Commission therefore supported BONELA financially to conduct a policy dialogue to create awareness among policy makers on these issues as a step towards policy and legal reform,” posited Kelemi. She further added that dialogues are principles inherent in our culture, which is why they continue to pursue Botswana government using the same cultural principles with the hope that government will change its stance.
She said they are encouraged by the fact that they have support from a network of other institutions (like UK High Commission) that truly believe in the promotion, protection, and fulfillment of human rights. She highlighted that they will continue engaging government on decriminalization of same sex and sex work. The policy dialogue, she said was one of the many steps in engaging government on policy reform.
The P250 million National Petroleum Fund (NPF) saga that has been before court since 2017 seems to be losing its momentum with a high possibility of it being thrown out as defence lawyers unmask incompetency on the part of the Directorate of Public Prosecution (DPP).
The Gaborone High Court this week ruled that the decision by the State to prosecute Justice Zein Kebonang and his twin brother, Sadique Kebonang has been reviewed and set aside. The two brothers have now been cleared of the charges that where laid against them three years ago.
The United States (US) will on the 3rd of November 2020 chose between incumbent Donald Trump of the Republicans and former Vice President Joe Biden of the Democrats amid the coronavirus pandemics, which has affected how voting is conducted in the world’s biggest economy.
Trump (74) seeks re-election after trouncing Hillary Clinton in 2016, while Biden (77) is going for his first shot as Democratic nominee after previous unsuccessful spells.
US Presidents mostly succeed in their re-election bid, but there have been nine individuals who failed to garner a second term mandate, the latest being George W H. Bush, a Republican who served as the 41st US President between 1989 and 1993.
Dr Mark Rozell, a Dean of the School of Policy and Government at George Mason University in Arlington, Virginia describes the complex US electoral system that will deliver the winner at the 3rd November elections.
“The founders of our Republic de-centralised authority significantly in creating our constitutional system, which means that they gave an enormous amount of independent power and authority to State and local governments,” Dr Rozell told international media on Elections 2020 Virtual Reporting Tour.
Unlike parliamentary democracies, like Botswana the United States does not have all of the national government elected in one year. They do not have what is commonly called mandate elections where the entire federal government is elected all in one election cycle giving a “mandate” to a particular political party to lead, and instead US have what are called staggered elections, elections over time.
The two house Congress, members of the House of Representatives have two-year long terms of office. Every two years the entire House of Representatives is up for re-election, but senators serve for six years and one third of the Senate is elected every two years.
For this election cycle, US citizens will be electing the President and Vice
President, the entire House of Representatives and one third of the open or contested seats in the Senate, whereas two thirds are still fulfilling the remainder of their terms beyond this year.
An important facet of US electoral system to understand given the federalism nature of the republic, the US elect presidents State by State, therefore they do not have a national popular vote for the presidency.
“We have a national popular vote total that says that Hillary Clinton got three million more votes than Donald Trump or in Year 2000 that Al Gore got a half million more votes than George W. Bush, but we have what is called a State by State winner takes all system where each State is assigned a number of electors to our Electoral College and the candidate who wins the popular vote within each State takes 100 percent of the electors to the Electoral College,” explained Dr Rozell.
“And that is why mathematically, it is possible for someone to win the popular vote but lose the presidency.”
Dr Rozell indicated that in 2016, Hillary Clinton won very large popular majorities in some big population States like California, but the system allows a candidate to only have to win a State by one vote to win a 100 percent of its electors, the margin does not matter.
“Donald Trump won many more States by smaller margins, hence he got an Electoral College majority.”
Another interesting features by the way of US constitutional system, according to Dr Rozell, but extremely rare, is what is called the faithless elector.
“That’s the elector to the Electoral College who says, ‘I’m not going to vote the popular vote in my State, I think my State made a bad decision and I’m going to break with the popular vote,’’ Dr Rozell said.
“That’s constitutionally a very complicated matter in our federalism system because although the federal constitution says electors may exercise discretion, most States have passed State laws making it illegal for any elector to the Electoral College to break faith with the popular vote of that State, it is a criminal act that can be penalized if one is to do that. And we just had an important Supreme Court case that upheld the right of the states to impose and to enforce this restriction”
There are 538 electors at the Electoral College, 270 is the magic number, the candidate who gets 270 or more becomes President of the United States.
If however there are more candidates, and this happens extremely rarely, and a third candidate got some electors to the Electoral College denying the two major party candidates, either one getting a majority, nobody gets 270 or more, then the election goes to the House of Representatives and the House of Representatives votes among the top three vote getters as to who should be the next President.
“You’d have to go back to the early 19th century to have such a scenario, and that’s not going to happen this year unless there is a statistical oddity, which would be a perfect statistical tie of 269 to 269 which could happen but you can just imagine how incredibly unlikely that is,” stated Dr Rozell.
BLUE STATES vs RED STATES
Since the 2000 United States presidential election, red states and blue states have referred to states of the United States whose voters predominantly choose either the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates.
Many states have populations that are so heavily concentrated in the Democratic party or the Republican party that there is really no competition in those states.
California is a heavily Democratic State, so is New York and Maryland. It is given that Joe Biden will win those states. Meanwhile Texas, Florida and Alabama are republicans. So, the candidates will spent no time campaigning in those states because it is already a given.
However there are swing states, where there is a competition between about five and 10 states total in each election cycle that make a difference, and that is where the candidates end up spending almost all of their time.
“So it ends up making a national contest for the presidency actually look like several state-wide contests with candidates spending a lot of time talking about State and local issues in those parts of the country,” said Dr Rozell.
High Commissioner of the Federal Government of Nigeria to Botswana, His Excellency Umar Zainab Salisu, has challenged President Dr Mokgweetsi Masisi to move swiftly and lobby Africa’s richest man, Nigerian Billionaire, Aliko Dangote to invest in Botswana.
Speaking during a meeting with President Masisi at Office of President on Thursday Zainab Salisu said Dangote has expressed massive interest in setting up billion dollar industries in Botswana. “We have a lot of investors who wish to come and invest in Botswana , when we look at Botswana we don’t see Botswana itself , but we are lured by its geographic location , being in the centre of Southern Africa presents a good opportunity for strategic penetration into other markets of the region,” said Salisu.