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Why has Gaborone dam dried up?

The Gaborone dam which has a carrying capacity of 141 million cubic meters was declared officially dry in February this year after its water level went below the pumping level. This is the second largest dam in Botswana after the 400 million cubic meters Dikgatlhong dam which was completed in 2011, is full but not able to supply Gaborone due to the incomplete delivery infrastructure.  


The Gaborone dam has been threatening to dry since around 2000 when the levels started decreasing. Officially, this is due to the cyclic nature of the rainfall patterns, the high  temperatures and evaporative rates, the growing city and increasing demand per capita as the population become more affluent and using more and more water for swimming pools, gardens and washing cars.

The communities are also building modern houses thus moving from less water intensive pit latrines to more water intensive sewer systems thereby increasing the stress on the water demand. There are also issues of wastage by users who do not appreciate the significance of water conservation.  The water authorities have also contributed to the wastage by poor maintenance of infrastructure resulting in inordinate amount of leakages.  


 What I have said above is well known, predictable and should not surprise anyone.  It happens in most developing countries. What is surprising though is that we have allowed the situation to progressively deteriorate to the current dire situation where the dam has dried up leaving us without water on some days for both domestic and industrial use resulting in wounded quality of life and diminishing business fortunes.


The world now knows that, ‘Botswana, the mining-rich country, is facing both a power and water crisis that will dampen future economic activities in the country’. We must therefore, accept that the current water crisis will impact negatively on our ability to attract and retain foreign investment and we must therefore with honesty address this issue seriously and with vigour as a nation.


The Gaborone dam is fed mainly by the Notwane River and to a lesser extent by Taung, Metsimaswaane and Nywane rivers.  Between 1971 and 2000, average annual rainfall in the catchment area was between 450 and 550 millimeters. I do not have figures from 2000 up to 2014. I am not sure why the figures are not readily available. I however doubt if the rainfall figures would be significantly different from the 450 mm average we have experienced in the past. I stand to be corrected.  The relevant authorities should be transparent and publish such information without pressure from outside.


We know the government has an emergency budget of about P600 million to bring water to Gaborone. The efforts are welcome but if we saw this coming from as far back as 2000 why has it taken so long to act? The efforts include bringing water from Dikgatlhong dam, the dam has long been completed as stated above but there are no delivery pipe lines and transfer stations to bring water the Gaborone areas as planned. 

The Minister said this week that they have started pumping water to Gaborone. I do not know how as the infrastructure is incomplete? Our planning is really failing us, we must admit. The equipping of the Masama well fields near Mahalapye has long been in the seemingly endless pipe line, the rehabilitation of Ramotswa boreholes, which thankfully is now complete, has also been on a long pipe line.  How about the reuse of waste water, which has also been in the pipe line for many years now?


Other than the official reasons given above, I believe there are other more controllable, but controversial reasons for the failure of the Gaborone dam which I will discuss below. I believe we ought to be honest and address these more critical contributory factors.   Without addressing these factors, doing all the intended projects and bringing water from Dikgatlhong, I am afraid will not be a lasting solution.


We do not control the weather. The persistent erratic rainfall pattern is God given for our region. We cannot change it. The high temperature in our country are part of out heritage, we cannot change it.  What we can change however, is how we build our dams and preserve the water that God has given us so generously.  God can never give us less than what we need to survive.   God has given us enough resources. All we need is to use our collective minds and abilities to develop these resources wisely and ensure that we minimise wastage and the destruction of the same resources He graciously provisioned for us.


We must be thankful that God has given us rivers. Rivers have sand that is meant to capture and preserve the water. The more sand the more water that can be preserved. The water preserved under and within the sand is protected from evaporative losses caused by high temperatures. The excess water is carried to our dams and eventually to the sea. We cannot have limitless number of dams in our rivers as this will ‘kill’ our rivers. We have to design our dams such that some water will pass on to keep the river ‘alive’ and flowing all the way to the sea. Hence the suffice areas of our dams must be small to limit evaporative losses.


Coming to my core area of my submission, I do not really believe that the drying of the Gaborone dam is a result of changing rainfall patterns. I believe it is essentially a result of the three evils I will now table.


We have allowed three evils to take place on our rivers; the proliferation of small dams along our rivers, the mining of sand from our rivers and the dumping of building rubble and domestic waste on our rivers.


There are reportedly 200 small dams built on the rivers feeding the Gaborone dam.  All these dams are reportedly full and over flowing, but the overflows are not enough to fill the Gaborone dam. I do no believe any body has officially measured the carrying capacity of these so called small dams and their impact on the flow to the Gaborone dam.  In my view, from an ecological point of view these dams should be illegal and should never have been allowed.  


The departments of mines have been at pains trying to justify river sand mining. They are saying there is nothing that can be done as we cannot stop developments.  We have still to learn the meaning of development.  We cannot sacrifice our future and the future of our future generations in this manner.  Developments must be done to satisfy our current needs without jeopardising the needs of future generations. 

This is an international obligation. What we are doing and justifying is grossly irresponsible developments. We cannot build the Gaborone City and the Greater Gaborone using river sand without killing these rivers.  Someone needs to wake up and stop river sand mining NOW. We have quarries that can provide sand and building material. If government has to subsidise these quarries to reduce the cost of sand so produced, this will be the right thing to do and government must do it.


If you take time and go along these rivers, you will be shocked by the amount of building rubble and domestic waste that has been dumped in these rivers.  This has to stop.


I see policemen all over town chasing motorists and charging them thousands of Pulas for stopping on yellow lines and other minor infringements. If we can do this, why can we not stop illegal dumping of waste and mining of sand on our rivers?  
The dams in the north are also getting water from rivers that are slowly dying because of the same evils.

The Tati, the Shashe, the Motloutse rivers are also reportedly dying from sand mining and dumping of rubble and domestic waste.  Please see this warning from an unknown source, ‘Letsibogo gets its supplies from Motloutse River, which is also said to be drying up.  The river is almost depleted as a result of sand mining by copper firms in the area, which get sand from it to wash their ores’ I hope this is wrong.


In conclusion, if we do not take these things seriously, we will wake up one day when all our rivers and dams are ‘dead’.  We will be quick to blame changing rainfall patterns; climate change but that will not help us.  Future generations will ‘curse’ us for having been irresponsible custodians of their heritage.

 Bernard Busani  E-mail: bernard.busani@gmail.com:   Cell: 71751440

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Opinions

Can we cure ourselves from the cancer of corruption?

28th October 2020
DCEC DIRECTOR: Tymon Katholo

Bokani Lisa Motsu

“One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we’ve been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We’re no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It’s simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we’ve been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back.” Carl Sagan

Corruption is a heavy price to pay. The clean ones pay and suffer at the mercy of people who cannot have enough. They always want to eat and eat so selfishly like a bunch of ugly masked shrews. I hope God forgives me for ridiculing his creatures, but that mammal is so greedy. But corruption is not the new kid on the block, because it has always been everywhere.

This of course begs the question, why that is so? The common answer was and still is – abuse and misuse of power by those in power and weak institutions, disempowered to control the leaders. In 1996, the then President of The World Bank, James D. Wolfensohn named the ‘C-Word’ for the first time during an annual meeting of the Bretton Woods Institutions. A global fight against corruption started. Transparency International began its work. Internal and external audits mushroomed; commissions of inquiry followed and ever convoluted public tender procedures have become a bureaucratic nightmare to the private sector, trying to fight red tape.

The result is sobering corruption today is worse than it was 25 years ago. There is no denying that strong institutions help, but how does it come that in the annual Transparency International Ranking the same group of countries tend to be on the top while another group of countries, many African among them, tend to be on the bottom? Before one jumps to simple and seductive conclusions let us step back a moment.

Wolfensohn called corruption a cancer that destroys economies like a cancer destroys a body. A cancer is, simplified, good cells in a body gone bad, taking control of more and more good cells until the entire body is contaminated and eventually dies. So, let us look at the good cells of society first: they are family ties, clan and tribe affiliation, group cohesion, loyalty, empathy, reciprocity.

Most ordinary people like the reader of these lines or myself would claim to share such values. Once we ordinary people must make decisions, these good cells kick in: why should I hire a Mrs. Unknown, if I can hire my niece whose strengths and weaknesses I know? If I hire the niece, she will owe me and support my objectives.

Why should I purchase office furniture from that unknown company if I know that my friend’s business has good quality stuff? If I buy from him, he will make an extra effort to deliver his best and provide quality after sales service? So, why go through a convoluted tender process with uncertain outcome? In the unlikely case my friend does not perform as expected, I have many informal means to make him deliver, rather than going through a lengthy legal proceeding?

This sounds like common sense and natural and our private lives do work mostly that way and mostly quite well.

The problem is scale. Scale of power, scale of potential gains, scale of temptations, scale of risk. And who among us could throw the first stone were we in positions of power and claim not to succumb to the temptations of scale? Like in a body, cancer cells start growing out of proportion.

So, before we call out for new leaders – experience shows they are rarely better than the old ones – we need to look at ourselves first. But how easy is that? If I were the niece who gets the job through nepotism, why should I be overly critical? If I got a big furniture contract from a friend, why should I spill the beans? What right do I have to assume that, if I were a president or a minister or a corporate chief procurement officer I would not be tempted?

This is where we need to learn. What is useful, quick, efficient, and effective within a family or within a clan or a small community can become counterproductive and costly and destructive at larger corporate or national scale. Our empathy with small scale reciprocity easily permeates into complacency and complicity with large scale corruption and into an acquiescence with weak institutions to control it.

Our institutions can only be as strong as we wish them to be.

I was probably around ten years old and have always been that keen enthusiastic child that also liked to sing the favourite line of, ‘the world will become a better place.’  I would literally stand in front of a mirror and use my mom’s torch as a mic and sing along Michael Jackson’s hit song, ‘We are the world.’

Despite my horrible voice, I still believed in the message.  Few years later, my annoyance towards the world’s corrupt system wonders whether I was just too naïve. Few years later and I am still in doubt so as to whether I should go on blabbing that same old boring line. ‘The world is going to be a better place.’ The question is, when?

The answer is – as always: now.

This is pessimistic if not fatalistic – I challenge Sagan’s outlook with a paraphrased adage of unknown origin: Some people can be bamboozled all of the time, all people can be bamboozled some of the time, but never will all people be bamboozled all of the time.

We, the people are the only ones who can heal society from the cancer of corruption. We need to understand the temptation of scale and address it. We need to stop seeing ourselves just a victim of a disease that sleeps in all of us. We need to give power to the institutions that we have put in place to control corruption: parliaments, separation of power, the press, the ballot box. And sometimes we need to say as a niece – no, I do not want that job as a favour, I want it because I have proven to be better than other contenders.

It is going to be a struggle, because it will mean sacrifices, but sacrifices that we have chosen, not those imposed on us.

Let us start today.

*Bokani Lisa Motsu is a student at University of Botswana

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Opinions

Accounting Officers are out of touch with reality

19th October 2020

Parliament, the second arm of State through its parliamentary committees are one of Botswana’s most powerful mechanisms to ensure that government is held accountable at all times. The Accounting Officers are mostly Permanent Secretaries across government Ministries and Chief Executive Officers, Director Generals, Managing Directors of parastatals, state owned enterprises and Civil Society.

So parliament plays its oversight authority via the legislators sitting on a parliamentary committee and Accounting Officers sitting in the hot chair.  When left with no proper checks and balances, the Executive is prone to abuse the arrangement and so systematic oversight of the executive is usually carried out by parliamentary committees.  They track the work of various government departments and ministries, and conduct scrutiny into important aspects of their policy, direction and administration.

It is not rocket science that effective oversight requires that committees be totally independent and able to set their own agendas and have the power to summon ministers and top civil servants to appear and answer questions. Naturally, Accounting Officers are the highest ranking officials in the government hierarchy apart from cabinet Ministers and as such wield much power and influence in the performance of government.  To illustrate further, government performance is largely owed to the strategic and policy direction of top technocrats in various Ministries.

It is disheartening to point out that the recent parliament committees — as has been the case all over the years — has laid bare the incompetency, inadequacy and ineptitude of people bestowed with great responsibilities in public offices. To say that they are ineffective and inefficient sounds as an understatement. Some appear useless and hopeless when it comes to running the government despite the huge responsibility they possess.

If we were uncertain about the degree at which the Accounting Officers are incompetent, the ongoing parliament committees provide a glaring answer.  It is not an exaggeration to say that ordinary people on the streets have been held ransom by these technocrats who enjoy their air conditioned offices and relish being chauffeured around in luxurious BX SUV’s while the rest of the citizenry continue to suffer. Because of such high life the Accounting Officers seem to have, with time, they have gotten out of touch with the people they are supposed to serve.

An example; when appearing before the recent Public Accounts Committee (PAC), Office of the President Permanent Secretary, Thuso Ramodimoosi, looked reluctant to admit misuse of public funds. Although it is clear funds were misused, he looked unbothered when committee members grilled him over the P80 million Orapa House building that has since morphed into a white elephant for close to 10 successive years. To him, it seems it did not matter much and PAC members were worried for nothing.

On a separate day, another Accounting officer, Director of Public Service Management (DPSM), Naledi Mosalakatane, was not shy to reveal to PAC upon cross-examination that there exist more than 6 000 vacancies in government. Whatever reasons she gave as an excuse, they were not convincing and the committee looked sceptical too. She was faltering and seemed not to have a sense of urgency over the matter no matter how critical it is to the populace.

Botswana’s unemployment rate hoovers around 18 percent in a country where majority of the population is the youth, and the most affected by unemployment. It is still unclear why DPSM could underplay such a critical matter that may threaten the peace and stability of the country.
Accounting Officers clearly appear out of touch with the reality out there – if the PAC examinations are anything to go by.

Ideally the DPSM Director could be dropping the vacancy post digits while sourcing funds and setting timelines for the spaces to be filled as a matter of urgency so that the citizens get employed to feed their families and get out of unemployment and poverty ravaging the country.
The country should thank parliamentary committees such as PAC to expose these abnormalities and the behaviour of our leaders when in public office. How can a full Accounting Officer downplay the magnitude of the landless problem in Botswana and fail to come with direct solutions tailor made to provide Batswana with the land they desperately need?

Land is a life and death matter for some citizens, as we would know.

When Bonolo Khumotaka, the Accounting Officer in the Ministry of Land Management, Water and Sanitation Services, whom as a top official probably with a lucrative pay too appears to be lacking sense of urgency as she is failing on her key mandate of working around the clock to award the citizens with land especially those who need it most like the marginalised.  If government purports they need P94 billion to service land to address the land crisis what is plan B for government? Are we going to accept it the way it is?

Government should wake up from its slumber and intervene to avoid the 30 years unnecessary waiting period in State land and 13 years in Tribal land.  Accounting Officers are custodians of government policy, they should ensure it is effective and serve its purpose. What we have been doing over the years, has proved that it is not effective, and clearly there is a need for change of direction.

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Is it possible to make people part of your business resilience planning after the State of Public Emergency?

12th October 2020

THABO MAJOLA

His Excellency Dr Mokgweetsi EK Masisi, the President of the Republic of Botswana found it appropriate to invoke Section 17 (1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Botswana, using the powers vested in him to declare a State of Public Emergency starting from the 2nd April 2020 at midnight.

The constitutional provision under Section 17 (2b) only provided that such a declaration could be up to a maximum of 21 days. His Excellency further invoked Section 93 (1) to convene an extra- ordinary meeting of Parliament to have the opportunity to consult members of parliament on measures that have been put in place to address the spread and transmission of the virus. At this meeting Members of Parliament passed a resolution on the legal instruments and regulations governing the period of the state of emergency, and extended its duration by six (6) months.

The passing of the State of Emergency is considered as a very crucial step in fighting the near apocalyptic potential of the Novel COVID-19 virus. One of the interesting initiatives that was developed and extended to the business community was a 3-month wage subsidy that came with a condition that no businesses would retrench for the duration of the State of Public Emergency. This has potentially saved many people’s jobs as most companies would have been extremely quick to reduce expenses by downsizing. Self-preservation as some would call it.

Most organisations would have tried to reduce costs by letting go of people, retreated and tried their best to live long enough to fight another day. In my view there is silver lining that we need to look at and consider. The fact that organisations are not allowed to retrench has forced certain companies to look at the people with a long-term view.

Most leaders have probably had to wonder how they are going to ensure that their people are resilient. Do they have team members who innovate and add value to the organisation during these testing times? Do they even have resilient people or are they just waiting for the inevitable end? Can they really train people and make them resilient? How can your team members be part of your recovery plan? What can they do to avoid losing the capabilities they need to operate meaningfully for the duration of the State of Public Emergency and beyond?

The above questions have forced companies to reimagine the future of work. The truth is that no organisation can operate to its full potential without resilient people. In the normal business cycle, new teams come on board; new business streams open, operations or production sites launch or close; new markets develop, and technology is introduced. All of this provides fresh opportunities – and risks.

The best analogy I have seen of people-focused resilience planning reframes employees as your organisation’s immune system, ready and prepared to anticipate risks and ensure they can tackle challenges, fend off illness and bounce back more quickly.  So, how do you supercharge your organizational immune system to become resilient?

COVID-19 has helped many organisations realize they were not as prepared as they believed themselves to be. Now is the time to take stock and reset for the future. All the strategies and plans prior to COVID-19 arriving in Botswana need to be thrown out of the window and you need to develop a new plan today. There is no room for tweaking or reframing. Botswana has been disrupted and we need to accept and embrace the change. What we initially anticipated as a disease that would take a short term is turning out to be something we are going to have to live with for a much longer time. It is going to be a marathon and therefore businesses need to have a plan to complete this marathon.

Start planning. Planning for change can help reduce employee stress, anxiety, and overall fear, boosting the confidence of staff and stakeholders. Think about conducting and then regularly refreshing a strategic business impact analysis, look at your employee engagement scores, dig into your customer metrics and explore the way people work alongside your behaviours and culture. This research will help to identify what you really want to protect, the risks that you need to plan for and what you need to survive during disruption. Don’t forget to ask your team members for their input. In many cases they are closest to critical business areas and already have ideas to make processes and systems more robust.

Revisit your organisational purpose. Purpose, values and principles are powerful tools. By putting your organisation’s purpose and values front and center, you provide clear decision-making guidelines for yourself and your organisation. There are very tough and interesting decisions to make which have to be made fast; so having guiding principles on which the business believes in will help and assist all decision makers with sanity checking the choices that are in front of them. One noticeable characteristic of companies that adapt well during change is that they have a strong sense of identity. Leaders and employees have a shared sense of purpose and a common performance culture; they know what the company stands for beyond shareholder value and how to get things done right.

Revisit your purpose and values. Understand if they have been internalised and are proving useful. If so, find ways to increase their use. If not, adapt them as necessities, to help inspire and guide people while immunizing yourself against future disruption. Design your employee experience. The most resilient, adaptive and high performing companies are made up of people who know each other, like each other, and support each other.

Adaptability requires us to teach other, speak up and discuss problems, and have a collective sense of belonging. Listening to your team members is a powerful and disruptive thing to do. It has the potential to transform the way you manage your organisation. Enlisting employees to help shape employee experience, motivates better performance, increases employee retention and helps you spot issues and risks sooner. More importantly, it gives employees a voice so you can get active and constructive suggestions to make your business more robust by adopting an inclusive approach.

Leaders need to show they care. If you want to build resilience, you must build on a basis of trust. And this means leaders should listen, care, and respond. It’s time to build the entire business model around trust and empathy. Many of the employees will be working under extreme pressure due to the looming question around what will happen when companies have to retrench. As a leader of a company transparency and open communication are the most critical aspects that need to be illustrated.

Take your team member into confidence because if you do have to go through the dreaded excise of retrenchment you have to remember that those people the company retains will judge you based on the process you follow. If you illustrate that the business or organization has no regard for loyalty and commitment, they will never commit to the long-term plans of the organisation which will leave you worse off in the end. Its an absolutely delicate balance but it must all be done in good faith. Hopefully, your organization will avoid this!

This is the best time to revisit your identify and train your people to encourage qualities that build strong, empathetic leadership; self-awareness and control, communication, kindness and psychological safety.  Resilience is the glue that binds functional silos and integrates partners, improves communications, helps you prepare, listen and understand. Most importantly, people-focused resilience helps individuals and teams to think collectively and with empathy – helping you respond and recover faster.

Article written by Thabo Majola, a brand communications expert with a wealth of experience in the field and is Managing Director of Incepta Communications.

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