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Why has Gaborone dam dried up?

The Gaborone dam which has a carrying capacity of 141 million cubic meters was declared officially dry in February this year after its water level went below the pumping level. This is the second largest dam in Botswana after the 400 million cubic meters Dikgatlhong dam which was completed in 2011, is full but not able to supply Gaborone due to the incomplete delivery infrastructure.  

The Gaborone dam has been threatening to dry since around 2000 when the levels started decreasing. Officially, this is due to the cyclic nature of the rainfall patterns, the high  temperatures and evaporative rates, the growing city and increasing demand per capita as the population become more affluent and using more and more water for swimming pools, gardens and washing cars.

The communities are also building modern houses thus moving from less water intensive pit latrines to more water intensive sewer systems thereby increasing the stress on the water demand. There are also issues of wastage by users who do not appreciate the significance of water conservation.  The water authorities have also contributed to the wastage by poor maintenance of infrastructure resulting in inordinate amount of leakages.  

 What I have said above is well known, predictable and should not surprise anyone.  It happens in most developing countries. What is surprising though is that we have allowed the situation to progressively deteriorate to the current dire situation where the dam has dried up leaving us without water on some days for both domestic and industrial use resulting in wounded quality of life and diminishing business fortunes.

The world now knows that, ‘Botswana, the mining-rich country, is facing both a power and water crisis that will dampen future economic activities in the country’. We must therefore, accept that the current water crisis will impact negatively on our ability to attract and retain foreign investment and we must therefore with honesty address this issue seriously and with vigour as a nation.

The Gaborone dam is fed mainly by the Notwane River and to a lesser extent by Taung, Metsimaswaane and Nywane rivers.  Between 1971 and 2000, average annual rainfall in the catchment area was between 450 and 550 millimeters. I do not have figures from 2000 up to 2014. I am not sure why the figures are not readily available. I however doubt if the rainfall figures would be significantly different from the 450 mm average we have experienced in the past. I stand to be corrected.  The relevant authorities should be transparent and publish such information without pressure from outside.

We know the government has an emergency budget of about P600 million to bring water to Gaborone. The efforts are welcome but if we saw this coming from as far back as 2000 why has it taken so long to act? The efforts include bringing water from Dikgatlhong dam, the dam has long been completed as stated above but there are no delivery pipe lines and transfer stations to bring water the Gaborone areas as planned. 

The Minister said this week that they have started pumping water to Gaborone. I do not know how as the infrastructure is incomplete? Our planning is really failing us, we must admit. The equipping of the Masama well fields near Mahalapye has long been in the seemingly endless pipe line, the rehabilitation of Ramotswa boreholes, which thankfully is now complete, has also been on a long pipe line.  How about the reuse of waste water, which has also been in the pipe line for many years now?

Other than the official reasons given above, I believe there are other more controllable, but controversial reasons for the failure of the Gaborone dam which I will discuss below. I believe we ought to be honest and address these more critical contributory factors.   Without addressing these factors, doing all the intended projects and bringing water from Dikgatlhong, I am afraid will not be a lasting solution.

We do not control the weather. The persistent erratic rainfall pattern is God given for our region. We cannot change it. The high temperature in our country are part of out heritage, we cannot change it.  What we can change however, is how we build our dams and preserve the water that God has given us so generously.  God can never give us less than what we need to survive.   God has given us enough resources. All we need is to use our collective minds and abilities to develop these resources wisely and ensure that we minimise wastage and the destruction of the same resources He graciously provisioned for us.

We must be thankful that God has given us rivers. Rivers have sand that is meant to capture and preserve the water. The more sand the more water that can be preserved. The water preserved under and within the sand is protected from evaporative losses caused by high temperatures. The excess water is carried to our dams and eventually to the sea. We cannot have limitless number of dams in our rivers as this will ‘kill’ our rivers. We have to design our dams such that some water will pass on to keep the river ‘alive’ and flowing all the way to the sea. Hence the suffice areas of our dams must be small to limit evaporative losses.

Coming to my core area of my submission, I do not really believe that the drying of the Gaborone dam is a result of changing rainfall patterns. I believe it is essentially a result of the three evils I will now table.

We have allowed three evils to take place on our rivers; the proliferation of small dams along our rivers, the mining of sand from our rivers and the dumping of building rubble and domestic waste on our rivers.

There are reportedly 200 small dams built on the rivers feeding the Gaborone dam.  All these dams are reportedly full and over flowing, but the overflows are not enough to fill the Gaborone dam. I do no believe any body has officially measured the carrying capacity of these so called small dams and their impact on the flow to the Gaborone dam.  In my view, from an ecological point of view these dams should be illegal and should never have been allowed.  

The departments of mines have been at pains trying to justify river sand mining. They are saying there is nothing that can be done as we cannot stop developments.  We have still to learn the meaning of development.  We cannot sacrifice our future and the future of our future generations in this manner.  Developments must be done to satisfy our current needs without jeopardising the needs of future generations. 

This is an international obligation. What we are doing and justifying is grossly irresponsible developments. We cannot build the Gaborone City and the Greater Gaborone using river sand without killing these rivers.  Someone needs to wake up and stop river sand mining NOW. We have quarries that can provide sand and building material. If government has to subsidise these quarries to reduce the cost of sand so produced, this will be the right thing to do and government must do it.

If you take time and go along these rivers, you will be shocked by the amount of building rubble and domestic waste that has been dumped in these rivers.  This has to stop.

I see policemen all over town chasing motorists and charging them thousands of Pulas for stopping on yellow lines and other minor infringements. If we can do this, why can we not stop illegal dumping of waste and mining of sand on our rivers?  
The dams in the north are also getting water from rivers that are slowly dying because of the same evils.

The Tati, the Shashe, the Motloutse rivers are also reportedly dying from sand mining and dumping of rubble and domestic waste.  Please see this warning from an unknown source, ‘Letsibogo gets its supplies from Motloutse River, which is also said to be drying up.  The river is almost depleted as a result of sand mining by copper firms in the area, which get sand from it to wash their ores’ I hope this is wrong.

In conclusion, if we do not take these things seriously, we will wake up one day when all our rivers and dams are ‘dead’.  We will be quick to blame changing rainfall patterns; climate change but that will not help us.  Future generations will ‘curse’ us for having been irresponsible custodians of their heritage.

 Bernard Busani  E-mail:   Cell: 71751440

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Botswana to Become a Vaccinated Nation: Pandemic Anxiety Over?

30th March 2021


This is a question that should seriously exercise the mind of every Botswana citizen and every science researcher, every health worker and every political leader political.

The Covid-19 currently defines our lives and poses a direct threat to every aspect and every part of national safety, security and general well-being. This disease has become a normative part of human life throughout the world.

The first part of the struggle against the murderous depredation of this disease was to protect personal life through restrictive health injunctions and protocols; the worst possibly being human isolation and masks that hid our sorrows and lamentations through thin veils. We suffered that humiliation with grace and I believe as a nation we did a great job.

Now the vaccines are here, ushering us into the second phase of this war against the plague; and we are asking ourselves, is this science-driven fight against Covid-19 spell the end of pandemic anxiety? Is the health nightmare coming to an end? What happy lives lie ahead? Is this the time for celebration or caution? As the Non State Actors, we have being struggling with these questions for months.

We have published our thoughts and feelings, and our research reviews and thorough reading of both the local and international impacts of this rampaging viral invasion in local newspapers and social media platforms.

More significantly, we have successfully organised workshops about the impact of the pandemic on society and the economy and the last workshop invited a panel of health experts, professionals, and public administers to advance this social dialogue as part of our commitment to the tripartite engagement we enjoy working with Government of Botswana, Civil Society and Development partners. These workshops are virtual and open to all Batswana, foreign diplomatic missions based in Gaborone, UN agencies located in Gaborone and international academic researchers and professional health experts and specialists.

The mark of Covid-19 on our nation is a painful one, a tragedy shared by the entire human race, but still a contextually painful experience. Our response is fraught with grave difficulties; limited resources, limited time, and the urgency to not only save lives but also avert economic ruin and a bleak future for all who survive. Several vaccines are already in the  market.

Parts of the world are already doing the best they can to trunk the pestilential march of this disease by rolling out mass-vaccinations campaigns that promise to evict this health menace and nightmare from their public lives. Botswana, like much of Africa, is still up in the disreputable, and, unenviable, preventative social melee of masked interactions, metered distances, contactless commerce.

We remain very much at the mercy of a marauding virus that daily runs amuck with earth shattering implications for the economy and human lives. And the battle against both infections and transmissions is proving to be difficult, in terms of finance, institutional capacities and resource mobilization. How are we prepared as government, and as citizens, to embrace the impending mass-vaccinations? What are the chances of us  succeeding at this last-ditch effort to defeat the virus? What are the most pressing obstacles?

Does the work of vaccines spell an end to the pandemic anxieties?

Our panellists addressed the current state of mass-vaccination preparedness at the Botswana national level. What resources are available? What are the financial, institutional and administrative operational challenges (costs and supply chains, delivery, distribution, administering the vaccine on time, surveillance and security of vaccines?) What is being done to overcome them, or what can be done to overcome them? What do public assessments of preparedness tell us at the local community levels? How strong is the political will and direction? How long can we expect the whole exercise to last? At what point should we start seeing tangible results of the mass-vaccination campaign?

They also addressed the challenges of the anticipated emerging Vaccinated Society. How to fight the myths of vaccines and the superstitions about histories of human immunizations? What exactly is being done to grow robust local confidence in the science of vaccinations and the vaccines themselves? More significantly, how to square these campaigns vis-vis personal rights, moral/religious obligations?

What messages are being sent out in these regards and how are Batswana responding? What about issues of justice and equality? Will we get the necessary vaccines to everyone who wants them? What is being done to ensure no deserving person is left behind?

They also addressed issues of health data. To accomplish this mass-vaccination campaign and do everything right we need accurate and complete data. Poor data already makes it very hard to just cope with the disease. What is being done to improve data for the mass-vaccination campaign? How is this data being collected, aggregated and prepared for real life situation/applications throughout Botswana in the coming campaign?

We know in America, for example, general reporting and treatment of health data at the beginning of vaccinations was so poor, so chaotic and so scattered mainstream newspapers like The Atlantic, Washington Post and the New York Times had to step in, working very closely with civil society organizations, to rescue the situation. What data-related issues are still problematic in Botswana?

To be specific, what kind of Covid-19 data is being taken now to ready the whole country for an effective and efficient mass-vaccination program?

Batswana must be made aware that the  end part of vaccination will just mark the beginning of a long journey to health recovery and national redemption; that in many ways Covid-19 vaccination is just another step toward the many efforts in abeyance to fight this health pandemic, the road ahead is still long and painful.

For this purpose, and to highlight the significance of this observation we tasked our panellists with  the arduous imperative of  analysing the impact of mass-vaccination on society and the economy alongside the pressing issues of post-Covid-19 national health surveillance and rehabilitation programs.

Research suggests the aftermath of Covid-19 vaccination is going to be just as difficult and uncertain world as the present reality in many ways, and that caution should prevail over celebration, at least for a long time. The disease itself is projected to linger around for some time after all these mass-vaccination campaigns unless an effort is made to vaccinate everyone to the last reported case, every nation succeeds beyond herd immunity, and cure is found for Covid-19 disease. Many people are going to continue in need of medications, psychological and psychiatric services and therapy.

Is Botswana ready for this long holdout? If not, what path should we take going into the future? The Second concern is , are we going to have a single, trusted national agency charged with the  mandate to set standards for our national health data system, now that we know how real bad pandemics can be, and the value of data in quickly responding to them and mitigating impact? Finally, what is being done to curate a short history of this pandemic? A national museum of health and medicine or a Public Health Institute  in Botswana is overdue.

If we are to create strong sets of data policies and data quality standards for fighting future health pandemics it is critical that they find ideological and moral foundations in the artistic imagery and photography of the present human experience…context is essential to fighting such diseases, and to be prepared we must learn from every tragic health incident.

Our panellists answered most of these questions with distinguished intellectual clarity. We wish Batswana to join us in our second Mass-vaccination workshop.

*Oscar Motsumi:

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The women you see in the news matter. Here’s why

9th March 2021
Jane Godia

Jane Godia

Today is International Women’s Day – it’s a moment to think about how much better our news diet could be if inequities were eliminated. In 1995, when the curtains fell in one of the largest meetings that have ever brought women together to discuss women in development, it was noted that women and media remain key to development.

Twenty-six years later, the relevant “Article J” of the Beijing Platform for Action, remains unfulfilled. Its two strategic objectives with regard to Women and Media have not been met. They are
Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication

Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.

Today, as we mark International Women’s Day, it’s an indictment on both media owners and civil society that women remain on the periphery of news-making. They cannot claim equal space in either the structures of newsrooms or in the content produced, be that as sources of news or as the subjects of reports. Indeed, the latest figures from WAN-IFRA’s Women in News Programme show just one in five voices in news belong to women*, be they as sources, as the author or as the main character of the news report.

Some progress was evident several years back, with stand-out women being named as chief executive officers, editors in chief, managing editors and executive editors. But these gains appear short lived in most media organisations. Excitement has turned to frustration as one-step forward has been replaced with three steps backwards. In Africa, the problem is acute. The decision-making tables of media organisations remain deprived of women and where there are women, they are surrounded by men.

Few women have followed in the footsteps of Esther Kamweru, the first woman managing editor in Kenya, and indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Today’s standout women editors include Pamela Makotsi-Sittoni (Nation Media Group, Kenya), Barbara Kaija (New Vision, Uganda), Mary Mbewe (Daily Nation, Zambia), Margaret Vuchiri (The Monitor, Uganda), Joyce Shebe (Clouds, Tanzania), Tryphinah Dongwana (Weekend Post, Botswana), Joyce Mhaville (Independent Television -ITV, Tanzania) and Tuma Abdallah (Standard Newspapers,Tanzania). But they remain an exception.

The lack of balance between women and men at the table of decision making has a rollback effect on the content that is produced. A table dominated by men typically makes decisions that benefit men.

So today, International Women’s Day is a grim reminder that things are not rosy in the news business. Achieving gender balance in news and in the structure of media organisations remains a challenge. Unmet, it sees more than half of the population in our countries suffer the consequences of bias, discrimination and sexism.

The business of ignoring the other half of the population can no longer be treated as normal. It’s time that media leaders grasp the challenge, not only because it is the right thing to do, but because it also makes a whole lot of business sense: start covering women, give them space and a voice in news-making and propel them to all levels of decision making within your organisation.

We can no longer afford to imagine that it’s only men who make and sell the news and bring in the shillings to fund the media business. Women too are worthy newsmakers. In all of our societies, there are women holding decision making positions and who are now experts in once male-only domains such as engineers, doctors, scientists and researchers.

They can be deliberately picked out to share their perspectives and expertise and bring balance to the profile of experts quoted on our news pages. Media is the prism through which society sees itself and women are an untapped audience. So, as we celebrate International Women’s Day, let us embrace diversity, which yields better news content and business products, and in so doing eliminate sexism. We know that actions and attitudes that discriminate against people based on their gender is bad for business.

As media, the challenge is ours. We need to consciously embrace and reach the commitments made 26 years ago when the Beijing Platform for Action was signed globally. As the news consuming public, you have a role to play too. Hold your news organization to account and make sure they deliver balanced news that reflects the voices of all of society.

Jane Godia is a gender development and media expert who serves as the Africa Director of Women in News programme.  
WOMEN IN NEWS is WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media.

Jane Godia, Director, Africa, Women in News

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Why is the media so afraid to talk about sexual harassment?

9th March 2021


The eve of International Women’s Day presents an opportunity for us to think about gender equality and the long and often frustrating march toward societies that are truly equal.

As media, we are uniquely placed to drive forward this reflection and discussion. But while focusing on the challenges of gender in society, we owe it to our staff and the communities we serve to also take a hard look at the obstacles within our own organisations.

I’m talking specifically about the scourge of sexual harassment. It’s likely to have happened in your newsroom. It has likely happened to a member of your team. It happens to all genders but is disproportionately directed at women. It happens in every industry, regardless of country, culture or context. This is because sexual harassment is driven by power, not sex. Wherever you have imbalances in power, you have individuals who are at risk of sexual harassment, and those who abuse this power.

I’ve been sexually harassed. The many journalists and editors, friends and family members who I have spoken to over the years on this subject have also been harassed. Yet it is still hard for leaders to recognize that this could be happening within their newsrooms and boardrooms. Why does it continue to be such a taboo?

Counting the cost of sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is, simply put, bad for business. It can harm your corporate reputation. It is a drain on the productivity of staff and managers. Maintaining and building trust in your brand is an absolute imperative for media organisations globally. If and when a case gets out of control or is badly handled – this can directly impact your bottom line.

It is for this reason that WAN-IFRA Women in News has put eliminating sexual harassment as a top priority in our work around gender equality in the media sector. This might seem at odds with the current climate where social interactions are fewer and remote work scenarios are in place in many newsrooms and businesses. But one only needs to tune into the news to know that the abuse of power, manifested as verbal, physical or online harassment, is alive and well.

Preliminary results from an ongoing Women in News research study into the issue of sexual harassment polling hundreds of journalists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia indicate that more than 1 in 3 women media professionals have been physically harassed, and just under 50% have been verbally harassed. Just over 15% of men in African newsrooms reported being physically harassed, and slightly less than 1 in 4 reports being verbally harassed. The numbers for male media professionals in Southeast Asia are slightly higher than a quarter on both forms of harassment.

The first step in confronting sexual harassment is to talk about it. We need to strip away the stigma and discomfort around having open conversations about what sexual harassment is and isn’t. Media managers, it is entirely in your power to create dynamics in your own teams that are free from sexual harassment.

Publishers and CEOs, you set the organisational culture in your media company.

By being vocal in recognising that it happens everywhere, and communicating to your employees that you will not tolerate sexual harassment of any kind, you send a powerful message to your teams, and publicly. With these actions, you will help us overcome the legacy of silence around this topic, and in doing so take an important first step to create media environments that truly embrace equality.

Melanie Walker is Executive Director of Media Development of the World Association of News Publishers (WAN-IFRA). She is a creator of Women in News, WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media.

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