Enclave tourism in the Okavango Delta marginalize communities
A new study has demonstrated that tourism industry in the Okavango is pre-dominantly foreign owned, and that the local people have been severely marginalized.
Figures indicate that 81.5 percent of the tourist facilities in Maun and in the Okavango Delta have foreign influence in which 53.8 percent are 100% foreign owned.
The study has further revealed that enclave tourism in the Ngamiland district is rife but the downside of it is that locals are economically and politically marginalized and have no control over natural resource management and conservation.
Weekend Post has learnt that much of the land and its natural resources that are the main tourist attractions are owned and controlled by private tour operators or by the government.
When addressing the Botswana symposium on wetlands and wildlife 2015 recently, Professor Joseph Mbaiwa, of University of Botswana revealed that the development of ‘enclave tourism’ is one of the major problems affecting the growth of tourism in the Okavango Delta. He described enclave tourism as tourism that is concentrated in remote areas in which the types of facilities and their physical location fail to take into consideration the needs and wishes of surrounding communities. Such tourist facilities are characterized by foreign ownership and are designed to meet the needs and interests of foreign tourists.
Mbaiwa explained that in the Okavango Delta, the type of tourism that has so far developed is characterized by tourist facilities such as hotels, lodges and camps that are also foreign owned and controlled.
It is has been further revealed that 81.5 percent of the tourist facilities in Maun and in the Okavango Delta have foreign influence in which 53.8 percent are 100% foreign owned. Citizens and expatriates are reported to jointly own about 27.7 percent of them while only 18.5 percent are 100% owned by citizens.
Another study shows that about 95 percent of the accommodation and transport sectors in Maun have foreign involvement, with 60 percent of them being 100% foreign owned, 35 percent of them jointly owned between locals and expatriates with only one percent being 100% locally owned.
Data from the licensing office in the Department of Tourism indicate that in the year 2000, out of 103 tourism-related businesses registered and operational in Maun and in the delta, 16 (15.5%) were citizen owned, 36 (35%) jointly owned (between Botswana and non-citizens) while 51 (49.5%) were non-citizens owned. This suggests that 87 (84.5%) of the tourism-related companies registered in Maun and operational in the Okavango region have direct foreign involvement.
Tawana Land Board indicates that in a total of 15 concession areas under its custody in the Okavango Delta, four (26.7%) were leased to citizen companies, six (40%) to jointly owned companies (between citizens and non citizens) and five (33.3%) to non-citizen companies. This means 73.3% of the non citizen companies operate in 11 concession areas, excluding those controlled by the central government and also leased out to operators.
Prof Mbaiwa revealed that local people in Ngamiland indicated that there was a general assumption that the delta had been taken from them by government and given to foreign tour operators. He added that as a result, citizens view the approach negatively because they perceive the domination by non-citizens as ‘selling out’ of their resources. Mbaiwa revealed that the suspicions and mistrusts between the local communities and tour operators in the Okavango Delta have since developed into another problem of racism between the two groups.
The Ministry of Wildlife, Environment and Tourism, Department of Labour and Home Affairs and the Ngamiland District Council has confirmed these reports of racism, Weekend Post can reveal. It is reported that the racism in the tourism industry between the local black population and white tour operators was confirmed to be in existence by 53% of the managers and 73% of workers in safari camps and lodges in the delta and 60% of the managers and 47.6% of workers in tourism-related industries in Maun.
Mbaiwa explained that the racism was characterized by failure on the side of tour operators to employ local people in top management positions, hence the assumption that management positions in the tourism industry were reserved for expatriate workers. He added that part of it was due to the unpleasant working conditions for local workers in the delta like working long hours without compensations, poor accommodation in camps, and unfair dismissal of local workers and the use of abusive language often used by employers towards local workers.
According to Prof Mbaiwa, Botswana’ Tourism Policy of 1990 is to blame for the development of enclave tourism in the delta. The policy, he revealed it emphasized the promotion of high-cost–low-volume tourism. He explained that the strategy was adopted to raise the needed revenue for the industry to sustain itself. Mbaiwa argued that as a result, from 1990 there has been a shift from encouraging casual tourist campers in favour of tourist who occupy permanent accommodation. Mbaiwa added that the policy also presumed that low volumes of tourists are more consistent with the need to protect the environmental basis of the industry.
“The Tourism Policy was implemented through targeted marketing and imposition of high fees for the use of public facilities. High-spending tourists have as a result been encouraged to visit the Okavango Delta while low-budget tourists are indirectly being discouraged by the high fees charged,” he posited.
Mbaiwa highlighted that enclave tourism is characterized by high prices charged in tourist facilities and services, such prices become unaffordable to the majority of the local people. He showed that in the Okavango Delta on average a tourist is expected to pay 400 US dollars as accommodation charge per night in a tourist camp or lodge and a one hour flight in the Okavango Delta costs on average about 220 US dollars.
“These charges make the Okavango Delta a very expensive resort area for locals to visit. Rich foreign tourists from North America and Western Europe therefore mostly use the Okavango Delta,” the professor said.
He also stressed that low level of Botswana’s economic development and a great deal of capital needed for tourism development and high levels of management in the tourism sector also contribute to tourism in the Okavango Delta being under the control of foreign investors. He highlighted that the facilities are operated with minimum commercial trading including local agriculture and social links with existing local communities.
“This situation therefore made it possible for a lot of money that is paid for tours by visitors to never arrive in the Okavango or Botswana, since bookings is mostly done outside Botswana either in Johannesburg, America or Europe. The exclusive nature of tourism in the Okavango Delta has tended not to be of direct benefit to the people of Ngamiland District as much of the tourist revenue is not retained in Ngamiland or in Botswana,” he decried.
Mbaiwa warned through quoting other environmental experts about the dangers enclave tourism could bring to the Okavango Delta. He explained that operators have the tendency to desire maximized profit within a short period of time even at an environmental cost. He cautioned that once the resources are depleted, tour operators and tourists usually re-locate elsewhere where there is a tourism boom and the cycle starts all over again.
Presidential Commission of Inquiry into the Review of the Constitution held a meeting in Serowe this week. The meeting was to accord Bangwato, just like other tribes, a platform to give their opinions, contributions and what they think is the horse power and limitations of the current Constitution of Botswana.
Bangwato Regent, Kgosi Serogola Seretse said, he is of the understanding that the Commission has not come for anything apart from getting their opinions on how things could be made better. His contribution was that he solely knows of only two social positions in the world; Dikgosi and Pastors. He said other positions are just benedictions. He further urged that, Batswana should respect God’s ordained protocols such as Dikgosi and Pastors.
Seretse pointed out the importance of acknowledging and appreciating Dikgosi as nation builders. He cautioned and warned that, the Commission should ensure that their dealing with Dikgosi is harmonious. He called for an amendment to be made on the ‘National Order of Precedence’ noting that Dikgosi are put at number 11, but should at least be taken a little higher to number 7.
One resident, Tshepo Moloi while giving his contribution said there must be provisions of Social Justice that ensure equal distribution of resources to all citizens. He said this provision should entail an obligation that all citizen have equal opportunities to different Government Initiatives. Moloi substantiated that, all ‘Presidential Commissions’ be engraved on the Constitution
Alfred Thogolwane who is as well a resident of the biggest village in the Central District, pointed out the need for preservation of the country and resources thereof, saying “it must dawn onto all that, the calabash that fetches water for the family cannot fixed once its broken.” Another resident, Keikantsemang Sebedi advocated for Polygamous marriage, saying that men should marry as many wives as they please. She said there is no need for any socioeconomic assessment done on men who wish to marry more than one wife.
She advised that, the country should benchmark from the Zezuru culture that does it, with no complexities. On the other hand, Sebedi said that, there must be considerations done on the Old Age Pension. She said people who earned P4000 should not receive the old Age Pension upon their fullness of age. Forshia Koloi called for amendments on Section 77 and all the provisions that speaks to the subject of Bogosi and the powers infested in them. He said they should be made more detailed and avoid ambiguity in clauses.
Mr Tlhaodi said there must be Land Audits done in the country. Citing an example of the Tati Land as one that should be thoroughly audited. He further advised that, Election Day be put on the Calendar. He said, if it happens that the day be a Saturday, there should be some special dispensation for the 7th Day Adventist Church members to take part in voting without compromising on their day of worship. Tlhaodi added that there must be People’s Complaint Commission in the country.
Speakers emphasized the need for the country to review the exercise of ‘Political Party Funding’. They articulated that lack of funding political parties’ results in political parties resorting to finding funds for themselves. They reiterated that sometimes going to the extent of getting funds through illegal means. Bangwato agreed in one accord that they want the President be tried whilst in office if suspected of any criminal offences. This was revealed in their contributions. They pointed out that, the law should not to wait until the end of their tenure.
For his part, the Deputy Chairperson of the Commission Johnson Motshwarakgole expressed gratitude to the residents of Serowe. He applauded women for their kindness saying it is only them, who always take responsibility for doing things amicably in the society.
Parliament has revealed that it plans to rollout a Community Score Card (CSC) exercise as part of sweeping reforms to its role and mandate among others.
The planed shakeup, along with the rollout of CSC will see creation of new Parliamentary Portfolio Committees on Health, HIV&AIDS, Education and Skills Development, Trade and Economic Development, Agriculture, Lands and Housing and Local Governance and Social Welfare. Parliament informed government ministries and departments that the CSC is a participatory, community based monitoring and evaluation tool that enables citizens to assess the quality of public services and interact with services providers to express their concerns.
According to Parliament, the CSC will assist to inform community members about available services and their entitlements and to solicit their opinions about the accessibility and quality of certain services related to the portfolio committees mentioned. It said the main objective is for Parliament through identified oversight committees is to conduct a participatory monitoring and evaluating process that puts ownership and responsibility for delivery of services in the hands of both the Government and the service recipients.
“Through scorecards developed around identified sectors and services, communities and implementing departments remain in touch with progress made through the programme delivery cycle and are able to respond timely to bottlenecks,” the National Assembly said. Some of the measurements and expected outcomes for the rolling out of the CSC include among others, improved monitoring and economic evaluation, to determine the impact of spending, so as to be able to direct resources from where they having the least benefit to those projects and programmes where they will have a larger positive impact.
The National Assembly explained further that this could result in a willingness to close down ineffective programmes and institutions and not to implement projects that do not deliver adequate returns, improved productivity in the public services, especially given the substantial pay increases.
The National Assembly believes that the rolling out of CSC is also expected to result in efficiency savings: many public services and programmes could be delivered more effectively at lower costs, by improving management and accountability, and making use of e-services. “This would yield financial savings that could be used for development programmes or reducing the deficit,” the National Assembly said.
The exercise is also expected to result in “Careful scrutiny of subsidy schemes and termination of those that do not address market failure or assist truly needy Batswana.” The National Assembly revealed that proposed Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Health and Wellness has been established in accordance with the Standing of National Assembly of Botswana. It explained that the mandate of the Committee is mainly to exercise Parliamentary oversight and scrutiny over Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies with portfolio responsibilities in respect of Health and HIV/AIDS.
“There is need to identify reasons for inefficiency and poor outcomes and ensure that health system reform improve productivity and value for money. Key areas of focus for scorecard, availability of drugs, staffing ratios, accessibility of health services, speciality care and services and sexual reproductively health,” the National Assembly said.
Another proposed Committee is on Local Governance and Social Welfare. The mandate of the Committee is mainly to exercise Parliamentary Oversight and Scrutiny over Government Ministries. Departments and Agencies with Portfolio responsibilities in respect of Local Governance and Social Welfare.
“Strategies under NDP 11 to improve outcomes of social uplifment include; diversiﬁcation of rural economies, development and support of small businesses, provision of social safety nets, eradication of absolute poverty, provision of quality and equitable education and harmonisation of social protection programmes,” said the National Assembly. It said social nets need to be improved so as to target these most in need (at present some social safety nets benefit many people who are not the most needy, but also miss out some of those who are needy).
“Some social development policies more broadly should also aim to reduce household vulnerability to shocks such as those arising from fluctuations in agriculture, climate change, incomes and employment and improve their ability to handle shocks, thereby building household resilience,” the National Assembly said.
Another Committee established is on Agriculture, Lands and Housing. The mandate of the Committee is mainly to exercise Parliamentary oversight and scrutiny over Government Institutions, Departments and Agencies with portfolio responsibilities in respect of Agriculture, Lands and Housing.
The National Assembly said the average growth rate of the agricultural sector since the beginning of National Development Plan 11 (NDP11) (i.e. during the 2017/2018 and 2018/19 financial years) was 2.5 percent, making it the slowest growing sector of the economy, in line with its historical performance.
“Over the same period, its share of GDP has been stagnant at around 2 percent. The sector also contributes job opportunities for about 80 000 adults. Food security has become paramount since the onset of the corona virus pandemic,” the National Assembly said. The National Assembly said the Government realises the need to increase food production for products in which Botswana has a cooperative advantage such as beef, grains and other horticulture products.
The Committee on Finance, Trade and Economic Development has also been established. One of the mandates of Committee would be to exercise Parliamentary oversight and scrutiny over government ministries, departments and agencies with portfolio responsibilities in respect of Finance, Development, Trade and Industry.
“The sector is at the core of industrialisation aspirations and strategies for economic development in Botswana. Manufacturing in particular can be the driver of economic growth through technological improvements and innovation,” the National Assembly said. Hence, it said, the development of the sector could also foster export diversification and export led-growth in Botswana while benefitting from the African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA).
Two senior members of Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crime (DCEC) have threatened legal action against Directorate of Intelligence and Security (DIS), it has transpired. The threat is contained in an answering affidavit of Director General of DCEC, Tymon Katlholo in which he is seeking an interdiction from High Court to stop the DIS from accessing investigation files at his office.
After the DIS detained DCEC officials Joao Salbany and Tsholofelo Bareetsi on December 16, 2021, they filed an official complaint against DIS and some officials. They complained about abuse of office by DIS and five officers. Salbany and Bareetsi also complained about unlawful detention by DIS and unlawful dissemination of classified information contrary to Section 44 of Corruption and Economic Crime Act. “The DIS interviews were premised on information divulged during the course of official DCEC work product, that is the Monday media brief meeting,” they wrote.
They further requested leave to institute a civil suit against the DIS and its officers, and invariably the State for inhuman and degrading treatment they suffered and unlawful detention. They also pondered a declaratory seeking a sanction against the DIS and Botswana Police Service (BPS) and clarification of the role of BPS officers seconded to DIS.
“The envisaged suit against BPS and DIS officers and the DIS will inevitably centre on investigations done by the DCEC and the scope of the protection availed to DCEC officers for conduct done in the course and scope of DCEC official duties.” The duo said it was self-evident from the conduct of the DIS officers that there was nothing urgent about the information required by the DIS, justifying their detention at its Sebele facility from 08:30 hours on December 16, 2021 until 02:00 hours on December 17, 2021.
They reasoned that the information required by the DIS could have been obtained by a simple request to DCEC Director General. “What the DIS did was to seek to intimidate officers of the DCEC whom they knew were carrying out investigations against some of the DIS officers who were part of their investigation team. This turn of events has a chilling effect not only on the functioning of the DCEC but also on the official conduct of officers of the DCEC as to how they conduct their official duties.”
They concluded by stating that in the event the request is granted, they would further request to be advised as to the provision of legal representation as the unalwful detention and the degrading and inhuman treatment by the DIS was in relation to matters conducted by and on behalf of the DCEC.