By far there is no real disagreement surrounding the fact that current national and international development frameworks have wretchedly failed young people the world over. The notion that local and international development instruments have dismally failed young people does not originate or end here.
This reality is (implicitly and explicitly) affirmed in reports and official positions of several esteemed multilateral agencies, governments and civil society organizations, these include but not limited to: United Nations (UN) via respective ‘UN World Youth Report’ chapters, Commonwealth of Nations via the ‘Commonwealth Youth Development Index’ founding background, African Union (AU) via a series of the ‘State of the African youth reports’ and the ‘African Youth Charter’ (AYC) founding background, Southern African Development Community (SADC) via the SADC ‘Ministers for Youth Development Communiqué (2013)’ and Botswana Government via respective annual ‘State of the Nation Addresses’.
Though differing in semantics and scope the above documents underscore corresponding appalling sentiments on the development and prosperity of young people. Internationally development is informed and centered on the United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); at domestic level development is guided by the landmark Vision 2016.
Any citizen acquainted with elementary development studies principles and theory can effortlessly notice by its tone and design Vision 2016 emulated the UN MGDs blueprint. I have argued numerous times in this platform and elsewhere that, ‘Vision 2016 is simply a domesticated version of the MDGs’. Thus, it is neither farfetched nor misguided to foretell the final texture of our own Post-2016 Agenda will be largely informed and influenced by the impending UN Post-2015 Agenda.
This year, the 15 year old development milestone is officially expiring. MDGs were adopted by the UN family in 2000; they (MDGs) were an outcome of international conferences thought out the 1990s. MDGs expressed widespread public concern about poverty, hunger, diseases, unmet schooling, gender inequality and environmental degradation.
These priority areas are packaged into easily understandable set of eight (8) goals with established time bound objectives (Sachs; 2002). MDGs were and are genuinely a noble and welcome intervention; their profound impact against poverty, hunger, and diseases are notable and commendable.
It is in this regard that American business magnet and philanthropist, Bill Gates, once equated MDGS to a key global report card for the fight against poverty. Moving frontward, I fully concur with UN special advisor Prof. Jeffrey Sachs, the UN post-2015 agenda must be guided by the ‘successes’ and the ‘shortfalls’ of the MDGs.
Strategically or maybe coincidentally, the shortfalls of MDGs are relatively less documented and publicized compared to their existence and probable success scenarios. But, here and there one is guaranteed to treasure trove several in-depth and critical examinations of MDGs shortfalls.
These include an infamous yet enlightening critic by Prof. Amir Attaran, titled "An Immeasurable Crisis? A Criticism of the Millennium Development Goals and Why They Cannot Be Measured". Prof. Attaran’s critical publication triggered a solid and prompt rebuttal from a tripartite of distinguished academics and UN acquaintances, simply titled “Response to Amir Attaran”.
Though this open theoretical crossfire was essentially meant to approve or disapprove feasibility of MDGs or lack thereof, it has helped global citizens appreciate the genuine successes and most importantly the somewhat ambiguous MDGs shortfalls. One of the identified shortfalls is the fact that MDGs were nothing more than a technocratic creation, aimed at increasing and focusing aid flows, and produced without public consultation or ownership.
In one of his many penning’s UN distinct tactician Prof. Jeffery Sachs affirms while expressing disappointment that; “promises of official development assistance by rich counties, for example, have not been kept”. MDGs were rolled out in a ‘top-down approach’. MGDs perceived citizens as mere ‘beneficiaries’ than ‘partners’ in the development process. Consequently it focused on the role of governments and regrettably overlooked the key role of citizens and private sector.
The shortfalls of this reality were later empirically affirmed by Prof. Jeffery Sachs and his team after setting up Millennium Development Villages (MDVs) in several developing countries. MDVs were initiated as yardsticks to investigate the shortfalls of the ‘Top-Down Approach’ compared to ‘Bottom-Up Approach’ in development interventions. This exercise also highlighted the indisputable significance of community engagement, ownership and ‘Social Inclusion’ in the development process.
For those of us that concurrently deal with grassroots and policy matters, we approach the slip away of UN MDGs with great ‘relief’ and ‘hope’. ‘Relief’ that the monumental and now outdated MDGs are finally coming to an end, ‘Hope’ that the new framework will usher in the indispensable much needed element of ‘Social Justice’ and ‘Social Inclusion’.
The good news this far is, elementary discussions on the feasible Post-2015 agenda are gravely centered on a modern-day principle known as Sustainable Development (SD). SD is a principle is centered on a triple bottom-line, thus; Economic Growth, Environmental Sustainability and Social Inclusion.
Quite frankly, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainably are very fundamental for national and multinational prosperity, but, from a youth advocacy, civil society and grassroots standpoint, ‘Social Inclusion’ and ‘Social Justice’ are the more anticipated and needed element(s).
In simpler terms the principle of ‘Social Inclusion’; is a development model which upholds that each and every development approach should be needs based, the needs should be informed and guided by the targeted cohorts themselves. It simply emphasizes that nothing should be done or recommended for the people without the people.
Like many socially excluded and marginalized cohorts, Youth in Botswana have been hard-hit by severe exclusion, majority if not all Youth targeted interventions and legislations are habitually discussed and legitimized in the absence of Youth, and no one finds it bizarre.
Consequently this tendency has resulted in; a) irrelevant/misplaced policies and programs that do not address the primary (sometimes any) challenges of youth, b) Establishment of polices and initiatives that lack legitimacy and ownership among the young cartel, c) Generalized youth policies and programs that disregard the key realities, experiences, location and aspirations of various cohorts of young people.
Alarmed by this escalating indecent trend the 7th UN Secretary General and Nobel Laureate, Kofi Atta Annan, cautioned and reminded governments that, “Normally when we need to know about something we go to the experts, but we tend to forget that when we want to know about youth and what they feel and what they want, for that we should talk to them”.
Correspondently there is a Swahili proverb that reminds us that, “you cannot shave a man’s head in his absence”. Though the matter of ‘Social Inclusion’ and ‘Social Justice’ is taking center stage in recent times, it is important to acknowledge this principle has long been advanced by many staunch Pan-Africanists, for instance; visionary unsung revolutionist, Thomas Sankara, favored this principle for Burkina Faso’s development before his untimely assassination, Thabo Mbeki advanced the same principle in South Africa and Africa before the ‘dream was differed’, Zambian-born author and international economist, Dambisa Moyo, in her renowned book titled “Dead Aid” proposed and recommended the same principle, distinguished academic, Manyozo Linje, endorsed the same principle in a widely debated journal article titled “The Day Development Dies”.
In light of this background, many youth advocates and activists enthusiastically look forward to the Post-2015 agenda with extraordinary hope and relief. We believe it has been a long time coming; we pray “Social Inclusion”/”Social Justice” makes it through as priority area of the Post-2015 agenda.
Along with esteemed technocrats and institutes we are confident this element will usher in tremendous sustainable social, economic and political prosperity for all, young people inclusive. In this regard I unequivocally insist, ‘Social Inclusion is the Youth salvage’ for the Post-2015 agenda.
* Taziba is Youth Advocate, Columnist & Researcher with keen interest in Youth Policy, Civic Engagement, Social Inclusion and Capacity Building (7189 email@example.com)
This is a question that should seriously exercise the mind of every Botswana citizen and every science researcher, every health worker and every political leader political.
The Covid-19 currently defines our lives and poses a direct threat to every aspect and every part of national safety, security and general well-being. This disease has become a normative part of human life throughout the world.
The first part of the struggle against the murderous depredation of this disease was to protect personal life through restrictive health injunctions and protocols; the worst possibly being human isolation and masks that hid our sorrows and lamentations through thin veils. We suffered that humiliation with grace and I believe as a nation we did a great job.
Now the vaccines are here, ushering us into the second phase of this war against the plague; and we are asking ourselves, is this science-driven fight against Covid-19 spell the end of pandemic anxiety? Is the health nightmare coming to an end? What happy lives lie ahead? Is this the time for celebration or caution? As the Non State Actors, we have being struggling with these questions for months.
We have published our thoughts and feelings, and our research reviews and thorough reading of both the local and international impacts of this rampaging viral invasion in local newspapers and social media platforms.
More significantly, we have successfully organised workshops about the impact of the pandemic on society and the economy and the last workshop invited a panel of health experts, professionals, and public administers to advance this social dialogue as part of our commitment to the tripartite engagement we enjoy working with Government of Botswana, Civil Society and Development partners. These workshops are virtual and open to all Batswana, foreign diplomatic missions based in Gaborone, UN agencies located in Gaborone and international academic researchers and professional health experts and specialists.
The mark of Covid-19 on our nation is a painful one, a tragedy shared by the entire human race, but still a contextually painful experience. Our response is fraught with grave difficulties; limited resources, limited time, and the urgency to not only save lives but also avert economic ruin and a bleak future for all who survive. Several vaccines are already in the market.
Parts of the world are already doing the best they can to trunk the pestilential march of this disease by rolling out mass-vaccinations campaigns that promise to evict this health menace and nightmare from their public lives. Botswana, like much of Africa, is still up in the disreputable, and, unenviable, preventative social melee of masked interactions, metered distances, contactless commerce.
We remain very much at the mercy of a marauding virus that daily runs amuck with earth shattering implications for the economy and human lives. And the battle against both infections and transmissions is proving to be difficult, in terms of finance, institutional capacities and resource mobilization. How are we prepared as government, and as citizens, to embrace the impending mass-vaccinations? What are the chances of us succeeding at this last-ditch effort to defeat the virus? What are the most pressing obstacles?
Does the work of vaccines spell an end to the pandemic anxieties?
Our panellists addressed the current state of mass-vaccination preparedness at the Botswana national level. What resources are available? What are the financial, institutional and administrative operational challenges (costs and supply chains, delivery, distribution, administering the vaccine on time, surveillance and security of vaccines?) What is being done to overcome them, or what can be done to overcome them? What do public assessments of preparedness tell us at the local community levels? How strong is the political will and direction? How long can we expect the whole exercise to last? At what point should we start seeing tangible results of the mass-vaccination campaign?
They also addressed the challenges of the anticipated emerging Vaccinated Society. How to fight the myths of vaccines and the superstitions about histories of human immunizations? What exactly is being done to grow robust local confidence in the science of vaccinations and the vaccines themselves? More significantly, how to square these campaigns vis-vis personal rights, moral/religious obligations?
What messages are being sent out in these regards and how are Batswana responding? What about issues of justice and equality? Will we get the necessary vaccines to everyone who wants them? What is being done to ensure no deserving person is left behind?
They also addressed issues of health data. To accomplish this mass-vaccination campaign and do everything right we need accurate and complete data. Poor data already makes it very hard to just cope with the disease. What is being done to improve data for the mass-vaccination campaign? How is this data being collected, aggregated and prepared for real life situation/applications throughout Botswana in the coming campaign?
We know in America, for example, general reporting and treatment of health data at the beginning of vaccinations was so poor, so chaotic and so scattered mainstream newspapers like The Atlantic, Washington Post and the New York Times had to step in, working very closely with civil society organizations, to rescue the situation. What data-related issues are still problematic in Botswana?
To be specific, what kind of Covid-19 data is being taken now to ready the whole country for an effective and efficient mass-vaccination program?
Batswana must be made aware that the end part of vaccination will just mark the beginning of a long journey to health recovery and national redemption; that in many ways Covid-19 vaccination is just another step toward the many efforts in abeyance to fight this health pandemic, the road ahead is still long and painful.
For this purpose, and to highlight the significance of this observation we tasked our panellists with the arduous imperative of analysing the impact of mass-vaccination on society and the economy alongside the pressing issues of post-Covid-19 national health surveillance and rehabilitation programs.
Research suggests the aftermath of Covid-19 vaccination is going to be just as difficult and uncertain world as the present reality in many ways, and that caution should prevail over celebration, at least for a long time. The disease itself is projected to linger around for some time after all these mass-vaccination campaigns unless an effort is made to vaccinate everyone to the last reported case, every nation succeeds beyond herd immunity, and cure is found for Covid-19 disease. Many people are going to continue in need of medications, psychological and psychiatric services and therapy.
Is Botswana ready for this long holdout? If not, what path should we take going into the future? The Second concern is , are we going to have a single, trusted national agency charged with the mandate to set standards for our national health data system, now that we know how real bad pandemics can be, and the value of data in quickly responding to them and mitigating impact? Finally, what is being done to curate a short history of this pandemic? A national museum of health and medicine or a Public Health Institute in Botswana is overdue.
If we are to create strong sets of data policies and data quality standards for fighting future health pandemics it is critical that they find ideological and moral foundations in the artistic imagery and photography of the present human experience…context is essential to fighting such diseases, and to be prepared we must learn from every tragic health incident.
Our panellists answered most of these questions with distinguished intellectual clarity. We wish Batswana to join us in our second Mass-vaccination workshop.
Today is International Women’s Day – it’s a moment to think about how much better our news diet could be if inequities were eliminated. In 1995, when the curtains fell in one of the largest meetings that have ever brought women together to discuss women in development, it was noted that women and media remain key to development.
Twenty-six years later, the relevant “Article J” of the Beijing Platform for Action, remains unfulfilled. Its two strategic objectives with regard to Women and Media have not been met. They are Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication
Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.
Today, as we mark International Women’s Day, it’s an indictment on both media owners and civil society that women remain on the periphery of news-making. They cannot claim equal space in either the structures of newsrooms or in the content produced, be that as sources of news or as the subjects of reports. Indeed, the latest figures from WAN-IFRA’s Women in News Programme show just one in five voices in news belong to women*, be they as sources, as the author or as the main character of the news report.
Some progress was evident several years back, with stand-out women being named as chief executive officers, editors in chief, managing editors and executive editors. But these gains appear short lived in most media organisations. Excitement has turned to frustration as one-step forward has been replaced with three steps backwards. In Africa, the problem is acute. The decision-making tables of media organisations remain deprived of women and where there are women, they are surrounded by men.
Few women have followed in the footsteps of Esther Kamweru, the first woman managing editor in Kenya, and indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Today’s standout women editors include Pamela Makotsi-Sittoni (Nation Media Group, Kenya), Barbara Kaija (New Vision, Uganda), Mary Mbewe (Daily Nation, Zambia), Margaret Vuchiri (The Monitor, Uganda), Joyce Shebe (Clouds, Tanzania), Tryphinah Dongwana (Weekend Post, Botswana), Joyce Mhaville (Independent Television -ITV, Tanzania) and Tuma Abdallah (Standard Newspapers,Tanzania). But they remain an exception.
The lack of balance between women and men at the table of decision making has a rollback effect on the content that is produced. A table dominated by men typically makes decisions that benefit men.
So today, International Women’s Day is a grim reminder that things are not rosy in the news business. Achieving gender balance in news and in the structure of media organisations remains a challenge. Unmet, it sees more than half of the population in our countries suffer the consequences of bias, discrimination and sexism.
The business of ignoring the other half of the population can no longer be treated as normal. It’s time that media leaders grasp the challenge, not only because it is the right thing to do, but because it also makes a whole lot of business sense: start covering women, give them space and a voice in news-making and propel them to all levels of decision making within your organisation.
We can no longer afford to imagine that it’s only men who make and sell the news and bring in the shillings to fund the media business. Women too are worthy newsmakers. In all of our societies, there are women holding decision making positions and who are now experts in once male-only domains such as engineers, doctors, scientists and researchers.
They can be deliberately picked out to share their perspectives and expertise and bring balance to the profile of experts quoted on our news pages. Media is the prism through which society sees itself and women are an untapped audience. So, as we celebrate International Women’s Day, let us embrace diversity, which yields better news content and business products, and in so doing eliminate sexism. We know that actions and attitudes that discriminate against people based on their gender is bad for business.
As media, the challenge is ours. We need to consciously embrace and reach the commitments made 26 years ago when the Beijing Platform for Action was signed globally. As the news consuming public, you have a role to play too. Hold your news organization to account and make sure they deliver balanced news that reflects the voices of all of society.
Jane Godia is a gender development and media expert who serves as the Africa Director of Women in News programme. WOMEN IN NEWS is WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media. www.womeninnews.org
The eve of International Women’s Day presents an opportunity for us to think about gender equality and the long and often frustrating march toward societies that are truly equal.
As media, we are uniquely placed to drive forward this reflection and discussion. But while focusing on the challenges of gender in society, we owe it to our staff and the communities we serve to also take a hard look at the obstacles within our own organisations.
I’m talking specifically about the scourge of sexual harassment. It’s likely to have happened in your newsroom. It has likely happened to a member of your team. It happens to all genders but is disproportionately directed at women. It happens in every industry, regardless of country, culture or context. This is because sexual harassment is driven by power, not sex. Wherever you have imbalances in power, you have individuals who are at risk of sexual harassment, and those who abuse this power.
I’ve been sexually harassed. The many journalists and editors, friends and family members who I have spoken to over the years on this subject have also been harassed. Yet it is still hard for leaders to recognize that this could be happening within their newsrooms and boardrooms. Why does it continue to be such a taboo?
Counting the cost of sexual harassment
Sexual harassment is, simply put, bad for business. It can harm your corporate reputation. It is a drain on the productivity of staff and managers. Maintaining and building trust in your brand is an absolute imperative for media organisations globally. If and when a case gets out of control or is badly handled – this can directly impact your bottom line.
It is for this reason that WAN-IFRA Women in News has put eliminating sexual harassment as a top priority in our work around gender equality in the media sector. This might seem at odds with the current climate where social interactions are fewer and remote work scenarios are in place in many newsrooms and businesses. But one only needs to tune into the news to know that the abuse of power, manifested as verbal, physical or online harassment, is alive and well.
Preliminary results from an ongoing Women in News research study into the issue of sexual harassment polling hundreds of journalists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia indicate that more than 1 in 3 women media professionals have been physically harassed, and just under 50% have been verbally harassed. Just over 15% of men in African newsrooms reported being physically harassed, and slightly less than 1 in 4 reports being verbally harassed. The numbers for male media professionals in Southeast Asia are slightly higher than a quarter on both forms of harassment.
The first step in confronting sexual harassment is to talk about it. We need to strip away the stigma and discomfort around having open conversations about what sexual harassment is and isn’t. Media managers, it is entirely in your power to create dynamics in your own teams that are free from sexual harassment.
Publishers and CEOs, you set the organisational culture in your media company.
By being vocal in recognising that it happens everywhere, and communicating to your employees that you will not tolerate sexual harassment of any kind, you send a powerful message to your teams, and publicly. With these actions, you will help us overcome the legacy of silence around this topic, and in doing so take an important first step to create media environments that truly embrace equality.
Melanie Walker is Executive Director of Media Development of the World Association of News Publishers (WAN-IFRA). She is a creator of Women in News, WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media. www.womeninnews.org