Water needs P165 billion cash, wastewater needs P5 billion
With Botswana’s dam sites almost exhausted, the Water Utilities Corporation (WUC) needs a whooping P170 billion to contain the water crisis threatening Botswana, WeekendPost can reveal.
In the recent past President Lt. Gen. Ian Khama had sanctioned the WUC to carry out a “comprehensive assessment of water and wastewater situation” in the country, and the results are nerve wrecking – vanishing water sources and huge financial implications.
According to the assembled report, which was then presented to not only Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water resources (MMEWR) but also to a full Cabinet last week, WUC conceded that “the water situation requires immediate attention and will need huge resources.”
A total amount of P170 billion is divided between water and wastewater interventions as well short, medium and long term solutions.
To ameliorate the water problem, the government will need P165 billion cash injection; while solutions aligned to wastewater will call for a total of P5 billion. Botswana’s budget as presented by Minister of Finance and Development Planning Kenneth Matambo this year stood at a sum of P50 billion, surely the country’s budget cannot finance the P170 billion figure hence the need for private involvement to take control of the water situation in the country.
In the 2015 budget, the largest share of the development budget was allocated to the Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources (MMEWR) at P3.32 billion or 25.7 percent of the budget. “This is meant to allow Government to continue to address the water and power issues facing the country by putting in place appropriate infrastructure,” reads part of the budget.
High placed sources at the WUC told this publication that efforts will be made to rope in the private sector to contribute to the water security situation in the country. “This is a developing process in the country,” one of the sources said. The WUC has advised that the Ministry and Government should consider partners in resolving matters such as Financing Infrastructure, introduction of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in the water sector; expertise in Project Implementation and Management; Robust operation and Maintenance; Job creation; and Citizen Empowerment.
Some of the top priority projects, North-South Carrier scheme upgrading works is estimated at P1.53 billion (funding available) and to be implemented from now till February 2017.
WUC is also embarking on the North-South Water Carrier 2.2 pipeline and associated works such as the Gaborone Wastewater reclamation plant and the Chobe/Zambezi Water Transfer Scheme at P66 billion and the implementation period is estimated at seven years but funds are not available. Other projects include Gaborone master plan, Lobatse Master plan, refurbishment of Mambo wastewater treatment works as well as Boteti southern and central cluster which will cost around P4 billion and will be executed over three years.
According to the report, other planned projects include National Water Loss Control Project, Letlhakane Wastewater, North East and Tutume Sub District, and Selibe Phikwe Serule Transfer Scheme which are scheduled to be implemented over a period of three years at a cost of P3 billion.
Reports reaching this publication suggest that Cabinet members were also reminded of key action points such as to “develop and enhance water governance – development of trade effluent agreement, development of the regulator, and enhancement of institutions.” Ministers were also informed that there is need to profile consumers against water quality required, e.g Agriculture and mining need less potable water for their operations.
In addition, “Reinforcing the culture of conversation and demand management is paramount. Huge consumers should recycle, e.g BMC, boarding schools, and, build water efficiency into building codes e.g all households to have rain water harvesting.”
The water situation report also analysed the 16 management centres across the country. The report looked at the national surface and groundwater sources against demand clusters prior to the 2008 water sector reforms. Cabinet was told that “only two management centres of Kanye and Lobatse are in a bad situation while Ghanzi, Tsabong and Masunga require closer monitoring – as their situation is also undesirable.”
Through a map, WUC illustrated that the Maun, Ghanzi, Lobatse and Kanye management centres have acute water supply deficit of more than 30%. “Basically the picture reflects extreme infrastructure deficits generally throughout the country.”
The report highlights that many parts of the country experience serious water loss ranging from 16% to 58% and these include parts of Tsabong, Kanye, Lobatse, Molepolole, Ghanzi, Maun, Kasane, Masunga, Serowe and Mochudi. The only areas that have acceptable water losses are Gaborone, Palapye, Francistown, Selebi Phikwe and Letlhakane management centres.
Records indicate that areas that currently have conventional sewerage systems are: Maun, Gaborone, Kasane, Ghanzi, Francistown, Selibe Phikwe, Tonota, Palapye, Serowe, Mahalapye, Shoshong, Bobonong, Mochudi, Mogoditshane, Tlokweng, Gabane, Lobatse, Goodhope, Jwaneng, Ramotswa and Orapa.
“Out of these only Gaborone, Francistown, Jwaneng and Selibe Phikwe have huge potential for reclamation.” However they need to be refurbished and upgraded to improve efficiency, it is noted in the report.
According to the presentation made by the WUC, Trade Effluent Agreements need to be put in place to ensure pretreatment prior to discharging into the system e.g Botswana Meat Commission (BMC), tannery, poultry, and textiles. Effluent currently being discharged into the environment should be further treated for re-use. It is understood that the total quantity that can be reclaimed from these systems is 50% as minimum of treatment plant capacity.
How North South Carrier could fail As at April 2015, the Gaborone dam was filled at a paltry 2.6% out of the 141.4 maximum capacity and has failed months of supply without inflow. Under normal circumstances, Molatedi dam (10ml), Bokaa dam (28ml), Nnywane dam (2.4ml), Ramotswa well field (5ml), Gaborone dam (74ml) and North-South Carrier 1 (60ml) make the total supply of 179.4ml to Greater Gaborone area. Gaborone peak demand is 145ml.
At present, excluding the Gaborone dam, the total supply of Gaborone water sits at 105.4 ml and therefore on a deficit of 39.6ml. In case, Masama East as a water source is included, the deficit will only be reduced to 19.6ml of deficit.
Moreover Gaborone water sources indicate that by 2016 the total supply of Gaborone water will be at 85ml with a deficit of 60ml. The water will come from Masama East, North-South Carrier, and the Ramotswa Well field.
It is also understood that without the North – South Carrier, by 2019 total available water will stand at 85ml hence a deficit of 112ml. Declining dam levels at Dikgatlhong and Letsibogo will lead to a failing North-South Carrier. Low or no rainfall will lead to Ramotswa not charging at all. But the general water situation will be determined by the amount of rain that falls over this period.
To achieve water security, a strategic shift is needed towards water demand management that both avoids future water shortages and keeps water affordable. Indications are that the available long term alternative is to use water from the Chobe Zambezi and link this with the North South Carrier as well as use water in the Nata River basin. However, both water sources are shared with other states, and the catch would be for Botswana to acquire consent of these countries, if the arrangement is to be carried through.
Botswana’s water demand is expected to be at 229 million cubic meters in 2020 and 286 million cubic meters in 2036. Demand is expected to outstrip supply in the near future hence water authorities are forced to come up with reasonable and plausible initiatives. Agriculture is the biggest water user in Botswana, accounting for 45 percent of all water used with the lowest productivity.
There is also going to be need for efficiency in water allocation – this could be implemented through the establishment of prioritized demand categories and quantities that are exempted for efficiency allocation process, and strict application of water efficiency guidelines to all other users.
Water lost through WUC supply system Research indicates that one quarter of all water supply in Botswana is lost through the WUC distribution system. Industry players recommend that this must be reduced to the 15 percent set by the WUC. But the biggest problem according to the WUC cashflow analysis is that there is no funding available to implement the National Water Loss Control Project.
To implement the Major Villages Network Rehabilitation and Land Servicing, WUC needs P150 million in 2015/16, P417 million in 2016/17, P475 million in 2017/18 and P400 million in 2018/19. In addition Water Pressure Zoning needs an injection of P500 million in the same financial years; while Distribution Storage Reservoirs need P750 million between 2015 and 2019 financial years.
Minister of Presidential Affairs, Governance and Public Administration, Kabo Morwaeng together with Permanent Secretary to the President (PSP) Elias Magosi, this week refused to name and shame the worst performing Ministries and to disclose the best performing Ministries since beginning of 12th parliament including the main reasons for underperformance.
Of late there have been a litany of complaints from both ends of the aisle with cabinet members accused of providing parliament with unsatisfactory responses to the questions posed. In fact for some Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) backbenchers a meeting with the ministers and party leadership is overdue to address their complaints. Jwaneng-Mabutsane MP, Mephato Reatile is also not happy with ministers’ performance.
Bokamoso Private Hospital is battling a P10 million legal suit for a botched fibroids operation which resulted in a woman losing an entire womb and her prospects of bearing children left at zero.
The same suit has also befallen the Attorney General of Botswana who is representing the Ministry of Health and Wellness for their contributory negligence of having the unlawful removal of a patient, Goitsemang Magetse’s womb.
According to the court papers, Magetse says that sometimes in November 2019, she was diagnosed with fibroids at Marina Hospital where upon she was referred to Bokamoso Private Hospital to schedule an appointment for an operation to remove the fibroids, which she did.
Magetse continues that at the instance of one Dr Li Wang, the surgeon who performed the operation, and unknown to her, an operation to remove her whole womb was conducted instead. According to Magetse, it was only through a Marina Hospital regular check-up that she got to learn that her whole womb has been removed.
“At the while she was under the belief that only her fibroids have been removed. By doing so, the hospital has subjected itself to some serious delictual liability in that it performed a serious and life changing operation on patient who was under the belief that she was doing a completely different operation altogether. It thus came as a shock when our client learnt that her womb had been removed, without her consent,” said Magetse’s legal representatives, Kanjabanga and Associates in their summons.
The letter further says, “this is an infringement of our client‘s rights and this infringement has dire consequences on her to the extent that she can never bear children again”. ‘It is our instruction therefore, to claim as we hereby do, damages in the sum of BWP 10,000,000 (ten million Pula) for unlawful removal of client’s womb,” reads Kanjabanga Attorneys’ papers. The defendants are yet to respond to the plaintiff’s papers.
What are fibroids?
Fibroids are tumors made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue. They develop in the uterus. It is estimated that 70 to 80 percent of women will develop fibroids in their lifetime — however, not everyone will develop symptoms or require treatment.
The most important characteristic of fibroids is that they’re almost always benign, or noncancerous. That said, some fibroids begin as cancer — but benign fibroids can’t become cancer. Cancerous fibroids are very rare. Because of this fact, it’s reasonable for women without symptoms to opt for observation rather than treatment.
Studies show that fibroids grow at different rates, even when a woman has more than one. They can range from the size of a pea to (occasionally) the size of a watermelon. Even if fibroids grow that large, we offer timely and effective treatment to provide relief.
The Alliance for Progressives (AP) President Ndaba Gaolathe has said that despite major accolades that Botswana continues to receive internationally with regard to the state of economy, the prospects for the future are imperilled.
Delivering his party Annual Policy Statement on Thursday, Gaolathe indicated that Botswana is in a state of do or die, and that the country’s economy is on a sick bed. With a major concern for poverty, Gaolathe pointed out that almost half of Botswana’s people are ravaged by or are about to sink into poverty. “Our young people have lost the fire to dream about what they could become,” he said.