Introduction In Botswana, education has, through the years, received the largest share of the government budget. In the 2014/2015 budget, for example, the allocation to the Ministry of education and Skills Development was P9, 26 billion or 28 percent of the recurrent budget, an increase of P1, 05 billion or 0.3 percent over the 2013/2015 budget. Invariably, the expenditure on education raises several questions.
Should the Botswana government really spend so much money on education? Is the Government getting a good return on this type of investment? What should be the basic strategy of the expenditure on education growth? What really is the role of education in economic growth? This article examines the role of education in economic growth and addresses some of these questions.
How education enhances economic growth Economists have identified three ways in which education enhances economic growth; firstly education raises the efficiency of the labour, which in turn raises labour productivity and economic growth. Second, education induces innovation and technological progress; these factors which enhance economic growth.
Thirdly, education facilitates the acquisition of foreign technology. It is asserted that presently, new technology is generated mainly by the developed countries in Europe and North America. Once created, the new technology is then diffused worldwide through different channels, the major ones being international trade and foreign direct investment. However it is argued that a country must have absorptive capacity before it can successfully acquire foreign technology and this enhances economic growth.
The importance of education in the acquisition of foreign technology has been emphasised. It is observed that modern economic growth depends mainly on the international transfer of technology, which subsequently depended on education. The economic growth of Europe and North America has been explained by the fact that masse education was already fairly well established by the early nineteenth century in England, France, Germany, and the United States of America.
Quantity versus quality in education The quantity of education is measured by the student enrolments and years of schooling. This has been the general focus through the years and it is an approach government by the assumption that the more enrolments ad years of schooling, the higher the economic growth rate., However, three basic problems have been identified in this approach, First the amount of knowledge that students gain in a year varies across countries, it is higher in some countries than theirs. Secondly, schooling is not the only means of acquiring skills. Rather skills can be acquired at the workplace from family and peers. Thirdly what really matters for economic growth is education quality and not quantity.
Quality of education is measured by what students learn that is the cognitive skills- basic mathematics reading and writing skills. These skills are considered to be more significant for economic growth than the mere quantity of education. Since schooling and learning are not necessarily joint outcomes, we need to ensure that students learn when they are schooling. Schooling is about showing up for classes while learning is about acquiring knowledge that makes a person functionally literate.
The case of Botswana Figure 3 shows the trends in student enrolment in Botswana at all levels of education during the period 1974 to 2007. On the other hand, Figure 4 shows only the enrolments at tertiary institutions namely the University of Botswana and vocational and technical colleges. Clearly from these figures, there has been a substantial increase in student enrolments in Botswana. This means that the quantity of education has risen in Botswana and therefore is how to enhance quality of education.
As expected primary education has highest enrolment of students; followed by secondary; and then tertiary education. Because, at any given time, most students are in primary school, education quality should target primary schools. Targeting quality at primary school level will, as they say produce the greatest good for the greatest numbers. It will lay a solid foundation for higher levels of learning and reduce the attrition at secondary and tertiary levels.
Why? This is because “children must learn how to learn” Precisely the specific policies that can improve education quality in primary school include incentives for primary school teachers , reducing the student teacher ratio by increasing the number of teachers, improving discipline updating school curricula and re training of teaches , improving testing tools and procedures. Thus in the 2015/2016 budget, the Government of Botswana has allocated P644 million for operation costs of teaching staff and P235,83 million for in service training.
The gap is unnecessary because the skills acquired from vocational and technical training are required for enhanced economic growth. Mupimpila and Narayanu (2009), for example, find a positive and significant impact of vocational and technical training on economic growth in Botswana.
In conclusion, we to turn to the questions raised at the beginning of this article. Should the Botswana government really spend so much money on education? Is the Government getting a good return on this type of investment? To answer these questions we consider the fact that substantial increase in student enrolments in Botswana occurred after the mid-1980s.
This suggests that the Botswana Government has among others invested in reproducible capital such as machines. In essence the Hartwick rule holds that revenue from a non-renewable resource such as diamonds should be invested in other economic activities that will yield income, output economic activities that will yield income output employment and consumption in the future after the non-renewable resource is depleted.
It is principle that s implied by the bank of Botswana in its annual report of 2017. Therefore on purely economic grounds, it is necessary for Botswana government to continue to spend so much money on education. The dividends for this type of investment may not be apparent now but they will in the future.
By contrast the skills mismatch and the high graduate unemployment which are now prevalence in Botswana suggest that the government might not be getting good return on investment. Moreover, competitiveness reports rank Botswana lowly on the quality of education. The issue really is how to increase the quality of education and produce graduates that are demanded by employers.
This report is adopted from the Stanbic Bank Quarterly Economic Review, 2015
An international report complied in South Africa dubbed ‘Legal Gender Recognition in Botswana’ says that the transgender and gender non-conforming people in Botswana live a miserable life. The community experiences higher levels of discrimination, violence and ill health.
In this report, it has been indicated that this is because their gender identity, which does not conform to narrowly define societal norms, renders them more vulnerable. Gender identity is a social determinant of health, which means that it is a factor that influences people’s health via their social context, their communities and their experiences of social exclusion. The Ministry of Health and Wellness has recognized this, and transgender people are considered a vulnerable population under the Botswana Second National Strategic Framework for HIV and AIDS 2010-2017.
In a recent study that shed light on the lived experiences of transgender and gender non-conforming people in Botswana, transgender persons often experience discrimination because of their gender identity and expression. The study was conducted by the University of Cape Town, LEGABIBO, BONELA, as well as Rainbow Identity Association and approved by the Health Ministry as well as the University of Botswana.
Of the 77 transgender and gender non-conforming people who participated in the study, less than half were employed. Two thirds, which is approximately 67% said that they did not have sufficient funds to cover their everyday needs. Two in five had hidden health concerns from their healthcare provider because they were afraid to disclose their gender identity.
More than half said that because of their gender identity, they had been treated disrespectfully at a healthcare facility (55%), almost half (46%) said they had been insulted at a healthcare facility, and one quarter (25%) had been denied healthcare because of their gender identity.
At the same time, the ‘Are we doing right’ study suggests that transgender and non-conforming people might be at higher risks of experiencing violence and mental ill-health, compared to the general population. More than half had experienced verbal embarrassment because of their gender identity, 48% had experienced physical violence and more than one third (38%) had experienced sexual violence.
The study showed that mental health concerns were high among transgender and gender non-conforming people in Botswana. Half of the transgender and gender non-conforming study participants (53%) showed signs of depression. Between one in four and one in six showed signs of moderate or severe anxiety (22% among transgender women, 24% among transgender men and 17% among gender non-conforming people).
Further, the study revealed that many had attempted suicide: one in three transgender women (32%), more than one in three transgender men (35%) and three in five gender non-conforming people (61%).
International research, as well as research from Botswana, suggests that not being able to change one’s gender marker has a negative impact on access to healthcare and mental health and wellbeing. The study further showed that one in four transgender people in Botswana (25%) had been denied access to healthcare. This is, at least in part, linked to not being able to change one’s gender marker in the identity documents, and thus not having an identity document that matches one’s gender identity and gender expression.
In its Assessment of Legal and Regulatory Framework for HIV, AIDS and Tuberculosis, the Health Ministry noted that “transgender persons in Botswana are unable to access identity documents that reflect their gender identity, which is a barrier to health services, including in the context of HIV. In one documented case, a transwoman’s identity card did not reflect her gender identity- her identity card photo indicated she was ‘male’. When she presented her identity card at a health facility, a health worker called the police who took her into custody.”
The necessity of a correct national identity document goes beyond healthcare. The High Court of Botswana explains that “the national identity document plays a pivotal role in every Motswana’s daily life, as it links him or her with any service they require from various institutions. Most activities in the country require every Motswana to produce their identity document, for identification purposes of receiving services.”
According to the Legal Gender Recognition in Botswana report, this effectively means that transgender, whose gender identity and expression is likely to be different from the sex assigned to them at birth and from what is recorded on their identity document, cannot access services without risk of denial or discrimination, or accusations of fraud.
In this context, gays and lesbians advocacy group LEGABIBO has called on government through the Department of Civil and National Registration to urgently implement the High Court rulings on gender marker changes. As stated by the High Court in the ND vs Attorney General of Botswana judgement, identity cards (Omang) play an important role in the life of every Motswana. Refusal and or delay to issue a Motswana with an Omang is denying them to live a complete and full-filing life with dignity and violates their privacy and freedom of expression.
The judgement clarified that persons can change their gender marker as per the National Registrations Act, so changing the gender marker is legally possible. There is no need for a court order. It further said the person’s gender is self-identified, there is no need to consult medical doctors.
LEGABIBO also called on government to develop regulations that specify administrative procedure to change one’s gender marker, and observing self-determination process. Further, the group looks out for government to ensure members of the transgender community are engaged in the development of regulations.
“We call on this Department of Civil and National Registration to ensure that the gender marker change under the National Registration Act is aligned to the Births and Deaths Registry Act to avoid court order.
Meanwhile, a gay man in Lobatse, Moabi Mokenke was recently viciously killed after being sexually violated in the streets of Peleng, shockingly by his neighbourhood folks. The youthful lad, likely to be 29-years old, met his fate on his way home, from the wearisome Di a Bowa taverns situated in the much populated township of Peleng Central.
CEO of Khato Civils Mongezi Mnyani has come out of the silence and is going all way guns blazing against the company’s adversaries who he said are hell-bent on tarnishing his company’s image and “hard-earned good name”
Speaking to WeekendPost from South Africa, Mnyani said it is now time for him to speak out or act against his detractors. Khato Civils has done several projects across Africa. Khato Civils, a construction company and its affiliate engineering company, South Zambezi have executed a number of world class projects in South Africa, Malawi and now recently here in Botswana.
About ten (10) Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) parliamentary candidates who lost the 2019 general election and petitioned results this week met with UDC Vice President, Dumelang Saleshando to discuss the way forward concerning the quandary that is the legal fees put before them by Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) lawyers.
For a while now, UDC petitioners who are facing the wrath of quizzical sheriffs have demanded audience with UDC National Executive Committee (NEC) but in vain. However after the long wait for a tete-a-tete with the UDC, the petitioners met with Saleshando accompanied by other NEC members including Dr. Kesitegile Gobotswang, Reverend Mpho Dibeela and Dennis Alexander.