In recent months there have been vigorous discussions on the growing anti-social behaviour in Botswana society. This is mostly evident in the way the youth is behaving, starting from misbehaviour at school age, such as abuse of alcohol and other substances, vandalism, sexual activity, so-called Satanism, violence, lack of respect of elders etc.
It is also manifested by teenage pregnancy and dropping out of school. There are other aspects of the social breakdown syndrome that manifest in adults, such as alcohol abuse and lack of responsibility at home including the neglect of family obligations.
Some regard all these as symptoms of the breakdown at family level. There is evidence, for example, that the majority of children are now born out of wedlock. This means that most children are raised by single parents, another way of saying raised by the mother alone. In many cases this means there is no male figure in the homestead, because modern life has to all intents and purposes put paid to the extended family system.
The maternal uncles, who used to play the role of the father in such circumstances, are now too far to fulfil the role as they are likely to be living away from the single mother. Some attribute the breakdown in social behaviour to this disintegration in the family structure. So the debate rages on, what can be done to bring about what some have called a “moral regeneration”?
As is expected, proposals are being generated from different perspectives, based on the background of the person making the proposals. Some believe that our society should go back to “culture and tradition”; even suggesting that a revival of initiation ceremonies like bojale and bogwera would do the trick.
The young ones would be taught during these rites of passage how to be responsible members of society in the mode of the traditional Tswana agrarian society. Others believe that we should go the religious way, the Christians leading the way. According to them we should all embrace Jesus Christ, and then everything will come right. According to them, we have all strayed from the Christian path; that is why our society’s morality has gone haywire.
There are, according to them, all sorts of demons at large in our society. The solution- we should all practice Christianity. Still others, myself included, believe that our society and culture have evolved, and we cannot solve our problems by simply going to old ways. We are not an agrarian society anymore; we are a modern society, more of a commercial industrial entity than an agrarian one. As for religion, it cannot be the guarantor of morality.
Immanuel Kant’s “categorical imperative” is operative here; we are now more products of the Enlightenment rather than of religion, hence our embracing the secular State. Our society should develop its human values and empirical reasoning, allowing its members the choice to approach morality from various angles; religious, traditional, deist or secular. The family is the fulcrum, the place where these values should be developed. Our problem is that the family has broken down, and that is where leaders in our society should invest their energies.
After this long introduction, let me now come to the gist of my message. In the last two weeks, it was largely reported in the press that a Traditional leader has advocated Polygamy as the solution to the family breakdown problem.
According to reports, the leader believes there are so many more women than men in Botswana that Polygamy should be allowed, so that the extra women can be married. In that way, we would avoid the problem of the extra women being concubines, and the children they bear growing up without father figures as these women would be recognized wives.
I have a problem with this thinking. Firstly, are there really that many more women than men in Botswana? According to the 2011 Census in Botswana, there are 95.5 males for every 100 females in Botswana. To me this does not suggest that every man can have two wives, because everything being equal, the ratio would not support such a scenario.
To all intents and purposes, there is one female for every male in the country. The apparent preponderance of women over men is relative; it is a social consequence of our societal structure, not a product of numbers. In polygamous societies, when a 70 year old many has four wives, the wives’ ages will range from 20 years to 60 years. Men go for women who are far below their age, whether to make them wives or concubines, and this makes it look like there are many more women than men.
What is more, women tend to be choosy when it comes to selecting men for marriage, they will tend to go for men who are older and offer more security, whether economic or social. That is why the so called shortage of men is really a social construct and not a reality.
Polygamy tends to die away as societies lose their agrarian structure and move into the cash economy. Other influences could also be religious; we know that mainline or orthodox Christianity dictates strict monogamy. These two factors have probably been responsible for the decline of Polygamy in Botswana.
The law itself has not prohibited Polygamy- if a man wants to be polygamous, he simply has to marry by traditional law and he can have as many wives as he wants. Why is it that many men in Botswana don’t take that route? We should realize that whereas in the past, and in the polygamous societies in general, women tend to have to fend for themselves, producing their own food in the fields etc.
In modern Botswana society wives tend to depend on the husband for livelihood. A man who marries more than one wife therefore has to fend for all the wives. This may be another factor that drove Botswana men away from Polygamy.
Marriage in Botswana has been declining. Couples tend to have children but not marry. That is why most children are now born out of wedlock. In many cases the man simply goes away after the woman falls pregnant; in some cases the couple will cohabit but not marry.
According to the Analytic Report of the 2011 Botswana Census, while in the 1971 Census 47.1% males and 42.9% females were married, in the 2011 Census 18.8% males and 17.9% females were married. This shows a very profound decline in the percentage of married adults in the four decades. The reasons for this decline should make the people of this country wonder what is going on. Polygamy is certainly not going to solve this problem, because shortage of men is not the source of the problem.
The problem is most probably economic, and the costs of getting married, especially bogadi and related costs are most likely the main problem. Of course there are likely to be other problems, many men are now just afraid of responsibility.
We should also note that people are not bearing as many children as they used to. According to the 2011 Census, the Total Fertility Rate (the average births per woman) for Botswana is now 2.7 children. In the 1971 Census it was 6.5 and in the 1991 Census it was 4.2. So fertility has been declining steadily, or to put it in other words, women have been bearing less and less children in the last four decades.
This is to be expected; it always happens when women get more educated and get more engaged in the job market and work for careers. Unfortunately, the women in the lower socio-economic classes tend to be left behind, and we see in Botswana that the women with little or no education tend to bear more children, in many cases out of marriage and with more than one man. This is unfortunate as these are the very women who cannot afford to raise these children properly in economic terms. Again it is difficult to see how polygamy will solve this problem.
The question of Polygamy takes one to the very core of equality for women and their empowerment. With the secular modern democracy on which our Republic is based, and looking at modern developments in such a liberal democracy, I believe that Polygamy is very incompatible with the very basis of the kind of society we are aspiring to.
This is because by its very nature, Polygamy treats women as inferior and not equal to men. I know that there are some who try to argue biologically and say that in all mammalian species males mate with many females, but humans have developed a brain and a level of intelligence not found in any other mammal, even in primates, our nearest relatives. Human development, and the attendant human rights, dictates that the time for Polygamy is gone.
One of course accepts that we still have those who would like to practice things they regard as traditional or cultural (bear in mind that culture is dynamic and changes all the time), and therefore traditional practices like Polygamy cannot be banned even if they are incompatible with our worldview. However, I believe as a State we should not be seen to encourage such a practice.
Lastly, we should not forget that two decades ago (I cannot remember the actual year), an attempt by Government to unify the traditional and modern laws which would make polygamy an option in all marriages was thoroughly rejected by the people of this country. It shows that Batswana have generally outgrown that kind of marriage and do not want it to come back.
We should not labour under the impression that marriage was a bed of roses when Polygamy was still a common practice. There must be a reason why it was called “go nyala lefufa”. It implies that there was always considerable jealousy in such a marriage.
Let us move forward, not backwards. Our leadership should find ways of dealing with the breakdown in social mores that we are experiencing, but trying to revert to an agrarian mode of life is not a viable alternative.
President Dr Mokgweetsi Masisi and the Directorate of Intelligence (DIS) came under the lens of the United Nations Human Rights Committee during the just ended dialogue between committee members and the Botswana delegation.
Scores of issues, among them the country’s reports on topics including whether Masisi abused the State of Emergency Act during the COVID-19 pandemic and alleged surveillance and harassment of members of the public by DIS, were addressed at the session.
A Committee expert asked about legislation in the Penal Code allowing the Government to investigate people who expressed opinions against public figures, particularly the President. How many cases were there of journalists who had been investigated, prosecuted and tried? Concerning the COVID-19 Emergency Powers Act, there was a provision for a fine or a five-year jail term for journalists using “source(s) other than the Director of Health Services or the World Health Organization” when reporting on COVID-19. The Committee Expert asked for the number of cases and other measures taken under this Act.
Another committee expert wanted to know that the scale and scope of electronic surveillance, which had sharply increased in recent years, was concerning. Furthermore, the Committee was troubled at the lack of a sufficient independent oversight mechanism over the Directorate of Intelligence and Security Services that reportedly had contributed to a growing climate of fear and chilling effect on journalists, human rights defenders and opposition politicians. In this respect, a Committee Expert asked about the measures taken by Botswana during the COVID-19 pandemic to ensure that the right to privacy was protected (collection and management of personal data).
The Expert also enquired about a database website, which was not functioning but was supposed to contain documents of Botswana’s international human rights commitments. In terms of the freedom of assembly, while the Constitution of the State party guaranteed it, the Committee had received information that, in practice, the Public Order Act required citizens to apply to the nearest police for a permit to hold an assembly, and police had sometimes denied requests for unclear reasons.
The Committee Expert asked if the Public Order Act of the State party had been applied in conformity with those tests. Would the State party indicate the measures it had taken and/or intended to take to make the application of the law in question strictly compatible with the requirements under article 21? Furthermore, the Committee had also received allegations that police officers sometimes used force to compel gathering people to disperse. In this regard, the Expert asked for information on legal provisions and practical guidelines under which police officers may resort to force and any training programme if any, for police and other law enforcement officers to respect and ensure the right of peaceful assembly.
A Committee Expert asked about cases of holding people for longer periods under pre-trial detention than the maximum period provided for in legislation, 36 months, instead of six. Were there any plans to shorten the duration of pre-trial detention in legislation? The Committee noted that there was no provision for local community broadcasting. What measures were the State party taking to ensure that the local communities could also communicate in their language in the media?
What measures had been undertaken by Botswana to increase sustainable development in the country regarding climate change in particular. What efforts had been undertaken to ensure that customary courts worked up to speed? A Committee Expert asked about children in rural areas who travelled a long way to their schools. The delegation was asked about the independence of the Ombudsman Office, including provisions for appointing the Ombudsman. What budget was envisaged for this Office?
The Expert acknowledged the established procedures and institutions for anti-human trafficking but expressed concerns about the lack of reported cases. The Expert asked about the accountability of the public prosecution, as well as the intelligence services. Replying, the Botswana delegation, led by Presidential Minister Kabo Morwaeng, said there was an ongoing consultation for revising provisions that would ensure better protection for journalists and media freedom in Botswana.
Still, the delegation said, freedom of expression was assured in the State party without any restrictions, including in Parliament. There was an education programme providing the opportunity for children in primary school to be taught in their mother tongue. It also explained that the Ombudsman would be dealing with issues of human rights promotion and protection.
“National policies and procedures were envisaged to control the distribution of natural resources. Botswana was also taking measures to increase the access of minority groups to education. Regarding pre-trial detention, the delegation explained that the criminal procedure assured justice was preserved in the country,” said the delegation.
On the issue of torturer and alleged use of unreasonable force on suspects, the Botswana delegation explained that police officers were trained to use minimal force, ensuring that human rights were preserved, including in the cases of assemblies. On the use of surveillance, no legal provisions were breached, and such measures were used in accordance with national legislation. Legal aid was very costly, and it was not possible to keep the record in detail as asked by the Committee.
Morwaeng told the Committee that the Government maintained a robust consultative approach to policy development and legislative process. He said this was a system of governance that ensured that the voices of ordinary citizens were respected and taken into account in the social, economic and political process that affected them the most, giving full effect to the full enjoyment of human rights across the board. The delegation took due note of the views of the Committee, including the importance of harnessing information technology to give a broader appreciation of the provisions of the Covenant.
The P1 billion water project launched by President Dr vMokgweetsi Masisi this week is said to be critical to the success of key projects planned in Lobatse – the Lobatse Milk Afric and Leather Park. After commissioning the multi-million Pula Masama-Mmamashia water project last week following its completion, on Thursday, Masisi performed ground-breaking ceremony of yet another major water project, the Lobatse Water Supply Master Plan (LWSMP1).
The water project was conceptualized in 2009 to address water shortage in areas along the Greater Gaborone zone. These areas include Ramotswa, Otse, Mogobane, Mankgodi, Manyana, Goodhope, Lekgolobotlo, Mmathethe, Molapowabojang and villages surrounding. It was said that some major upcoming projects in Lobatse such as Lobatse Leather Park, Milk Afric and the Pioneer Border Gate are dependent on the success of this project, in order for them to take off and operate effectively. The two projects have been struggling to take-off despite government having put the necessary resources.
The Lobatse Leather Park is anticipated to create about 4700 jobs at the initial stage and 7000 jobs at full capacity. The project entails the development of a complex for different tanneries with the support of state-owned beef company, Botswana Meat Commission. It will comprise primary infrastructure such as a common effluent treatment plant, sewage treatment plant, and others.
When operational, the park is expected to supply the private sector with hides and skins, raw to finished leather tanneries, and the manufacturing of different leather products. These products include shoes, belts, jackets, and others, thereby playing an instrumental role in stimulating economic activity. Leather Beneficiation Park is seen as important for the leather industry as it would ensure that Botswana moves from exporting raw leather to finished leather goods. It is said research has established that there are plenty of hides and skins in the country from the three million cattle and 1.8 million goats.
Meanwhile, Milk Afric dairy farm project which was expected to be complete by the second half of 2018, is in the wilderness after the initial partnership between Botswana Development Corporation (BDC) and Milk Afric failed to bear fruits. BDC has been searching for a new partner for the project. Once fully operational, the farm will produce a total of 21.9 million litres or one third of the national milk demand, which is 65 million litres a year. At present, Botswana imports over 58.8 million litres from South Africa at a cost of P345 million annually.
The P120 million project is a Public Private Partnership deal between Lobatse Town Council (LTC), with 10 percent shareholding through leasing its 1375.4 ha farm for 25 years; and 26 percent (P40 million) by Botswana Development Corporation (BDC). When speaking at the groundbreaking ceremony held in Ramotswa, Masisi said, in addition to improving the water supply for domestic needs and livelihoods, this infrastructural development will facilitate major projects in the Lobatse region, which are critical to the ailing, old town.
“Our objective as a country is to align developments with the National Vision 2036 Pillar 3 on Sustainable Development, which recognizes water as a very scarce resource which requires strategic management by key players.” Botswana is a developing country with an increasing population, Masisi said, adding that an increase in population naturally causes exponential growth in the demand for water. This is a reality that Botswana is faced with and challenged to address for sustainable water supply, the President said.
He indicated that this is why they are continuously witnessing major water projects undertaken by government, in collaboration with key partners. “Gaborone and surrounding areas have been experiencing an acute water supply deficit due to infrastructure that has outlived its potential to meet the growing demand for water by citizens. This particular project entails the construction of a Pump Station at Forest Hill in Gaborone, a 57 kilometre pipeline from Gaborone to Lobatse and a new Northern reservoir.”
The project, awarded China State Construction and Engineering Corporation/Van and Truck Hire Joint Venture at over P1 billion, is currently at 49% of its completion stage. There are 637 jobs created by this water project. “The transmission pipeline will convey 63 million litres of water a day from Gaborone to Lobatse. This is a great improvement compared to an average supply of 14 million litres of water that has been supplied to Lobatse, Borolong and surrounding areas,” Masisi said.
The United Nations Committee on Human Rights has taken Botswana to task over what it considers to be discrimination laws against lesbians and gays and delay in prosecuting suspects in the infamous Sebina defilement case. The Botswana delegation led by Presidential Minister Kabo Morwaeng found itself against the wall before the United Nations Human Rights Committee of experts in Geneva, Switzerland.
First to take Botswana head-on was the UN Committee member, C SOH, who noted that the recent ruling of the High Court pays particular attention to the penal code penalising same-sex sexual conduct as it found that it infringed on the constitutional rights, dignity, liberty and privacy of the LGBTI persons (lesbians and gays). “Nonetheless, I note with deep concern that those discriminatory provisions of the of the penal code remain in effect and regrettably the government stated in its periodic review before deciding whether or not to repeal section 164 it would still await the final determination of the court of appeal in the case of Motshidiemang vs State,” said Soh.
According to Soh, “This statement makes us cast doubt on the will of the government to vigorously” strike out section 164, which criminalises sex between people of the same sex. “In this respect, I would like to ask the delegation to explain what the intended goal by the government was when it filed an appeal against the unconstitutionality ruling of the High Court,” he said. Soh said the Botswana Government had also explained that no persons had been convicted under this provision, section 164, ever since the penal code was enacted.
“However, media reports indicate that in August 2016, the government of a Gaborone Magistrate Court sentenced a man three years in prison who had been charged and convicted under section 164 for engaging in unnatural acts. Can the delegation explain these discrepancies relating to persons who have been convicted and sentenced under section 164 of the penal code,” he said. He also wanted the Botswana delegation to explain how the government addresses how customary courts have been discriminating against LGBTI persons.
Another member of the UN Committee, Duncan Muhumuza, expressed concern that the Directorate of Public Prosecution (DPP) has taken more than four years to prosecute suspects in the Sebina saga in which a councillor was alleged to have slept with a student who was also a minor. Replying to concerns raised by the UN experts, Mogakolodi Segwagwa, chief state counsel at the Attorney General Chambers, noted that one of the UN committee members has “become fearful that the fact that government appealed the case could be a sign that there is lack of will or doubt on the part of the government as to abolishing or outlawing of same-sex relations.”
“But I would like to assure the panel that Botswana has over the years proved itself at all times to be compliant with court orders. There are many examples I could put forward where the government had to make sure that court orders were executed. That is the assurance I can give out to the committee,” said Segwagwa. He said there was a good reason for appealing the decision of the High Court in which it outlawed section 164.
“This was a High Court decision, and as you know in our jurisdiction when a judge is at the same court with his brothers and his sisters and fellow judges, whatever decision he puts out so far as that particular court is concerned, it is not law because it is not binding on his fellow brothers and sisters and it is not binding on fellow judges,” explained Segwagwa. He added that “It is merely persuasive so much so that some other judges may choose to when a similar case comes before him or her, depart and ignore the position that that particular judge espoused, and he or she can do so with ease.”
Segwagwa further explained that “There was a very pressing need for this matter to be appealed to the Court of Appeal for purposes of crystalising the law and for purposes of ensuring that if there is any aspect of the law that the High Court had overlooked in arriving at this particular decision, then such an aspect can be taken into consideration by the Court of Appeal.” “So we are waiting for that judgement, and once it comes, it will be implemented. I take it that the committee would like the Court of Appeal to uphold the decision below and strike out this particular section.”
He assured the UN experts that when the High Court struck out section 164 in 2019, the country did not erupt into violence, adding that this was an “indication that we don’t have anything against people of LGBT. They are our brothers and sisters, and we co-exist with them.” Regarding the Sebina saga, Segwagwa said the painful case “where this councillor was said to have had sexual intercourse with a child is the police dealt with a matter as it is the law and we all know that the police are bound by their Act to do so without fear and prejudice.”
He said Upon completion of their investigation, “the matter was handed over to the prosecuting authority, as Mr Muhumuza had indicated, it has been four years and we concede that four years is a long time and that it is unreasonably a long time and that it defeats the whole adage that justice should be sweetest and freshest so much so that the case needed to be speeded along.”
He added that “But the problem we have which is not a problem in the sense of it being a problem, but the impediment we have in the sense that the Constitution created the Office of the Director of Prosecutions under section 51 subsection A and if you go to that particular section and you read subsection six, the director shall not be subjected to the control of another authority.”
Segwagwa said, “this is the section that was inserted in this constitution to safeguard the independence of the Director of DPP to ensure that he or she prosecutes matters without fear, favour and prejudice and it presents impediment where we can’t try and say to the DPP, go and register or indicate your position now, tomorrow or next year and that is why it has taken all this time, but we believe attempts are being made that it finds its way to the court.”