As the nation is still trying to find answers as to why there is a decline in student performances in the last decade, a researcher with the Vision 2016 Council, Dr Pelotshweu Moepeng has indicated that there is a “statistical association” between the increase of male teachers in primary schools and the declining performance levels.
While he pointed out that there was need to do further research to establish the link or coincidence, he did indicate that it was a matter worth noting. He said the nation was concerned with the decline in students’ performances, but there is need for a thorough research on pointers linking to the deplorable performances in schools.
According to Moepeng, there is growing statistical evidence on poor performance and a number of variables associated with the education sector. His analysis using the response measure of pass rate was delivered at the Vision 2016 Conference held under the theme: The Journey So Far: In Pursuit of Prosperity For All by 2016. The country will be celebrating its 50th anniversary next year when the curtains will be falling on a roadmap marked in 1996 by former President Sir Ketumile Masire.
“Using several independent variables an analysis was made to examine any predictors of the declining pass rate. The number of schools, and the number of untrained female teachers are also significantly associated with the declining pass rate,” said the former Botswana Institute of Development Policy Analysis (BIDPA) researcher, now with the Vision Council, Moepeng.
He said such findings may suggest a declining quality of outcome as the number of students increase and untrained staff is used to keep up staffing of larger pupil numbers. “We need more detailed study of differences between results in different primary schools and reasons for these,” he said.
Sharing the validity of the causal link, Moepeng pointed out that the increase in number of male teachers was at 95 percent confidence level. This, he explained it shows that there is greater link between decline in results and increase in the number of male teachers.
The confidence level was high for untrained teachers, at 99 percent. He said the statistics link the increase of untrained male and female teachers to the drop in performance of students. The Ministry of Education and Skills Development has occasionally roped in temporary teachers, most without relevant qualifications to teach students while vacancies are not yet filled by trained teachers.
Moepeng further shared that the gender balance for teachers was largely female until 1999. The number of male teachers was less than 100 in 1975 while there were over 250 female teachers. In 1997 the number of male teachers jumped to almost 350 while that of females was just over 600.
In 1999, the number of female teachers dropped to just below 600, and the number of male teachers increased to over 450, this is the same period that the student pass rates started declining. The desktop research has also directly linked underperforming classes to young male teachers.
Moepeng said policies requiring attention to quality could become a focus such as supporting training on the job or mentoring of staff on continuous basis. He added that defining performance measures that are required as a time series which should be simple but reflective of situations in primary through to tertiary education; and also reflect the need for home grown skills and particularly in the tertiary sector. He said they should also reflect the capacity for providing skills and particularly in the tertiary sector.
He cited that the case where there is significant statistical association between increased school numbers and declining quality of education needs further examination. “Some factors might include school location, quality of school heads, equipment in schools, and roles of teachers such as where they spend their time most – in workshops or classrooms, in industrial action or in classrooms?”
Moepeng said there is need to undertake a more detailed study of differences between results in different primary schools and establish the reasons for the disparities. He said there is need to provide extra financial assistance to schools in disadvantaged areas to enable them to obtain adequate learning material. â€¨â€¨
He gave the example that schools could be provided with centrally prepared online or DVD material for use by teachers in areas that are disadvantaged. He also called on the civil society to be involved to address the problem of out of school children. He indicated that government alone cannot solve the challenge of out of school children, “it is more complex, NGOs could help,” he said.
According to Moepeng, by 2002 girls made up over half the enrollments in both primary and secondary schools. He indicated that progression of students through education over time was at its lowest in 1998 and at its peak in the years between 2006 and 2009, but declined and steadied between 2009 and 2012.
According to the researcher, the pass rates for standard seven in primary schools was 72 percent in 1984, rising to 82 percent in 1999 and dropping to 65 percent in 2012. He shared that the decline was consistent across all levels of education.
Botswana has made improvements on preventing and ending arbitrary deprivation of liberty, but significant challenges remain in further developing and implementing a legal framework, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention said at the end of a visit recently.
Head of the delegation, Elina Steinerte, appreciated the transparency of Botswana for opening her doors to them. Having had full and unimpeded access and visited 19 places of deprivation of liberty and confidentiality interviewing over 100 persons deprived of their liberty.
She mentioned “We commend Botswana for its openness in inviting the Working Group to conduct this visit which is the first visit of the Working Group to the Southern African region in over a decade. This is a further extension of the commitment to uphold international human rights obligations undertaken by Botswana through its ratification of international human rights treaties.”
Another good act Botswana has been praised for is the remission of sentences. Steinerte echoed that the Prisons Act grants remission of one third of the sentence to anyone who has been imprisoned for more than one month unless the person has been sentenced to life imprisonment or detained at the President’s Pleasure or if the remission would result in the discharge of any prisoner before serving a term of imprisonment of one month.
On the other side; The Group received testimonies about the police using excessive force, including beatings, electrocution, and suffocation of suspects to extract confessions. Of which when the suspects raised the matter with the magistrates, medical examinations would be ordered but often not carried out and the consideration of cases would proceed.
“The Group recall that any such treatment may amount to torture and ill-treatment absolutely prohibited in international law and also lead to arbitrary detention. Judicial authorities must ensure that the Government has met its obligation of demonstrating that confessions were given without coercion, including through any direct or indirect physical or undue psychological pressure. Judges should consider inadmissible any statement obtained through torture or ill-treatment and should order prompt and effective investigations into such allegations,” said Steinerte.
One of the group’s main concern was the DIS held suspects for over 48 hours for interviews. Established under the Intelligence and Security Service Act, the Directorate of Intelligence and Security (DIS) has powers to arrest with or without a warrant.
The group said the “DIS usually requests individuals to come in for an interview and has no powers to detain anyone beyond 48 hours; any overnight detention would take place in regular police stations.”
The Group was able to visit the DIS facilities in Sebele and received numerous testimonies from persons who have been taken there for interviewing, making it evident that individuals can be detained in the facility even if the detention does not last more than few hours.
Moreover, while arrest without a warrant is permissible only when there is a reasonable suspicion of a crime being committed, the evidence received indicates that arrests without a warrant are a rule rather than an exception, in contravention to article 9 of the Covenant.
Even short periods of detention constitute deprivation of liberty when a person is not free to leave at will and in all those instances when safeguards against arbitrary detention are violated, also such short periods may amount to arbitrary deprivation of liberty.
The group also learned of instances when persons were taken to DIS for interviewing without being given the possibility to notify their next of kin and that while individuals are allowed to consult their lawyers prior to being interviewed, lawyers are not allowed to be present during the interviews.
The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention mentioned they will continue engaging in the constructive dialogue with the Government of Botswana over the following months while they determine their final conclusions in relation to the country visit.
Standard Chartered Bank Botswana (SCBB) has informed the government that it will not be accepting new loan applications for the Government Employees Motor Vehicle and Residential Property Advance Scheme (GEMVAS and LAMVAS) facility.
This emerges in a correspondence between Acting Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Finance Boniface Mphetlhe and some government departments. In a letter he wrote recently to government departments informing them of the decision, Mphetlhe indicated that the Ministry received a request from the Bank to consider reviewing GEMVAS and LAMVAS agreement.
He said: “In summary SCBB requested the following; Government should consider reviewing GEMVAS and LAMVAS interest rate from prime plus 0.5% to prime plus 2%.” The Bank indicated that the review should be both for existing GEMVAS and LAMVAS clients and potential customers going forward.
Mphetlhe said the Bank informed the Ministry that the current GEMVAS and LAMVAS interest rate structure results into them making losses, “as the cost of loa disbursements is higher that their end collections.”
He said it also requested that the loan tenure for the residential property loans to be increased from 20 to 25 years and the loan tenure for new motor vehicles loans to be increased from 60 months to 72 months.
Mphetlhe indicated that the Bank’s request has been duly forwarded to the Directorate of Public Service Management for consideration, since GEMVAS and LAMVAS is a Condition of Service Scheme. He saidthe Bank did also inform the Ministry that if the matter is not resolved by the 6th June, 2022, they would cease receipt of new GEMVAS and LAMVAS loan applications.
“A follow up virtual meeting was held to discuss their resolution and SCB did confirm that they will not be accepting any new loans from GEMVAS and LAMVAS. The decision includes top-up advances,” said Mphetlhe. He advised civil servants to consider applying for loans from other banks.
In a letter addressed to the Ministry, SCBB Chief Executive Officer Mpho Masupe informed theministry that, “Reference is made to your letter dated 18th March 2022 wherein the Ministry had indicated that feedback to our proposal on the above subject is being sought.”
In thesame letter dated 10 May 2022, Masupe stated that the Bank was requesting for an update on the Ministry’s engagements with the relevant stakeholder (Directorate of Public Service Management) and provide an indicative timeline for conclusion.
He said the “SCBB informs the Ministry of its intention to cease issuance of new loans to applicants from 6th June 2022 in absence of any feedback on the matter and closure of the discussions between the two parties.” Previously, Masupe had also had requested the Ministry to consider a review of clause 3 of the agreement which speaks to the interest rate charged on the facilities.
Masupe indicated in the letter dated 21 December 2021 that although all the Banks in the market had signed a similar agreement, subject to amendments that each may have requested. “We would like to suggest that our review be considered individually as opposed to being an industry position as we are cognisant of the requirements of section 25 of the Competition Act of 2018 which discourages fixing of pricing set for consumers,” he said.
He added that,“In this way,clients would still have the opportunity to shop around for more favourable pricing and the other Banks, may if they wish to, similarly, individually approach your office for a review of their pricing to the extent that they deem suitable for their respective organisations.”
Masupe also stated that: “On the issue of our request for the revision of the Interest Rate, we kindly request for an increase from the current rate of prime plus 0.5% to prime plus 2%, with no other increases during the loan period.” The Bank CEO said the rationale for the request to review pricing is due to the current construct of the GEMVAS scheme which is currently structured in a way that is resulting in the Bank making a loss.
“The greater part of the GEMVAS portfolio is the mortgage boo which constitutes 40% of the Bank’s total mortgage portfolio,” said Masupe. He saidthe losses that the Bank is incurring are as a result of the legacy pricing of prime plus 0% as the 1995 agreement which a slight increase in the August 2018 agreement to prime plus 0.5%.
“With this pricing, the GEMVAS portfolio has not been profitable to the Bank, causing distress and impeding its ability to continue to support government employees to buy houses and cars. The portfolio is currently priced at 5.25%,” he said. Masupe said the performance of both the GEMVAS home loan and auto loan portfolios in terms of profitability have become unsustainable for the Bank.
Healso said, when the agreement was signed in August 2018, the prime lending rate was 6.75% which made the pricing in effect at the time sufficient from a profitable perspective. “It has since dropped by a total 1.5%. The funds that are loaned to customers are sourced at a high rate, which now leaves the Bank with marginal profits on the portfolio before factoring in other operational expenses associated with administration of the scheme and after sales care of the portfolio,” said the CEO.