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Landlessness & Youth Physiological Development

A few weeks ago I set with my mother for our routine early morning tea, as usual while enjoying the early morning tea; we discussed several contemporary issues including; social, economic, political, religious and family affairs.

During this period I made the mistake of announcing that I will be taking a short break from regular commentary in this publication because I wanted a bit of time and space to focus on several emerging socioeconomic opportunities and demands. To my surprise this announcement landed me in trouble, it was the first time I saw and heard my mother relentlessly disagreeing with me in principle.

She felt my intentions were tantamount to betrayal and sabotage especially to those that grow and benefit from my offerings and alternative viewpoint. Nonetheless I maintained my stand and skipped a week or two without any offering; but it wasn’t long before the magnitude of her submissions surfaced through emails, calls, inboxes and accidental face-to-face interactions with habitual and occasional followers of my offerings here.

More importantly during this phase I recalled vividly that this time last year, thus 12 months ago, hence exactly 48 Saturdays and 48 articles since the day Aubrey Lute (editor of this renowned publication) took a huge risk and finally presented me an opportunity no other editor was willing to take.

It was an opportunity I accepted with both hands and never looked backed, it is his gesture and faith in me that has kept me going. These reflections, experiences and considerations catalyzed my return to regular programming earlier than planned and they will keep me in action indefinitely.   

Now the subject of the day; Youth Land’less-ness and Youth physiological development or lack thereof; the issues of land and youth development are customarily discussed and resolved distinctly, they have different principals and blueprints. Land falls under the Ministry of Lands and Housing mandate, while Youth development falls under the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Culture (MYSC) obligation.

Our country’s land allocation and management aspirations are enshrined in our Land Policy while our country’s Youth development and empowerment aspirations are enshrined in our Youth Policy. Notwithstanding the above stated convectional Youth development & Land background this installment seeks to lighten their interrelationship and fundamental cross-cutting inherent implications.

Though distinct in many superficial dimensions; Land & Youth development coincidentally share a few common platforms; they both occupy key sections and sub-sections of the National Vision 2016, respective State of the Nation Addresses (SoNA) and our respective National Development Plans (NDPs).

Nonetheless, I submit that their inclusion in the stated documents is not in any way linked to their interconnection, it is just coincidental, further interrogation of their respective sub-sections will justify my submissions herein. At this juncture, I assume the fact that access to land is huge challenge in Botswana is public knowledge, despite our relatively tiny population and reasonable geographical size.

I assume I do not have to recite the countless land stampedes and land night vigils that characterize our land application processes and are slowly but certainly becoming a normal part of our lives. I also assume I do not have to remind you of the average number of years one has to spend in the waiting-list just to be allocated a tiny portion of land to raise his/her family.

I also assume I do not have to remind you that many Batswana live and work for high rentals in urban and semi-urban areas, simply because Botswana is a heavily centralized republic and most of its citizen are poverty stricken and un- or underemployed while rent and property prices are reported to be among the highest in the whole continent.

I simply assume I do not remind you of these because you know them better than I do, they are a part of your everyday day lives and perhaps most of you can narrate them way much better than this author.

Based on the ‘Youth Bulge’ phenomenon, it has been widely accepted that Botswana, like other countries, is blessed with a Youthful population, therefore land challenges cited above affect youth more than any other age bracket in this republic. 

Therefore when we talk of land challenges we talk of Youth development challenges more than anything else. Though I should, I opt not to argue access to land as a key economic growth, economic development and economic diversification challenge for young people in our country.

I believe this is a secondary argument that shall be rightfully and comprehensively articulated in a secondary installment of this Youth Landlessness and Youth development series. For this installment I deliberately and strategically focus on land as a basic human development need.

Those that had a chance to study psychology will know of a legendary American psychologist called, Abraham Maslow.  Maslow is best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a psychological model predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization (Harper & Row, 1966). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs illustrates that for each and every individual to prosper in life he/she needs to develop through the ranks of the hierarchy.

The hierarchy indicates that first and foremost every individual must have the basic needs or ‘physiological needs’ meet, key among these is decent and affordable housing and/or shelter. Without proper ownership or at least affordable decent shelter Maslow and the psychology fraternity at large caution that such an individual cannot prosper and subsequently achieve much in his/her lifetime and community. They ultimately highlight that such an individual cannot self-actualize in his/her life.

Furthermore distinguished Scottish economist and moral philosopher, Adam Smith, in his publication, The Wealth of Nations, makes an argument that access to land better enables recipients to “appear in public without shame” and to take a meaningful part in the life of their community. He further links access to land with improved “quality of life” or “standard of living” of the recipients and the society at large.

In my interpretation of our NYP (National Youth policy), it (NYP) seeks to see Youth self-actualize and subsequently prosper, thus becoming key agents of our country’s economic diversification and growth. However with the current levels of landlessness among the Youth population, plus the sky-rocketing rental and property prices, I’m afraid from a physiological viewpoint we are better off raking leaves on a cold windy day.

In the eyes of the visionary our current state of affairs warrants a bleak future, for instance renowned nation builders such as, Oliver Tambo once warned, “a nation that fails to provide for its youth has no future and does not deserve one”.

In light of the deliberations above I hope it’s clear the land issue needs to be addressed urgently, properly and sustainably, if we do envision the kind of Botswana related in our vision 2016 and National Development Plans. I strongly believe our current and foreseeable land challenges are not accidental, I believe they are a result of policy deficits and therefore can be easily and accordingly redressed.

In my own time and space I normally ask myself why countries such as France, which is approximately the same geographical size as Botswana, with a population of over 65 million does not rank shortage of land as one of the key national issues? For the first I agree with BCP (Botswana Congress Party) on the Land Audit proposal as a fundamental starting-point.

I prefer the Land Audit over LAPCAS (Land Administration, Processes, Capacity and Systems). Secondly, I think the heavy centralization of resources and basic services in cities has finally caught up with us; overcrowding, ridiculous rent and property prices are just some of the signs and symptoms.

I believe it’s high time our government deliberately and aggressively decentralizes her services; this will directly and automatically reduce most of the land allocation and management challenges discussed above. I also believe it is high time those that are busy advocating for land-quota reservations kindly start engaging in better and more unifying interventions to our current land allocation and management challenges. Otherwise Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs should not be overlooked when issues of land issue and/or youth development are deliberated and/or resolved.

* Taziba is Youth Advocate, Columnist & Researcher with keen interest in Youth Policy, Civic Engagement, Social Inclusion and Capacity Development
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Botswana to Become a Vaccinated Nation: Pandemic Anxiety Over?

30th March 2021


This is a question that should seriously exercise the mind of every Botswana citizen and every science researcher, every health worker and every political leader political.

The Covid-19 currently defines our lives and poses a direct threat to every aspect and every part of national safety, security and general well-being. This disease has become a normative part of human life throughout the world.

The first part of the struggle against the murderous depredation of this disease was to protect personal life through restrictive health injunctions and protocols; the worst possibly being human isolation and masks that hid our sorrows and lamentations through thin veils. We suffered that humiliation with grace and I believe as a nation we did a great job.

Now the vaccines are here, ushering us into the second phase of this war against the plague; and we are asking ourselves, is this science-driven fight against Covid-19 spell the end of pandemic anxiety? Is the health nightmare coming to an end? What happy lives lie ahead? Is this the time for celebration or caution? As the Non State Actors, we have being struggling with these questions for months.

We have published our thoughts and feelings, and our research reviews and thorough reading of both the local and international impacts of this rampaging viral invasion in local newspapers and social media platforms.

More significantly, we have successfully organised workshops about the impact of the pandemic on society and the economy and the last workshop invited a panel of health experts, professionals, and public administers to advance this social dialogue as part of our commitment to the tripartite engagement we enjoy working with Government of Botswana, Civil Society and Development partners. These workshops are virtual and open to all Batswana, foreign diplomatic missions based in Gaborone, UN agencies located in Gaborone and international academic researchers and professional health experts and specialists.

The mark of Covid-19 on our nation is a painful one, a tragedy shared by the entire human race, but still a contextually painful experience. Our response is fraught with grave difficulties; limited resources, limited time, and the urgency to not only save lives but also avert economic ruin and a bleak future for all who survive. Several vaccines are already in the  market.

Parts of the world are already doing the best they can to trunk the pestilential march of this disease by rolling out mass-vaccinations campaigns that promise to evict this health menace and nightmare from their public lives. Botswana, like much of Africa, is still up in the disreputable, and, unenviable, preventative social melee of masked interactions, metered distances, contactless commerce.

We remain very much at the mercy of a marauding virus that daily runs amuck with earth shattering implications for the economy and human lives. And the battle against both infections and transmissions is proving to be difficult, in terms of finance, institutional capacities and resource mobilization. How are we prepared as government, and as citizens, to embrace the impending mass-vaccinations? What are the chances of us  succeeding at this last-ditch effort to defeat the virus? What are the most pressing obstacles?

Does the work of vaccines spell an end to the pandemic anxieties?

Our panellists addressed the current state of mass-vaccination preparedness at the Botswana national level. What resources are available? What are the financial, institutional and administrative operational challenges (costs and supply chains, delivery, distribution, administering the vaccine on time, surveillance and security of vaccines?) What is being done to overcome them, or what can be done to overcome them? What do public assessments of preparedness tell us at the local community levels? How strong is the political will and direction? How long can we expect the whole exercise to last? At what point should we start seeing tangible results of the mass-vaccination campaign?

They also addressed the challenges of the anticipated emerging Vaccinated Society. How to fight the myths of vaccines and the superstitions about histories of human immunizations? What exactly is being done to grow robust local confidence in the science of vaccinations and the vaccines themselves? More significantly, how to square these campaigns vis-vis personal rights, moral/religious obligations?

What messages are being sent out in these regards and how are Batswana responding? What about issues of justice and equality? Will we get the necessary vaccines to everyone who wants them? What is being done to ensure no deserving person is left behind?

They also addressed issues of health data. To accomplish this mass-vaccination campaign and do everything right we need accurate and complete data. Poor data already makes it very hard to just cope with the disease. What is being done to improve data for the mass-vaccination campaign? How is this data being collected, aggregated and prepared for real life situation/applications throughout Botswana in the coming campaign?

We know in America, for example, general reporting and treatment of health data at the beginning of vaccinations was so poor, so chaotic and so scattered mainstream newspapers like The Atlantic, Washington Post and the New York Times had to step in, working very closely with civil society organizations, to rescue the situation. What data-related issues are still problematic in Botswana?

To be specific, what kind of Covid-19 data is being taken now to ready the whole country for an effective and efficient mass-vaccination program?

Batswana must be made aware that the  end part of vaccination will just mark the beginning of a long journey to health recovery and national redemption; that in many ways Covid-19 vaccination is just another step toward the many efforts in abeyance to fight this health pandemic, the road ahead is still long and painful.

For this purpose, and to highlight the significance of this observation we tasked our panellists with  the arduous imperative of  analysing the impact of mass-vaccination on society and the economy alongside the pressing issues of post-Covid-19 national health surveillance and rehabilitation programs.

Research suggests the aftermath of Covid-19 vaccination is going to be just as difficult and uncertain world as the present reality in many ways, and that caution should prevail over celebration, at least for a long time. The disease itself is projected to linger around for some time after all these mass-vaccination campaigns unless an effort is made to vaccinate everyone to the last reported case, every nation succeeds beyond herd immunity, and cure is found for Covid-19 disease. Many people are going to continue in need of medications, psychological and psychiatric services and therapy.

Is Botswana ready for this long holdout? If not, what path should we take going into the future? The Second concern is , are we going to have a single, trusted national agency charged with the  mandate to set standards for our national health data system, now that we know how real bad pandemics can be, and the value of data in quickly responding to them and mitigating impact? Finally, what is being done to curate a short history of this pandemic? A national museum of health and medicine or a Public Health Institute  in Botswana is overdue.

If we are to create strong sets of data policies and data quality standards for fighting future health pandemics it is critical that they find ideological and moral foundations in the artistic imagery and photography of the present human experience…context is essential to fighting such diseases, and to be prepared we must learn from every tragic health incident.

Our panellists answered most of these questions with distinguished intellectual clarity. We wish Batswana to join us in our second Mass-vaccination workshop.

*Oscar Motsumi:

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The women you see in the news matter. Here’s why

9th March 2021
Jane Godia

Jane Godia

Today is International Women’s Day – it’s a moment to think about how much better our news diet could be if inequities were eliminated. In 1995, when the curtains fell in one of the largest meetings that have ever brought women together to discuss women in development, it was noted that women and media remain key to development.

Twenty-six years later, the relevant “Article J” of the Beijing Platform for Action, remains unfulfilled. Its two strategic objectives with regard to Women and Media have not been met. They are
Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication

Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.

Today, as we mark International Women’s Day, it’s an indictment on both media owners and civil society that women remain on the periphery of news-making. They cannot claim equal space in either the structures of newsrooms or in the content produced, be that as sources of news or as the subjects of reports. Indeed, the latest figures from WAN-IFRA’s Women in News Programme show just one in five voices in news belong to women*, be they as sources, as the author or as the main character of the news report.

Some progress was evident several years back, with stand-out women being named as chief executive officers, editors in chief, managing editors and executive editors. But these gains appear short lived in most media organisations. Excitement has turned to frustration as one-step forward has been replaced with three steps backwards. In Africa, the problem is acute. The decision-making tables of media organisations remain deprived of women and where there are women, they are surrounded by men.

Few women have followed in the footsteps of Esther Kamweru, the first woman managing editor in Kenya, and indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Today’s standout women editors include Pamela Makotsi-Sittoni (Nation Media Group, Kenya), Barbara Kaija (New Vision, Uganda), Mary Mbewe (Daily Nation, Zambia), Margaret Vuchiri (The Monitor, Uganda), Joyce Shebe (Clouds, Tanzania), Tryphinah Dongwana (Weekend Post, Botswana), Joyce Mhaville (Independent Television -ITV, Tanzania) and Tuma Abdallah (Standard Newspapers,Tanzania). But they remain an exception.

The lack of balance between women and men at the table of decision making has a rollback effect on the content that is produced. A table dominated by men typically makes decisions that benefit men.

So today, International Women’s Day is a grim reminder that things are not rosy in the news business. Achieving gender balance in news and in the structure of media organisations remains a challenge. Unmet, it sees more than half of the population in our countries suffer the consequences of bias, discrimination and sexism.

The business of ignoring the other half of the population can no longer be treated as normal. It’s time that media leaders grasp the challenge, not only because it is the right thing to do, but because it also makes a whole lot of business sense: start covering women, give them space and a voice in news-making and propel them to all levels of decision making within your organisation.

We can no longer afford to imagine that it’s only men who make and sell the news and bring in the shillings to fund the media business. Women too are worthy newsmakers. In all of our societies, there are women holding decision making positions and who are now experts in once male-only domains such as engineers, doctors, scientists and researchers.

They can be deliberately picked out to share their perspectives and expertise and bring balance to the profile of experts quoted on our news pages. Media is the prism through which society sees itself and women are an untapped audience. So, as we celebrate International Women’s Day, let us embrace diversity, which yields better news content and business products, and in so doing eliminate sexism. We know that actions and attitudes that discriminate against people based on their gender is bad for business.

As media, the challenge is ours. We need to consciously embrace and reach the commitments made 26 years ago when the Beijing Platform for Action was signed globally. As the news consuming public, you have a role to play too. Hold your news organization to account and make sure they deliver balanced news that reflects the voices of all of society.

Jane Godia is a gender development and media expert who serves as the Africa Director of Women in News programme.  
WOMEN IN NEWS is WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media.

Jane Godia, Director, Africa, Women in News

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Why is the media so afraid to talk about sexual harassment?

9th March 2021


The eve of International Women’s Day presents an opportunity for us to think about gender equality and the long and often frustrating march toward societies that are truly equal.

As media, we are uniquely placed to drive forward this reflection and discussion. But while focusing on the challenges of gender in society, we owe it to our staff and the communities we serve to also take a hard look at the obstacles within our own organisations.

I’m talking specifically about the scourge of sexual harassment. It’s likely to have happened in your newsroom. It has likely happened to a member of your team. It happens to all genders but is disproportionately directed at women. It happens in every industry, regardless of country, culture or context. This is because sexual harassment is driven by power, not sex. Wherever you have imbalances in power, you have individuals who are at risk of sexual harassment, and those who abuse this power.

I’ve been sexually harassed. The many journalists and editors, friends and family members who I have spoken to over the years on this subject have also been harassed. Yet it is still hard for leaders to recognize that this could be happening within their newsrooms and boardrooms. Why does it continue to be such a taboo?

Counting the cost of sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is, simply put, bad for business. It can harm your corporate reputation. It is a drain on the productivity of staff and managers. Maintaining and building trust in your brand is an absolute imperative for media organisations globally. If and when a case gets out of control or is badly handled – this can directly impact your bottom line.

It is for this reason that WAN-IFRA Women in News has put eliminating sexual harassment as a top priority in our work around gender equality in the media sector. This might seem at odds with the current climate where social interactions are fewer and remote work scenarios are in place in many newsrooms and businesses. But one only needs to tune into the news to know that the abuse of power, manifested as verbal, physical or online harassment, is alive and well.

Preliminary results from an ongoing Women in News research study into the issue of sexual harassment polling hundreds of journalists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia indicate that more than 1 in 3 women media professionals have been physically harassed, and just under 50% have been verbally harassed. Just over 15% of men in African newsrooms reported being physically harassed, and slightly less than 1 in 4 reports being verbally harassed. The numbers for male media professionals in Southeast Asia are slightly higher than a quarter on both forms of harassment.

The first step in confronting sexual harassment is to talk about it. We need to strip away the stigma and discomfort around having open conversations about what sexual harassment is and isn’t. Media managers, it is entirely in your power to create dynamics in your own teams that are free from sexual harassment.

Publishers and CEOs, you set the organisational culture in your media company.

By being vocal in recognising that it happens everywhere, and communicating to your employees that you will not tolerate sexual harassment of any kind, you send a powerful message to your teams, and publicly. With these actions, you will help us overcome the legacy of silence around this topic, and in doing so take an important first step to create media environments that truly embrace equality.

Melanie Walker is Executive Director of Media Development of the World Association of News Publishers (WAN-IFRA). She is a creator of Women in News, WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media.

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