An innovative use of pension and provident funds and innovative tax incentives to release capital for private and social investments, promotion of co-operatives, mainstreaming of youth bias in job creation, incentives for skills export to create high end job opportunities, job retention strategies and for employment intensive macro-economic policy framework are collectively, a panacea for making more and better jobs possible in Botswana, according to BOPEU.
Speaking on behalf of BOPEU President, Andrew Motsamai, BOPEU’s Edward Tswaipe told the just ended Annual Botswana Job Summit that government must abandon its conservative macro-economic policy and utilize a handsome portion of the P50 billion worth of pension funds held by Botswana Public Officers Fund (BPOPF) must be utilized locally through government borrowing to finance infrastructure and large scale investment projects to create decent jobs through deepening of the domestic capital markets.
Serious consideration could also be given to implementing the recommendations of the 2008 study conducted by Keith Jefferies for Finmark Trust that a statutory consolidation of private sector retirement industry funds would yield huge benefits to the economy in terms of expanding domestic financial markets, guaranteeing social protection for all; and reducing the burden of private insurance firms which are already contributing to private pension funds for their employees. The study further recommended that firms’ mandatory contributions to social insurance be diverted to a broad based pension scheme covering the whole private sector.
BOPEU is further advocating for mandatory workers’ insurance, compulsory pension funds and other mandatory employment benefits, such as maternity benefits that are to be consolidated into a National Social Security Fund (NSSF) contributed by employers, employees and government, which in 20 years could worth well over P100-P200 billion in pension and workers’ insurance fund.
The fund could also include paternity allowances and unemployment benefits. Government was hypocritical by not borrowing funds from pension fund to finance infrastructural development and it was wrong for her to lead a Fund belonging to workers while denying them as rightful owners the right to influence investment decisions on how their money is used.
There was need for targeted and creative use of tax incentives and youth job subsidies to sentivitise youth employment creation since tax credits are increasingly being adopted by most countries to promote both investment and entrepreneurship and at the same time tackle the challenges of unemployment and sluggish economic growth.
Two similar programmes (NIP and GVS) are wrongly conceptualized as youth empowerment schemes rather active labour market policies because they lack the tax element embedded in their design.
Youth wage subsidies and tax credits are used worldwide as a means to increase absorption of young people into the labour market and are supported by the ILO. However, there was a danger that such subsidies could be abused and suffer the disadvantage of becoming part of the labour market flexibility and vulnerability challenges. Employers tend to use young entrants as cheap labour to displace other workers and avoid associated mandatory labour costs.
Tax incentives are also demand driven and do not adequately address fundamental causes of structural unemployment such as poor skills, limited experience and so on and points to education as the only sustainable means to labour market absorption.
The problem of youth unemployment was structural and a function of the failure of the education system to produce adequate, appropriate skills(supply) and insufficiency of labour demand due to low growth, high skills, productivity requirements and high wage expectations.
Similarly no consideration has been made to capitalise on non-Profit Organizations such as trade unions, co-operatives and NGOs as potential job creators and no comprehensive study with the exception of that of Kalusope (2013), was ever conducted on the financial and fixed asset holdings of trade unions.
Yet, the total trade union asset holding may be in excess of P300 million with possible monthly subscriptions of more than P10 million, excluding the income from their profit making investment arms.
Co-operatives also have a similar pattern of assets and income generation, especially the Savings and Credit Coops (SACCOS) but tend to remain stuck in marketing, multipurpose cops and SACCOS. NGOs also handle massive donor funding which could be better managed and controlled.
BOPEU is advocating for a deliberate policy mainstreaming skills development in public investment contracts in the manner of the 1070s localization policy, youth bias in job creation in the way of affirmative action, deliberate massive investment in industry relevant TEVET programmes.
The rationale for this is that in the long run, a demand relevant TEVET programme would position young people competitively for sustainable absorption and recommend that programme design should go beyond youth empowerment schemes to into ALMPs linked to the education system. Sustainability would require integration into the overarching development strategy such as industrialization strategy and not in mere disbursement of funds.
Botswana should also look into exporting skills of its technicians and professionals where it is experience an excess in supply but who are in short supply in other countries because while there are shortages in some areas there are excess in others, rather than to retrain and accept misallocated employment and underemployment.
The strategy to create jobs without an accompanying strategy to retain them is an evidence of unsustainability and BOPEU recommends job retention as an innovation embedded and mainstreamed in all job creation strategies.
Retention should be about strengthening labour market regulation and integrating industrial relations into the job retention strategy. An issue of concern is job losses due to retrenchments where the Commissioner of Labour issues a certificate upon mere pleading of bankruptcy or weak financials.
Instead it should be that a company that seeks to retrench workers should be subjecting itself to further scrutiny to substantiate its claim. A law should create a Commission made up of industry and financial experts to investigate operational requirements and report to the Commissioner before any large scale redundancy could be considered.
Part of the job creation strategy should also entail reclaiming jobs being lost to other countries through hosting o management decisions and hubbing of activities where for instance, in the banking industry, a hub is created elsewhere in places like Kenya, Zimbabwe or South Africa, yet the company would be making its biggest profits from Botswana.”Common sense dictates that the hub should be where the business is, unless there are compelling reasons otherwise”.
In the case of retailing, local managers are being subordinated to lower ranking supervisors in Johannesburg or Cape Town for the most mundane of decisions, while in the tourism industry, group bookings to the Okavango delta are made from Johannesburg or London and payments made into foreign accounts before accessing the service in Botswana.
BOPEU wants the review of employment intensity of growth and investment and recommend the dominance of bias in monetary and fiscal policy towards more and better jobs, where employment is the means to translate growth in a sustainable route out of poverty and inequality. A long delayed National Employment Policy (NEP) should be brought to parliament as promised with targets has to integrated into National Development Plans, with decent work as a cross cutting theme.
Policy makers must jettison the misconception that to create jobs less attention should be paid to decent work and the quality of those jobs including tenure, decent wages, compliance with labour standards, social security, job retention, minimum wages, collective bargaining, EPL and mandatory benefits should be part of the equation.
Stanbic Bank Botswana Quarterly Economic Review indicates that Botswana will fail to meet some of its Vision 2036 targets, particularly unemployment reduction and reaching high-income status.
The report says this is mainly due to the slow economic growth that the country is currently experiencing. This Quarterly Economic Review focuses on the 2020 Budget Speech.
The first paper reviews the entire budget with its key observations being that this budget is prepared as prescribed by the Public Finance Management Act; the priorities it seeks to address are drawn from Vision 2036 and the eleventh
The 2020 budget Speech, which was the maiden speech by the Minister of Finance and Economic Development, Dr. Thapelo Matsheka, and the first after the 2019 general elections, was delivered to Parliament on the 4th of February 2020.
It has been well received by the labour unions, business community, and the public at large as well as international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
It mainly derived its support from key facets including, emphasis on changing the business-as-usual approach to development; outlining the transformation agenda; fiscal reform that minimizes the negative impact on economic development and human welfare, competiveness and the decision to implement the 2019 negotiated and agreed public sector.
The budget’s progress review shows that economic growth was consistent with the NDP 11 projections, with growth of around 4 percent. At this growth rate, the country would neither ascend to a high-income status nor reduce unemployment towards the Vision 2036 target of a single digit.
Simple calculations of this review confirm that the economy will need to grow the Vision 2036’s target of 6 percent over the next 16 years for per capita income to increase from around USD 8,000.00 to above USD 12,000.00 in current prices.
Further, the population is anticipated to grow by only 2 percent per annum.
For this reason, the focal areas for the forthcoming FY’s budget include measures to increase economic growth towards an average of 6 percent per annum.
Economic diversification is reportedly progressing fairly well. The report says, the share of the non-mining private sector in value added has risen to 66 percent in 2018 from to 63 percent in 2015.
The sectoral pattern of growth showed that the performance of services sector (particularly transport & communications, trade, hotels & restaurants, and finance & business services) has been the silver lining and that of mining sector was subdued whilst the utility sector disappointed.
The drive towards the service sector of the economy, especially to low-productivity activities (tourism, public administration, wholesaling and retailing) does not bode well for the country’s development aspirations.
In the previous versions of this Quarterly Review, it was noted that there is need for the rethinking of economic diversification. Since the country’s domestic market is small, it is inevitable that economic diversification not only focus on broadening the product mix, but also the composition of exports and markets.
This understanding of economic diversification has not been embraced by this year’s budget. Consequently, Botswana’s exports are still overwhelmingly diamonds, which means that the rest of economic sectors are still highly dependent on foreign-exchange earnings from diamonds. Thus, “the transformation programme requires a review of the country’s entire ecosystem”.
The budget review of the economic context also depicts that an economy with positive medium-term prospects, with growth expected to recover to 4.4 percent in 2020 from the expected growth of 36 percent in 2019 largely due to faster growth of services sectors and, thereafter, to slow-down to 4 percent in 2021.
These projected growth rates are comparable to those of the IMF staff’s baseline scenario of 4.2 percent in 2020 and 4 percent in 2021. Thus, the business-as-usual scenario produces growth rates that are still too low to achieve Botswana’s development objectives and create enough jobs to absorb the new entrants into the labour market.
Trade tensions between the two major markets for diamond exports, viz., the United States of America and China, is one of the factors that are cited as contributing to, indeed, undermining not only the domestic growth, but also the fiscal position.
Another notable downside risk to both global and domestic growth is outbreak of the coronavirus in China around January 2020. This has been declared as a global health emergency. In an attempt to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus pneumonia, the Chinese authorities have ordered city lockdowns and extended holidays, of course, at the expense of near- term economic growth, according to the new Stanbic Bank Botswana report.
According to Nomura Holdings Inc., fewer migrant workers returned for work than in previous years and business activities have been slow to pick up. The havoc wreaked by the virus on the world’s second largest economy is likely to spill over to the global economy. In fact, it has resulted in a glut in crude oil and, thereby placed oil markets into a contango, i.e., a market structure where near-term prices trade at a discount to future contracts.
It also presents significant risks one of Botswana’s main drivers of economic growth, diversification and foreign exchange earnings. According to the Financial Times (February 13, 2020), Chinese tourists spent $130 billion overseas in 2018. Regardless of whether the growth materializes, the projected domestic growth rate would not transform the economy to a high-income one.
Progress towards reduction of unemployment, to a target of single digit, and poverty and achieving inclusive growth has also been relatively slow, the Stanbic Bank Botswana Review says.
Ministry of Presidential Affairs, Governance and Public Administration (MOPAGPA) has through the Office of the President (OP) proposed to avail Orapa House for use by private training institutions as well as research institutions involved in the area of technology development.
For a very long time the monumental building located in the heart of the city has been a white elephant, despite government purchasing it for nearly P80 million from De Beers in 2012.
However, government has now identified a productive use for the iconic building. “The overall vision is for the building to be transformed into a hub for digital technology research and development to be carried-out by institutions, such as; Limkokwing University, BIUST, BITRI and other relevant stakeholders.”
The decision was taken as government traverse a new path of transforming the economy from a mineral led economy to a knowledge based economy through the promotion of research and innovation. However, the facility will need major maintenance to be carried-out in order to meet the requirements of the proposed change in use.
“The work will include provision of laboratories, work stations, production areas and seminar rooms; audio visual centre, high speed internet connectivity, exhibition areas and offices,” reads the proposal note for the development.
These developments will be done through the refurbishment and maintenance of the main building, workshop, and ablution block, gate house, parking area, grounds, and access control and security service.
“There will be minimal modifications to the structure as it stands. The project is estimated to cost approximately P50, 000, 000,” says the report. In this regard, it is said, the initial scope of the OP facility will be modified to accommodate the envisaged digital technology research and development hub.
With funds needed to improve the building, OP has requested that; “the 2020/21 annual budget provision for Orapa House will need to be increased by P37,500,000 from P2,500,000 to P40,000,000 to kick start the maintenance works.” Funds will be sourced from the projects that have been delayed due to Covid-19 protocols during the 2020/21 financial year.
The building has been a thorny issue for government for years. Initially, OP was expected to move there but the move never materialised. At one point it was a question of whether the Office of the President and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development were planning to override a decision by Parliament which rejected the proposal to buy Orapa House under the belief that government may be buying its own property. The building was to be bought at a negotiated cost of P79 million.
Again in 2012, Government had wanted to buy Orapa House for a negotiated P79m but the Finance and Estimates Committee of Parliament had rejected the request because of the inconsistencies realised in the supporting documents of the proposed procurement. The valuation of the building was put at P74 million.
The Ministry of Lands and Housing had initially offered De Beers P73, 000,000 as the purchase price. However, De Beers countered with P85, 000,000. On negotiation and converging of the minds, the selling price was finally agreed at P79, 000,000.
Auditor General, Pulane Letebele, has expressed discontentment at the worrying and deteriorating state of brigades in the country.
In an audit inspection which was carried out at Tshwaragano Brigade in Gabane, a number of observations showed weaknesses and shortcomings in the conduct of the financial affairs of the institution.
According to Letebele’s report, former students of the brigade had been engaged to carry out maintenance works on the school premises, comprising of painting, tiling, plumbing and electrical works, which covered the period from July 2017 to June 2018.
Although the agreed maintenance period had elapsed, the works had not been completed because of unavailability of funds and this situation had persisted up till the time of inspection in November 2019.
Auditor General says arrangements should have been made in time for funds to be available to complete these relatively minor works even before the works commenced.
Various contractors had been engaged for clearing the bush and for the supply of concrete stones, pit and river sand and hiring equipment for digging the trench towards the construction of an auto mechanics workshop, the report said.
It stated that the cost of services and supplies provided totalled P117 949.80. However, despite the services and the supplies having been paid for, the construction works had not commenced for a long period afterwards, resulting in the trench filling back in.
The audit inquiries had not elicited satisfactory responses as both the institution and the Ministry had not accepted the responsibility for the project, although orders for the provision for the supplies had been made. For their part, the Ministry had stated that they had sub warranted funds for the purchase of porta cabins.
Letebele indicated that it is therefore confusing that a project which is critical to the functioning of an institution such as this one would commence without a well-defined plan.
Furthermore, the accounting and maintenance of records for the supplies items were not of the standard prescribed by the Supplies Regulations and Procedures in that the supplies ledger cards, the main accounting records for Government assets, were not properly maintained for the recording of receipts and issues.
This had resulted in significant discrepancies between physical and ledger balances, while in other instances the supplies items had not been recorded at all.
The report says 24 of the 91 new computers found in the computer laboratory at Kumakwane ABC campus were not recorded anywhere, as were the other computers in the storeroom which could not be counted due to the disorderly storage conditions.
The institution had entered into a contract agreement with a security company for the provision of security services at Tshwaragano Brigade, ABC and Horticulture campuses at Kumakwane for a 2-year period which ended in June 2018, WeekendPost learnt.
After the contract expired in June 2018, an extension was granted till the 30th September 2018. Since then, there has been no security service coverage for the institution to-date. According to Auditor General, in the face of prevailing crimes, it is of paramount importance that government properties be protected by provision of security services at all times.
At Tlokweng Brigade, it was noted that the kitchen staff were working under difficult conditions as the kitchen facilities and equipment, such as the cold room, tilting pot, food warmers and solar power for hot water were dysfunctional. The kitchen roof was leaking and men’s restrooms was not working. All these need to be brought to a reasonable and functional state of repair.
The kitchen staff should use a purpose-designed Rations Ledger for the recording of receipts and issues of foodstuffs to reflect the usage of those items. As far back as 2014 the Department of Buildings and Engineering Services had found that the house occupied by the bursar was uninhabitable on account of structural defects, the report said.
A site visit during the audit had established that the house was indeed unfit for occupation as there were cracks on the walls, power switches were not working and the roof was leaking. On a sadder note, there were a number of finished items of clothing, such as dresses, shirts, and jackets from students’ practical exercises from the Fashion Design Textiles Workshop.
Auditor General shared her take on this, saying: “I have not been able to ascertain the policy on the disposal of products from these practicals. A trace of 103 green acid-proof overalls which had been purchased in August 2018 had indicated that there was no record of these items having been recorded or issued, nor were they available in stock. I was not able to obtain any explanation for this situation.”
Kgatleng brigade was also audited and inspected by Auditor General who observed that the brigade has 26 institutional houses at Bokaa, both old campus and new campus. Some of these houses are very old and dilapidated, with two declared uninhabitable. The condition of the houses is a clear indication of lack of care and maintenance of these properties.
At the time of the audit, there was no contractor engaged for the provision of security guard services at the new campus, after expiry of the previous one in July 2019. It is hoped that steps would be taken to safeguard the security of the premises and government properties against any acts of hooliganism.
In August 2019, there was a break-in at the electrical and at the plumbing maintenance workshops and a number of high value items, such as drilling machines, bolt cutters, spanners and cables, were stolen. The break-in and theft were reported to the police.
“However, at the time of writing this report I was not aware of the outcome of the police investigation, nor of any loss report submitted in terms of the Supplies Regulations and Procedures,” Letebele said.