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A response to Matambo’s budget

In this week's piece I wish to share with my readership the views I expressed in parliament on the budget. 

Mr Speaker I wish to begin by registering a complaint and citing a major weakness in our democracy. When the head of state speaks in parliament, his speech is broadcast live on BTV and Radio Botswana.

When the budget speech is presented, the same applies but surprisingly when the leader of opposition presents an alternative program, he is not accorded the same privilege. This is a clear sign that ours is indeed a dictatorship that continues as a democracy.

May be before you gloat about your image next time, be reminded that there are vibrant and functional democracies out there. In fact, I can't help but wonder, if you are so confident about your democratic credentials, if you confident about your ideas and performance in parliament, why don't you broadcast parliament live and allow Batswana the right to access to information- so they make informed choices.

I also want to make this important point that you honourable minister successfully paints a gloomy picture of our economic situation and then abandon us there. You do not provide or chat the path out of this gloom. I would have expected you to offer the nation an aggressive recovery plan of how you intend to help the economy through the difficult times. I will return to this point. Let me first deal with an important point of the budget as a policy tool.

There is a misconception that the budget is simply about allocations of funds. Thomas Dye defines policy "as everything a government does or does not do" and therefore a budget speech as a spending plan should reflect government priorities for the following year. Budget as a Policy Tool would mean that the budget is a statement of the policy priorities for a particular year.

So at a macro level, for example we need to know how much is earmarked for the notorious ESP. For example with regard to education, the minister has been allocating more money to education but instead of improving, the results have been forever plummeting. In my constituency, we concerned with the results of Segoditshane, Boikhutso, Notwane Primary Schools. In this same vein, allow me to congratulate camp primary school for their sterling performance despite difficult conditions such old and dilapidated houses for teachers.

Minister I want to argue that Because of a missed opportunity to use the budget as a policy tool, we have confusion in our education policy direction.

As a result of this, there is what I would call a systematic attempt to destroy the pride of Batswana- the University of Botswana through a drastic reduction in sponsorship of the arts. Global educational thinking is moving towards multidisciplinary, to produce well rounded graduates, who would aid our developmental efforts and take them to the next level.

The confusion in policy manifests also in the form of mixed priorities – for example the BDF expenditure on weaponry.

As Hon Molao was speaking I couldn't help but wonder how did we get here. To a situation where the people who make it into position of power struggle to make head or tail of very basic concepts.

You spoke of 2014 bringing babies to parliament and I was tempted then, not now, then, to say that it might be better to have babies in Parley cause there is room for growth n improvement. I think you would agree with me that it would be more tragic to have babies tramped in adult bodies because that would mean doom and gloom. You quoted one MP from the opposition saying we need a small and professional army. That is the point. Getting to know exactly what our army needs. Our army needs helicopters not fighter jets.

Our disciplined forces need us to address the welfare of our men in uniform at the police, BDF and prisons. 

Answering my question in this house last year, The responsible minister told this house that a consultancy looking into the salaries of the police, BDF and prisons will have completed the job by end of February last year and he expected the officers to begin enjoying the new structures in April last year. We moving to another April, another round of salary negotiations is ongoing and these men and women are left behind.

I am always brought to tears when I remember the Dilapidated and inhabitable houses in prisons at village camp and at the former police college. I am reminded of an officer with 5 years of service, five years of wearing our uniform proudly at SSG camp in Maruapula staying in a tent for those five years. How will buying fighter jets help these men and women in uniform.

How will it improve their morale.

I want to also posit that there is Lack of a clear developmental philosophy that informs the thinking in this budget. You do not show honourable minister that you are indeed in touch with global thinking on development. The proposal on Local Economic Development (LED) is welcome.

But the proposal raises a lot of questions. Why is the government talking about LED only now? Your commitment as a government is suspect. Your government is centralizing instead of decentralization. 

We know why the government is centralising rather than decentralising development management. It is consolidating state capture.

Centralisation has nothing to do with government efficiency and effectiveness and everything to do with government tenders. When ministers and civil servants are free to do business with government, state capture intensifies. Prove us wrong. Take LED seriously and move expeditiously on decentralisation. In fact, let his honour the Vice President tell us that as the man in charge of poverty, employment creation and economic diversification, he shall personally ensure that government moves fast and purposefully on LED.



The world has recognised and embraced the growing and strategic role of cities in economic development. This is an inevitable outcome of globalisation. National borders are becoming more and more irrelevant to the flow of goods and services and farsighted governments around the world are giving cities more space to make polices for their development. Part of the reason we want decentralisation is to accord a sophisticated city such as Gaborone freedom from limiting decisions made at the MLGRD.



Gaborone is fast growing city. The people of Gaborone have the capacity to run a successful and vibrant local economy, if we can allow them to. It has a potentially strong tax base, if fiscal authorities could be creative. If you allowed us we would be able to deal with problems such as bad dusty internal roads, no streets lights, and unemployment that is spiralling out control.

The ESP and economic transformation

Before I speak about ESP, I would like to introduce a concept, actually a propaganda technique often credited to Adolfo hitter termed "a big lie". Hitler believed in the use of a lie so colossal that it would be almost impossible for it not to be believed.

He opined that telling this lie repeatedly and frequently would make it believable. 

Ours is a society in which economic literacy is low even amongst those with tertiary qualifications. We expect leaders to be concerned enough about this to seek to do something about it, not to ruthlessly exploit it for political gain. Yet this is precisely what is happening with the ESP.



The Vice President, some ministers, the Secretary General of the ruling party and party propagandists have to date used every medium they could access to sell the untruth that the ESP is a bold plan to transform the economy.

As it came out in bits and pieces, first through the SONA, then the brochure, and now the budget, it has become apparent that as the LOO has observed, this is irresponsible, cruel and fraudulent, especially to the extent that unsuspecting people have been urged to register companies in large numbers to chase the phantom of broad-based opportunity that the ESP has turned out to be.

There is nothing bold about this intervention, not the idea, not the amounts involved and certainly not the potential. The only thing bold and audacious about it is the dishonesty and deviousness behind it. We have been told that it is a bold plan to transform the economy.

The budget figures tell a different story. There is no fiscal expansion here, no ramping up of demand and therefore no stimulus.

The budget for the ESP is only P2 billion. It is naïve, even if we were to accept the wholly irrational position that money is what the economy needs the most to build momentum towards transformation, to imagine that P2 billion would suffice. This is not sufficient to deliver benefits to the many. It will of course line the pockets of a couple of tenderpreneurs and grease the palms of a couple of corrupt public servants and politicians. More so that it looks like a plan to circumvent normal public procurement processes.



The ESP basically has no design. It is backlog eradication. It is the EDD. His Honour the Vice President said on the floor of parliament in November 2015 that the ESP was brilliantly conceived and brilliantly delivered by the President. With all due respect, your Honour, you are being very unkind to the President. There is no programme design in the ESP. It is as poorly conceived and designed as the monumental disaster that the Poverty Eradication Framework has become.

It should be cause for concern that the person responsible for the ESP is none other than his honour the Vice President.

This is the same man who has led the disinformation on the ESP, perhaps because he does not understand it, has failed dismally on another important initiative, poverty eradication. He has to date failed to deliver a Poverty Eradication Policy he promised the 2009-2014 parliament more than once. He has also failed by the way, to deliver the Freedom of Information Act he promised to deliver within months whilst torpedoing a Private Member’s bill by Honourable Dumelang Saleshando. Can we trust him with an equally weighty assignment such as job creation? I don’t. The disinformation he has started on says we should not. Either he does not understand what is expected of him or he treats this as the vote catching and wealth transfer gimmick it is.



Local Economic Development Decentralisation
 The proposal on Local Economic Development (LED) is welcome. But the proposal raises a lot of questions. Why is the government talking about LED only now? Its commitment is suspect.

LED has been on the table for about four years now, confined to a department within the Ministry of Local Government, the Botswana Association of Local Authorities and a few enterprising local authorities. The rest of government, including the MFDP, has not shown any real interest in this initiative, which may explain why it has stalled.

The MFDP should henceforth ensure that as a coordinating ministry, it engages the MLGRD and helps it mobilise the rest of government to ensure that government moves beyond talking on LED.

We also doubt the Government’s commitment to LED because, as the LOO has correctly observed, the government is not interested in decentralisation.

You cannot pursue LED effectively through local authorities that have no power to make decisions that matter. Central government still appoints their CEOs and operational personnel, determines their strategies and in fact influences every sphere of their operation. In fact, over the last few years, the government has been centralising functions and decision making (water and health are cases in point) with serious adverse effects on the delivery of services.

We know why the government is centralising rather than decentralising development management. It is consolidating state capture. Centralisation has nothing to do with government efficiency and effectiveness and everything to do with government tenders.

When ministers and civil servants are free to do business with government, state capture intensifies. Prove us wrong. Take LED seriously and move expeditiously on decentralisation. In fact, let his honour the Vice President tell us that as the man in charge of poverty, employment creation and economic diversification, he shall personally ensure that government moves fast and purposefully on LED.

The world has recognised and embraced the growing and strategic role of cities in economic development.

This is an inevitable outcome of globalisation. National borders are becoming more and more irrelevant to the flow of goods and services and farsighted governments around the world are giving cities more space to make polices for their development. Part of the reason we want decentralisation is to accord a sophisticated city such as Gaborone freedom from limiting decisions made at the MLGRD.

Gaborone is fast growing city. The people of Gaborone have the capacity to run a successful and vibrant local economy, if we can allow them to.

It has a potentially strong tax base, if fiscal authorities could be creative. If you allowed us we can address challenges such as Bad, dusty internal roads, streets lights that seldom lay work and unemployment that is spiraling out of control.

Youth unemployment
Of all our failings, if there is one we can ill-afford, it is to fail our youth. To fail them is to fail the country.

The cost of a poor education system and failure to engage young educated people today will reflect decades from now in our decline down competitiveness rankings and a downward spiral that will be difficult to reverse. The band aid being proposed now in the form of special initiatives with no prospects long term sustainability and delivering results will shortly be proved inadequate.

There are no short cuts. We must commit to:

a) Economic transformation as a matter of agency: We in the UDC will roll up our sleeves and challenge experts in and outside the UDC to help us develop one but we will be even happier to join the government in finding a pathway out of the current trajectory of slow and jobless growth.

b) Regulatory reform: The LOO has spoken at length about this. It is a matter we must keep emphasising and we urge business, civil society and the youth to join us so that our voice becomes louder and more difficult to ignore as we call for burdensome regulation to fall. This is not rocket science. Stop vetting investors. Stop DIS from harassing investors. Make business regulation generally more efficient and less cumbersome.

Do away with the archaic work and resident permit procedures that stand in the way of FDI, business growth and employment creation. Work towards faster contract enforcement mechanisms. 

These measures and investment in high speed internet access, will spur growth and create jobs. 
c) Empower the youth and create opportunity: Unemployment is not simply a problem of lack of skills. I would argue that it is in fact more a problem of lack of opportunity. Employers will, for the most part be able train educated youths they employ to suit their specific needs. That does not mean that public policy should not deal with skills. It should. But we have a problem in this country.

Much of the training that we avail today is useless because regulators are allowing ill-equipped profit seekers to profit from the misery of our youths and unemployed people. Let us look more closely at the rapidly growing population of entities providing training and satisfy ourselves that they are meeting our requirements. 


In conclusion I wish to speak to workers of this country.

Like the prophet of old has said you have nothing more to lose than the chains in your hands. Beware of the wolf in sheep skin in your midst. Beware of unions and union leaders who have hijacked the workers struggle yet they are tools in the hands of the enemy to offset your march to victory. Remember unity is key. Let me also speak to friends on the other side of the aisle. We are mismanaging labour relations. Tensions breeds inefficiency. The current stalemate at the bargaining council is a case in point. It cannot be right to treat our workers like this.

You still have a chance to be on the right side of history. When there was talk of an event where you queued up to receive ESP projects I thought of tshepo tshola"s song "waiting for my name to be called" I hope it isn't true because it would be sad if Government resources were shared like gangsters would share the loot after a successful night out not after a good in the office.

To you minister Matambo a future historian will have to record that it was under your tutelage that our economy was ransacked and mismanaged.

Say NO to the ever expanding Botswana Democratic Party patronage network. Say NO to the Khama oligarchy and chose Botswana and Batswana. Stop making a butchery of your conscience. Be like the biblical Shadreck, Abednico and Meshack who chose to go into the furnace of fire instead of worshiping the golden image of king Nebuchadnezzar. May God help you and may he bless our country abundantly. I rest my case

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Botswana to Become a Vaccinated Nation: Pandemic Anxiety Over?

30th March 2021

OSCAR MOTSUMI

This is a question that should seriously exercise the mind of every Botswana citizen and every science researcher, every health worker and every political leader political.

The Covid-19 currently defines our lives and poses a direct threat to every aspect and every part of national safety, security and general well-being. This disease has become a normative part of human life throughout the world.

The first part of the struggle against the murderous depredation of this disease was to protect personal life through restrictive health injunctions and protocols; the worst possibly being human isolation and masks that hid our sorrows and lamentations through thin veils. We suffered that humiliation with grace and I believe as a nation we did a great job.

Now the vaccines are here, ushering us into the second phase of this war against the plague; and we are asking ourselves, is this science-driven fight against Covid-19 spell the end of pandemic anxiety? Is the health nightmare coming to an end? What happy lives lie ahead? Is this the time for celebration or caution? As the Non State Actors, we have being struggling with these questions for months.

We have published our thoughts and feelings, and our research reviews and thorough reading of both the local and international impacts of this rampaging viral invasion in local newspapers and social media platforms.

More significantly, we have successfully organised workshops about the impact of the pandemic on society and the economy and the last workshop invited a panel of health experts, professionals, and public administers to advance this social dialogue as part of our commitment to the tripartite engagement we enjoy working with Government of Botswana, Civil Society and Development partners. These workshops are virtual and open to all Batswana, foreign diplomatic missions based in Gaborone, UN agencies located in Gaborone and international academic researchers and professional health experts and specialists.

The mark of Covid-19 on our nation is a painful one, a tragedy shared by the entire human race, but still a contextually painful experience. Our response is fraught with grave difficulties; limited resources, limited time, and the urgency to not only save lives but also avert economic ruin and a bleak future for all who survive. Several vaccines are already in the  market.

Parts of the world are already doing the best they can to trunk the pestilential march of this disease by rolling out mass-vaccinations campaigns that promise to evict this health menace and nightmare from their public lives. Botswana, like much of Africa, is still up in the disreputable, and, unenviable, preventative social melee of masked interactions, metered distances, contactless commerce.

We remain very much at the mercy of a marauding virus that daily runs amuck with earth shattering implications for the economy and human lives. And the battle against both infections and transmissions is proving to be difficult, in terms of finance, institutional capacities and resource mobilization. How are we prepared as government, and as citizens, to embrace the impending mass-vaccinations? What are the chances of us  succeeding at this last-ditch effort to defeat the virus? What are the most pressing obstacles?

Does the work of vaccines spell an end to the pandemic anxieties?

Our panellists addressed the current state of mass-vaccination preparedness at the Botswana national level. What resources are available? What are the financial, institutional and administrative operational challenges (costs and supply chains, delivery, distribution, administering the vaccine on time, surveillance and security of vaccines?) What is being done to overcome them, or what can be done to overcome them? What do public assessments of preparedness tell us at the local community levels? How strong is the political will and direction? How long can we expect the whole exercise to last? At what point should we start seeing tangible results of the mass-vaccination campaign?

They also addressed the challenges of the anticipated emerging Vaccinated Society. How to fight the myths of vaccines and the superstitions about histories of human immunizations? What exactly is being done to grow robust local confidence in the science of vaccinations and the vaccines themselves? More significantly, how to square these campaigns vis-vis personal rights, moral/religious obligations?

What messages are being sent out in these regards and how are Batswana responding? What about issues of justice and equality? Will we get the necessary vaccines to everyone who wants them? What is being done to ensure no deserving person is left behind?

They also addressed issues of health data. To accomplish this mass-vaccination campaign and do everything right we need accurate and complete data. Poor data already makes it very hard to just cope with the disease. What is being done to improve data for the mass-vaccination campaign? How is this data being collected, aggregated and prepared for real life situation/applications throughout Botswana in the coming campaign?

We know in America, for example, general reporting and treatment of health data at the beginning of vaccinations was so poor, so chaotic and so scattered mainstream newspapers like The Atlantic, Washington Post and the New York Times had to step in, working very closely with civil society organizations, to rescue the situation. What data-related issues are still problematic in Botswana?

To be specific, what kind of Covid-19 data is being taken now to ready the whole country for an effective and efficient mass-vaccination program?

Batswana must be made aware that the  end part of vaccination will just mark the beginning of a long journey to health recovery and national redemption; that in many ways Covid-19 vaccination is just another step toward the many efforts in abeyance to fight this health pandemic, the road ahead is still long and painful.

For this purpose, and to highlight the significance of this observation we tasked our panellists with  the arduous imperative of  analysing the impact of mass-vaccination on society and the economy alongside the pressing issues of post-Covid-19 national health surveillance and rehabilitation programs.

Research suggests the aftermath of Covid-19 vaccination is going to be just as difficult and uncertain world as the present reality in many ways, and that caution should prevail over celebration, at least for a long time. The disease itself is projected to linger around for some time after all these mass-vaccination campaigns unless an effort is made to vaccinate everyone to the last reported case, every nation succeeds beyond herd immunity, and cure is found for Covid-19 disease. Many people are going to continue in need of medications, psychological and psychiatric services and therapy.

Is Botswana ready for this long holdout? If not, what path should we take going into the future? The Second concern is , are we going to have a single, trusted national agency charged with the  mandate to set standards for our national health data system, now that we know how real bad pandemics can be, and the value of data in quickly responding to them and mitigating impact? Finally, what is being done to curate a short history of this pandemic? A national museum of health and medicine or a Public Health Institute  in Botswana is overdue.

If we are to create strong sets of data policies and data quality standards for fighting future health pandemics it is critical that they find ideological and moral foundations in the artistic imagery and photography of the present human experience…context is essential to fighting such diseases, and to be prepared we must learn from every tragic health incident.

Our panellists answered most of these questions with distinguished intellectual clarity. We wish Batswana to join us in our second Mass-vaccination workshop.

*Oscar Motsumi: Email:oscar.motsumi@gmail.com

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The women you see in the news matter. Here’s why

9th March 2021
Jane Godia

Jane Godia

Today is International Women’s Day – it’s a moment to think about how much better our news diet could be if inequities were eliminated. In 1995, when the curtains fell in one of the largest meetings that have ever brought women together to discuss women in development, it was noted that women and media remain key to development.

Twenty-six years later, the relevant “Article J” of the Beijing Platform for Action, remains unfulfilled. Its two strategic objectives with regard to Women and Media have not been met. They are
Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication

Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.

Today, as we mark International Women’s Day, it’s an indictment on both media owners and civil society that women remain on the periphery of news-making. They cannot claim equal space in either the structures of newsrooms or in the content produced, be that as sources of news or as the subjects of reports. Indeed, the latest figures from WAN-IFRA’s Women in News Programme show just one in five voices in news belong to women*, be they as sources, as the author or as the main character of the news report.

Some progress was evident several years back, with stand-out women being named as chief executive officers, editors in chief, managing editors and executive editors. But these gains appear short lived in most media organisations. Excitement has turned to frustration as one-step forward has been replaced with three steps backwards. In Africa, the problem is acute. The decision-making tables of media organisations remain deprived of women and where there are women, they are surrounded by men.

Few women have followed in the footsteps of Esther Kamweru, the first woman managing editor in Kenya, and indeed sub-Saharan Africa. Today’s standout women editors include Pamela Makotsi-Sittoni (Nation Media Group, Kenya), Barbara Kaija (New Vision, Uganda), Mary Mbewe (Daily Nation, Zambia), Margaret Vuchiri (The Monitor, Uganda), Joyce Shebe (Clouds, Tanzania), Tryphinah Dongwana (Weekend Post, Botswana), Joyce Mhaville (Independent Television -ITV, Tanzania) and Tuma Abdallah (Standard Newspapers,Tanzania). But they remain an exception.

The lack of balance between women and men at the table of decision making has a rollback effect on the content that is produced. A table dominated by men typically makes decisions that benefit men.

So today, International Women’s Day is a grim reminder that things are not rosy in the news business. Achieving gender balance in news and in the structure of media organisations remains a challenge. Unmet, it sees more than half of the population in our countries suffer the consequences of bias, discrimination and sexism.

The business of ignoring the other half of the population can no longer be treated as normal. It’s time that media leaders grasp the challenge, not only because it is the right thing to do, but because it also makes a whole lot of business sense: start covering women, give them space and a voice in news-making and propel them to all levels of decision making within your organisation.

We can no longer afford to imagine that it’s only men who make and sell the news and bring in the shillings to fund the media business. Women too are worthy newsmakers. In all of our societies, there are women holding decision making positions and who are now experts in once male-only domains such as engineers, doctors, scientists and researchers.

They can be deliberately picked out to share their perspectives and expertise and bring balance to the profile of experts quoted on our news pages. Media is the prism through which society sees itself and women are an untapped audience. So, as we celebrate International Women’s Day, let us embrace diversity, which yields better news content and business products, and in so doing eliminate sexism. We know that actions and attitudes that discriminate against people based on their gender is bad for business.

As media, the challenge is ours. We need to consciously embrace and reach the commitments made 26 years ago when the Beijing Platform for Action was signed globally. As the news consuming public, you have a role to play too. Hold your news organization to account and make sure they deliver balanced news that reflects the voices of all of society.

Jane Godia is a gender development and media expert who serves as the Africa Director of Women in News programme.  
WOMEN IN NEWS is WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media. www.womeninnews.org

Jane Godia, Director, Africa, Women in News

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Why is the media so afraid to talk about sexual harassment?

9th March 2021

MELANIE WALKER

The eve of International Women’s Day presents an opportunity for us to think about gender equality and the long and often frustrating march toward societies that are truly equal.

As media, we are uniquely placed to drive forward this reflection and discussion. But while focusing on the challenges of gender in society, we owe it to our staff and the communities we serve to also take a hard look at the obstacles within our own organisations.

I’m talking specifically about the scourge of sexual harassment. It’s likely to have happened in your newsroom. It has likely happened to a member of your team. It happens to all genders but is disproportionately directed at women. It happens in every industry, regardless of country, culture or context. This is because sexual harassment is driven by power, not sex. Wherever you have imbalances in power, you have individuals who are at risk of sexual harassment, and those who abuse this power.

I’ve been sexually harassed. The many journalists and editors, friends and family members who I have spoken to over the years on this subject have also been harassed. Yet it is still hard for leaders to recognize that this could be happening within their newsrooms and boardrooms. Why does it continue to be such a taboo?

Counting the cost of sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is, simply put, bad for business. It can harm your corporate reputation. It is a drain on the productivity of staff and managers. Maintaining and building trust in your brand is an absolute imperative for media organisations globally. If and when a case gets out of control or is badly handled – this can directly impact your bottom line.

It is for this reason that WAN-IFRA Women in News has put eliminating sexual harassment as a top priority in our work around gender equality in the media sector. This might seem at odds with the current climate where social interactions are fewer and remote work scenarios are in place in many newsrooms and businesses. But one only needs to tune into the news to know that the abuse of power, manifested as verbal, physical or online harassment, is alive and well.

Preliminary results from an ongoing Women in News research study into the issue of sexual harassment polling hundreds of journalists in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia indicate that more than 1 in 3 women media professionals have been physically harassed, and just under 50% have been verbally harassed. Just over 15% of men in African newsrooms reported being physically harassed, and slightly less than 1 in 4 reports being verbally harassed. The numbers for male media professionals in Southeast Asia are slightly higher than a quarter on both forms of harassment.

The first step in confronting sexual harassment is to talk about it. We need to strip away the stigma and discomfort around having open conversations about what sexual harassment is and isn’t. Media managers, it is entirely in your power to create dynamics in your own teams that are free from sexual harassment.

Publishers and CEOs, you set the organisational culture in your media company.

By being vocal in recognising that it happens everywhere, and communicating to your employees that you will not tolerate sexual harassment of any kind, you send a powerful message to your teams, and publicly. With these actions, you will help us overcome the legacy of silence around this topic, and in doing so take an important first step to create media environments that truly embrace equality.

Melanie Walker is Executive Director of Media Development of the World Association of News Publishers (WAN-IFRA). She is a creator of Women in News, WAN-IFRA’s ground-breaking programme to increase women’s leadership and voices in the news. It does so by equipping women journalists and editors with the skills, strategies, and support networks to take on greater leadership positions within their media. www.womeninnews.org

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