Although in all human societies education has been found to be important and more so in the 21st century because it is tool for promoting material, spiritual, physical and economic development, unfortunately formal education is still almost non-existent and foreign to Africa today. What we refer to as education today is modern formal education or the school system and yet lifelong learning is indigenous to Africa.
This is according to University of Botswana academic of Lifelong Learning at the Department of Adult Education, Professor Idowu Biao. Professor Biao made the revelations when delivering a public lecture on “Lifelong Learning, Traditional African Education and Development” at UB last week. He was presenting research findings which sought to test the efficacy of the Human Development Index Literacy theory which claims that provision of basic education, advancement in nutrition, health and life expectation can be promoted through a specifically designed literacy programme suited to the needs of rural Africa where money/capital is scarce.
Biao contends that generally, investment on education in Africa indicates a high level of wastage at the level of school education. While on average 90-95% complete primary education; 75-90% complete upper secondary in developed OECD countries and 40% complete tertiary, by comparison only 20% of school education exists in Africa and 70% of education and learning going on in
Africa is still lifelong learning. Only about 50% of those qualified for school age in Africa are in school. Because of the MDGs, African primary schools have achieved mammoth enrolments of about 90%, but only 50% complete primary school due to huge drop-out rate. Before the introduction of the MGDs Africa’s primary school enrolment was a paltry 56% or less. In Botswana dropout rates are lower but still a case of concern at 35-49% in primary, 10% at secondary and university gross enrolment estimated at 13%.
Only 35-40% of Africa’s youth finish high/secondary school with a continental average percentage of tertiary gross enrolment at around a mere 7% of those qualified to enter university compared with most developed OECD countries tertiary participation rate of 40% and more, 96% success rate at primary school and 77% at secondary school for the whole population. OECD countries are doing well because their citizens fully benefit from formal education.
Yet in the 21st century education is widely acknowledged as the driver of development, but the question posed is which type of education is the driver for Africa in the light of almost non-existence of formal education in Africa. The real drivers of development are not primary and secondary education but universities as generators of knowledge. Botswana has surpassed Africa’s average of 7% to achieve 13% participation rate at tertiary levels but the threshold is still not enough compared to developed OECD countries rate of at least 40% with some countries having achieved 100%.
The logical question then is which way for Africa and how can Africa develop? There was an education system that developed before the advent of colonialism called traditional African education (TAE) or lifelong learning. Lifelong learning has been existent in Africa before the study of modern universities. The study of modern lifelong learning started in Africa in 1972 long preceded by the idea that education must be lifelong in 1929 as articulated by Basil Yeaxlee. However traditional African education or African lifelong learning has been in existence for millennia. While school education remains relevant for the purpose of linking and opening up Africa to the rest of the world, the ultimate sustainable development for Africa rests in the promotion of lifelong learning.
The argument or thesis is that since formal education is non-existent in Africa in order to drive economic and social development, Africa should fall back on African lifelong learning combined with formal education to drive the development of Africa. Therefore, research should be encouraged in traditional African lifelong learning because investment in modern formal education has been pathetic with 70% of higher education products in Africa jobless and roaming the streets because the education system is incompatible with the job market while by comparison, OECD countries find jobs for the 40% of their citizens who are graduates. Africans have to be critical and cannot afford to stick only to what they learned at school but should also look at their own resources to serve their needs.
Traditional African education has always served traditional Africa as lone system of education based on the idea that learning goes on throughout and beyond the physical lifetime and is based on a strong connection between the physical and the non-physical/spiritual worlds and therefore a dual learning content. In the Botswana context, it is estimated that about 42% of the population is rural based on the reclassification of rural villages to urban villages since 1991, notwithstanding this, the nomenclature villages in urban villages still keep them close to ruralness. By 2015, about 70% of Africans still live in rural areas, with the highest population of potential workforce- the youth- in rural areas comprising more than half of the overall rural population. Between 1993 -2003, the poverty headcount ratio in rural Botswana fell from 47% to 30.6, falling further to 23% by 2009 but is suspected to have risen to 28-30% between 2009 and 2015, says Professor Biao.
Botswana Police Service (BPS) has indicated concern about the ongoing trend where the general public falls victim to criminals purporting to be police officers.
According to BPS Assistant Commissioner, Dipheko Motube, the criminals target individuals at shopping malls and Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) where upon approaching the unsuspecting individual the criminals would pretend to have picked a substantial amount of money and they would make a proposal to the victims that the money is counted and shared in an isolated place.
“On the way, as they stop at the isolated place, they would start to count and sharing of the money, a criminal syndicate claiming to be Criminal Investigation Department (CID) officer investigating a case of stolen money will approach them,” said Motube in a statement.
The Commissioner indicated that the fake police officers would instruct the victims to hand over all the cash they have in their possession, including bank cards and Personal Identification Number (PIN), the perpetrators would then proceed to withdraw money from the victim’s bank account.
Motube also revealed that they are also investigating a case in which a 69 year old Motswana woman from Molepolole- who is a victim of the scam- lost over P62 000 last week Friday to the said perpetrators.
“The Criminal syndicate introduced themselves as CID officers investigating a case of robbery where a man accompanying the woman was the suspect.’’
They subsequently went to the woman’s place and took cash amounting to over P12 000 and further swindled amount of P50 000 from the woman’s bank account under the pretext of the further investigations.
In addition, Motube said they are currently investigating the matter and therefore warned the public to be vigilant of such characters and further reminds the public that no police officer would ask for bank cards and PINs during the investigations.
Botswana Congress Party (BCP) leadership walked out of Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) National Executive Committee (NEC) meeting this week on account of being targeted by other cooperating partners.
UDC meet for the first time since 2020 after previous futile attempts, but the meeting turned into a circus after other members of the executive pushed for BCP to explain its role in media statements that disparate either UDC and/or contracting parties.
The Director General of the Directorate on Corruption and Economic Crimes (DCEC), Tymon Katlholo’s spirited fight against the contentious transfers of his management team has forced the Office of the President to rescind the controversial decision. However, some insiders suggest that the reversal of the transfers may have left some interested parties with bruised egos and nursing red wounds.
The transfers were seen by observers as a badly calculated move to emasculate the DCEC which is seen as defiant against certain objectionable objectives by certain law enforcement agencies – who are proven decisionists with very little regard for the law and principle.