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WATER SECURITY IS POSSIBLE IN BOTSWANA

Water security is a critical national responsibility and is possible if we effectively on large scale harvest storm water and safely store it; if we build properly designed deep dams; if we use excess water for artificially recharging our underground aquifers and if we meaningfully reuse our used water.

The talk of using used water (waste water) has been on going for more than a decade and still there is no visible action on the ground. Some visionary young leader once said, ‘we can do better, much better’ and we can.  Without water security our industrial base will remain stagnant, our agriculture and food production will not take root, manufacturing industries will remain poor and our economy will not thrive beyond mediocre levels.

Last week I asked a question; is it really impossible to find more dam sites in Botswana. This was after reading a report in one of the local papers stating that we have exhausted all dam sites in Botswana and that we can no longer aspire to build any more dam in Botswana.  I was moved to challenge that assertion as I believe that it is possible to build more dams in Botswana.  I am sorry to say that the problem is that some of our experts are lazy thinkers who are not able to challenge the status quo and explore innovative alternatives and advice the ministry appropriately. 

I challenged the minister and his ministry to ask more difficult questions and demand solutions for our water woes. I wrote before that I do not think we should be wasting our resources bringing water all the way from Lesotho highlands and the Chobe River to Gaborone. These are solutions for lazy minds. Such solutions have far reaching long-term negative environmental and ecological impacts that must be carefully considered before any such action is taken. 

Equally they will also have long term underlying negative economic impacts in that when such systems fail they will inevitably, immediately and significantly affect the whole economy. I maintain that we must find local water for local use; it is possible; we are only limited by our lack of imagination, our lack of innovative thinking and our lack of long term foresight and planning.

I received a lot of feedback locally and internationally that encouraged me to write again on this subject. The feedback says yes it is possible; we can have local water sources and infrastructure that will meet all our water needs locally and nationally. They tell me we have done some work in Botswana and we can build deeper dams, we can harness storm water; we can recharge aquifers and we can make water security a reality in Botswana. 

We do not even need government funding, they tell me. We can find investors to help with the designing, the building, the operating and the maintaining of these facilities provided we have a regulator who will ensure that the investment is paid back over time.

This is the feedback I am getting from industry and the real experts in the field of water engineering out there. I used to run water workshops where we gathered experts from all over the world to deliberate on our water challenges and possible solutions, I know we have practical solutions; we just lack the implementation nerve centre.

I am told studies have been done specifically around Gaborone on storm water harvesting. The result is that with our average rainfall storm water from the built areas is more than enough to fill the Gaborone dam leaving excess water that could be used to artificially recharge nearby underground aquifers. The underground water could then be used when our dam levels go down during dry seasons.  

I am reliably told that the topography around Lobatse, Moshupa, Kanye areas could be used for building big and deep dams that could feed the whole of the southern regions including farming in the area. I am also reliably told that it is not true that all our underground rocks are porous; yes we have some porous rocks but if you go deeper you will find beautiful granite rocks in some areas that are impermeable which rocks could be used as a base for our deep dams. With modern technology it is not difficult to establish where these underlying granite rocks are and what need to be done to use these underground rocks as basement for building our dams.

If we aspire to be ‘an innovative, productive and prosperous nation’ as espoused by our 2016 national vision, we must as a minimum have adequate water to meet all our developmental needs. We need water to produce enough food for the country and export. We need an agricultural and food processing revolution in this country that will help feed the continent.

This can only happen if we identify local water sources that will meet local agricultural needs. We will need milk production and processing, grain production and processing, horticultural produce and processing, meat products and processing; all these must be done with the mind to meet local as well as continentally and international needs.  Storm water harvesting, building local dams (not stopping rivers from flowing) and finding underground aquifers that we can artificially recharge with excess storm and dam water are clear solutions.

Can we be an aspirant innovative, productive and prosperous nation, without the manufacturing industry? Who will come to invest in setting up manufacturing industries here if we have no water security? Forget about the fact that we are land locked; forget about the fact that we have a small population; the world over is our market place. All we need is to have a competitive environment for business to prosper and flourish.

We have Chinese goods all over the world, why can’t we aspire to have our goods all over the world too? We have lots of advantages in this country that should attract any business. We have international good will that we seem to be slowly mortgaging away due to our unfriendly immigration processes, growing corruption and some of our unethical and slow business processes.

We must ensure that we do not continue to lose our sparkle, the sparkle that came with our diamonds and our people. We must build the requisite infrastructure to attract the best entrepreneurs internationally, but we ought to start with the basic infrastructure for water security, energy security as well as a world class health and educational infrastructure, with not only adequate world class facilities but world class staffing at all levels.

The government seems to be painfully slow in taking advantage of available opportunities. There is always a lot of talk with very little action on the ground.  Nevertheless, the ministry must go back to the drawing board as regard water security in the country and find new ways of getting things done. They should gather local and international experts on water but must be prepared to be criticised for sloppiness must and be willing to charter a new course for delivery of a practical water security system within ten years.

We are fortunate that we are not talking about breaking new grounds; we are talking about things that are already regionally and internationally available. We just need political will and the nerve to make things happen and happen fast.

I must remind the reader that this article together with the previous one was provoked by a story in one of the local papers that stated that a water expert has confirmed the assertion by the Minister of Minerals Energy and Water Affairs that we have exhausted all the dam sites and that the last dam was the Dikgatlhong dam which the minister described as the largest evaporation pan.

This touched a raw nerve. I therefore publicly challenged that assertion with the hope that something good will emerge out of this discourse. I trust that the minister and ministry will not take this personally but will use it to challenge the relevant authorities to relook at the current water strategies.
Let us wear our thinking hats for the sake of developing this, our beautiful land.

Unfortunately like I said last week, we do not have dams already designed and built for us by God. He has given the rain, the rivers, the brains and the resources in abundance to design and build our own water systems.  ‘A man shall live by the sweat of his brow’, we must knuckle down just like those in the developed world did to develop their countries. 

We must counter our physical limitations with renewed determination.  We must not allow fear of the unknown to hinder our innovativeness and creativity.  As a nation we must not shy away from challenging the minister, government, our engineers and hydro geologists to think differently.  Our topography and the porosity of certain rocks will not change, but we can change and do things differently.  

In conclusion let us accept that we can design and built new deeper dams that have more capacity with minimum surface area for reduced evaporative losses. Let us design systems to harvest storm water to fill our dams rather than allow the water to go away to feed the ‘flooding’ seas. We must find more aquifers and artificially recharge them. We must start seeing used water as a new source of water. We must believe that if others can do it we can surely do it and even do it better.

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Opinions

The Taiwan Question: China ramps up military exercises to rebuff US provocations

18th August 2022

US House Speaker Nancy Pelosis visit to Taiwan has violated the One-China policy, and caused the escalation of tensions across the Taiwan Strait. Experts and political observers across the spectra agree that Pelosis actions and subsequent pronouncements by US President Joe Biden gave impetus to an already simmering tension in the Taiwan Strait, provoking China to strengthen its legitimate hold on the Taiwan Strait waters, which the US and Taiwan deem as international waters.

Pelosis visit to Chinas Taiwan region has been heavily criticised across the globe, with China arguing that this is a serious violation of the one-China principle and the provisions of the three China-US Joint Communiqus. In response to this reckless move which seriously undermined China’s sovereignty, and interfered in China’s internal affairs, the expectation is for China to give a firm response. Pelosi visit violated the commitments made by the U.S. side, and seriously jeopardized peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait.

To give context to Chinas position over Taiwan region, the history behind gives us perspective. It is also important to note that the history between China and Taiwan is well documented and the US has always recognized it.

The Peoples Republic of China recognises Taiwan as its territory. It has always been the case even before the Nationalist Republic of China government fled to the previously Japanese-ruled Island after losing the civil war on the mainland in 1949. According to literature that threat was contained for decades first with a military alliance between the US and the ROC on Taiwan, and after Washington switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC in 1979 by the US One China policy, which acknowledges Beijings position that Taiwan is part of One China. Effectively, Taiwans administration was transferred to the Republic of China from Japan after the Second World War in 1945, along with the split between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) as a consequence of the Chinese Civil War. Disregarding this history, as the US is attempting to do, will surely initiate some defence reaction on the side of China to affirm its sovereignty.

However, this history was undermined since Taiwan claimed to democratise in the 1990s and China has grown ever more belligerent. Furthermore, it is well documented that the Biden administration, following the Trump presidency, has made subtle changes in the way it deals with Taipei, such as loosening restrictions on US officials meeting Taiwanese officials this should make China uneasy. And while the White House continues to say it does not support Taiwanese independence, Bidens words and actions are parallel to this pledge because he has warned China that the US would intervene militarily if China attacked Taiwan another statement that has provoked China.

Pelosi, in her private space, would know that her actions amount to provocation of China. This act of aggression by the USA seriously undermines the virtues of sovereignty and territorial integrity which has a huge potential to destabilize not only the Taiwan Strait but the whole of the Asia- Pacific region. The Americans know very well that their provocative behavior is deliberately invoking the spirit of separatism masqueraded as Taiwan independence. The US is misled to think that by supporting separatism of Taiwan from China that would give them an edge over China in a geopolitics. This is what one Chinese diplomat said this week: The critical point is if every country put their One-China policy into practice with sincerity, with no compromise, is going to guarantee the peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait. Therefore, it was in the wake of US House speaker Nancy Pelosis visit to Taiwan, that China, in a natural response revealed plans for unprecedented military exercises near the island, prompting fears of a crisis in the Taiwan Strait and the entire Asia-Pacific region. The world community must promote and foster peace, this may be achieved when international laws are respected. It may also happen when nations respect the sovereignty of another. China may be in a better space because it is well capacitated to stake its territorial integrity, what about a small nation, if this happens to it?

As to why military exercises by Beijing; it is an expected response because China was provoked by the actions of Pelosi. To fortify this position, Chinese President, Xi signed a legal basis for Chinas Peoples Liberation Army to safeguard Chinas national sovereignty, security and development interests. The legal basis will also allow military missions around disaster relief, humanitarian aid and peacekeeping. In addition the legal changes would allow troops to prevent spillover effects of regional instabilities from affecting China, secure vital transport routes for strategic materials like oil, or safeguard Chinas overseas investments, projects and personnel. It then follows that President Xis administration cannot afford to look weak under a US provocation. President Xi must protector Chinas sovereignty and territorial integrity, of which Taiwan is a central part. Beijing is very clear on One-China Policy, and expects all world players to recognize and respect it.

The Peoples Liberation Army has made it clear that it has firepower that covers all of Taiwan, and it can strike wherever it wants. This sentiments have been attributed to Zhang Junshe, a researcher at the PLA Navy Research Institute. Zheng further said, We got really close to Taiwan. We encircled Taiwan. And we demonstrated that we can effectively stop intervention by foreign forces. This is a strong reaction from China to warn the US against provocation and violation of the One-China Policy.

Beijings military exercises will certainly shake Taiwans confidence in the sources of its economic and political survival. The potential for an effective blockade threatens the air and shipping routes that support Taiwans central role in global technology supply chains. Should a humanitarian situation arise in Taiwan, the blame would squarely be on the US.

As Chinas military exercises along the Taiwan Strait progress and grow, it remains that the decision by Nancy Pelosi to visit Chinas Taiwan region gravely undermined peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, and sent a wrong signal to Taiwan independence separatist forces. This then speaks to international conventions, as the UN Secretary-General Antnio Guterres explicitly stressed that the UN remains committed to the UN General Assembly Resolution 2758. The centerpiece is the one-China principle, namely, there is but one China in the world, the government of the Peoples Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China, and Taiwan is a part of China. It must be noted that the US and the US-led NATO countries have selectively applied international law, this has been going on unabated. There is a plethora of actions that have collapsed several states after they were attacked under the pretext of the so-called possession of weapons of mass destruction illuminating them as threats – and sometimes even without any valid reason. to blatantly launch military strikes and even unleash wars on sovereign countrie

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Opinions

Internal party-democracy under pressure

21st June 2022

British novelist, W. Somerset Maugham once opined: If a nation values anything more than freedom, it will lose its freedom; and the irony of it is that if it is comfort or money that it values more, it will lose that too.

The truism in these words cannot be underestimated, especially when contextualizing against the political developments in Botswana. We have become a nation that does not value democracy, yet nothing represent freedom more than democracy. In fact, we desire, and value winning power or clinging to power more than anything else, even if it harms the democratic credentials of our political institutions. This is happening across political parties ruling and opposition.

As far as democracy is concerned, we are regressing. We are becoming worse-off than we were in the past. If not arrested, Botswana will lose its status as among few democratic nations in the Africa. Ironically, Botswana was the first country in Africa to embrace democracy, and has held elections every five years without fail since independence.

We were once viewed as the shining example of Africa. Those accolades are not worth it any more. Young democracies such as South Africa, with strong institutions, deserves to be exalted. Botswana has lost faith in democracy, and we will pay a price for it. It is a slippery slope to dictatorship, which will bring among other excess, assault on civil liberties and human rights violations.

Former President, Festus Mogae once stated that Botswanas democracy will only become authentic, when a different party, other than the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) wins elections, and when the President of such party is not from Serowe.

Although many may not publicly care to admit, Mogaes assertion is true. BDP has over the years projected itself as a dyed-in-the-wool proponent of democracy, but the moment its stay in power became threatened and uncertain, it started behaving in a manner that is at variance with democratic values.This has been happening over the years now, and the situation is getting worse by the day.

Recently, the BDP party leadership has been preaching compromise and consensus candidates for 2024 general elections. Essentially, the leadership has lost faith in theBulela Ditswedispensation, which has been used to selected party candidates for council and parliament since 2003. The leadership is discouraging democracy because they believe primary elections threaten party unity. It is a strange assertion indeed.

Bulela Ditswewas an enrichment of internal party democracy in the sense that it replaced the previous method of selection of candidates known as Committee of 18, in which a branch committee made of 18 people endorsed the representatives. While it is true that political contest can divide, the ruling party should be investing in political education and strengthening in its primary elections processes. Democracy does not come cheap or easy, but it is valuable.

Any unity that we desire so much at the expense of democracy is not true unity. Like W. Somerset Maugham said, democracy would be lost in the process, and ultimately, even the unity that was desired would eventually be lost too. Any solution that sacrifice democracy would not bring any results in the long run, except misery.

We have seen that also in opposition ranks. The Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) recently indicated that its incumbent Members of Parliament (MPs) should not be challenged for their seats. While BDP is sacrificing democracy to stay in power, UDC is sacrificing democracy to win power. It is a scary reality given the fact that both parties ruling and opposition have embraced this position and believe democracy is the hindrance to their political ambitions.

These current reality points to one thing; our political parties have lost faith in democracy. They desire power more than, the purpose of power itself. It is also a crisis of leadership across the political divide, where we have seen dissenting views being met with persecution. We have seen perverting of political process endorsed by those in echelons of power to manipulate political outcomes in their favour.

Democracy should not be optional, it should be mandatory. Any leader proposing curtailing of democracy should be viewed with suspicion, and his adventures should be rejected before it is too late. Members of political parties, as subscribers of democracy, should collectively rise to the occasion to save their democracy from self-interest that is becoming prevalent among Botswana political parties.

The so-called compromise candidates, only benefits the leadership because it creates comforts for them. But for members, and for the nation, it is causing damage by reversing the gains that have been made over the years. We should reject leaders who only preach democracy in word, but are hesitant to practice it.

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Opinions

The Big Deal About Piracy

21st June 2022

Piracy of all kinds continues to have a massive impact on the global creative industry and the economies of the countries where it thrives.

One of the biggest misconceptions around piracy is that an individual consumers piracy activities, especially in a market the size of Botswanas, is only a drop in the pool of potential losses to the different sectors of the economy piracy affects.

When someone sitting in Gaborone, Botswana logs onto an illegal site to download King Richard online, they dont imagine that their one download will do anything to the production houses pocket or make a dent in the actors net worth. At best, the sensitivity towards this illegal pirating activity likely only exists when contemplating going about pirating a local musicians music or a short film produced locally.

The ripple effects of piracy at whatever scale reach far beyond what the average consumer could ever imagine. Figures released by software security and media technology company, Irdeto, show that users in five major African territories made approximately 17,4 million total visits to the top 10 identified piracy sites on the internet.

The economic impact of this on the creative industry alone soars to between 40 and 97.1 billion dollars, according a 2022 Dataprot study. In addition, they estimate that illegally streamed copyrighted content consumes 24% of global bandwidth.

As Botswanas creative industry remains relatively slight on the scale of comparison to industries such as Nollywood and Nilewood where the creative industry contributes a huge proportion to West and East Africas respective GDPs, that does not imply that piracy activities in Botswana do not have a similar impact on our economy and the ability of our creative industry to grow.

When individuals make decisions to illegally consume content via internet streaming sites they believe they are saving money for themselves in the name of enjoying content they desire to consume. Although this is a personal choice that remains the prerogative of the consumer, looking beyond the fact that streaming on illegal content sites is piracy, the ripple effect of this decision also has an endless trail of impact where funds which could be used to grow the local creative industry through increased consumption, and revenue which would otherwise be fed back into Botswanas economy are being diverted.

Why cant our local creative industry grow? Why dont we see more home-grown films and shows in Botswana? are questions constantly posed by those who consume television content in Botswana. The answer to this lies largely in the fact that Botswanas local content needs an audience in order for it to grow. It needs support from government and entities which are in a position to fund and help the industry scale greater heights.

Any organisational body willing to support and grow the local creative industry needs to exist and operate in an economy which can support its mandates. Content piracy is a cycle that can only be alleviated when consumers make wiser decisions around what they consume and how.

This goes beyond eradicating piracy activities in so far as television content is concerned. This extends to the importation and trade in counterfeit goods, resale of goods and services not intended for resale across the border, outside its jurisdiction, and more. All of these activities stunt the growth of an economy and make it nearly impossible for industries and sectors to propel themselves to places where they can positively impact society and reinvest into the countrys economy.

So what can be done to turn the tide here in Botswana in order to see our local production houses gain the momentum required to produce more, license more and expand their horizons? While those who enforce the law continue to work towards minimizing piracy activities, its imperative that as consumers we work to make their efforts easier by being mindful of how our individual actions play a role in preventing the success of our local creative networks and our economys growth.

Whether you are pirating a Hollywood Blockbuster, illegally streaming a popular Motswana artists music, or smuggling in an illegal decoder to view content restricted to South Africa only, your actions have an impact on how we as a nation will make our mark on the global landscape with local creative productions. Thembi Legwaila is Corporate Affairs Manager, MultiChoice Botswana

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