“…Land and water are not really separate things, but they are separate words, and we perceive through words.” ― David Rains Wallace
My brief interaction with history literature has taught me that many battles in the African continent have, and continue, to be fought explicitly and implicitly in the name of Land. History taught me that; many precious lives were lost, many tribes and families detached, many deceptive collusions were orchestrated and, many children were left homeless and parentless all in the name of Land. To be more precise I learnt: -Land was the main cause of the Western Sudan violent revolt against the Sudanese government in the 1970s.
The Darfur Land grievances were never resolved, and in 2003, a rebel movement made up in part of disenfranchised former landholders, which retaliated by arming bands of camel herders known as ‘janjaweed’ to repress the rebellion (Jones, 2006); -in the Democratic Republic of Congo, violence in parts of the northeast started over land in1999, when Hema herders evicted Lendu farmers after purchasing their land. Eviction grievances led both tribes to pick up weapons. As violence spread, the value of other mineral-rich lands contributed to the chaos in which 5 million people have died (Moore, 2010); -in 1998 Ethiopia and Eritrea dispute over the border town of Badme turned into all-out war, recording 80,000 deaths in two years.
Both sides saw Badme as a symbol of their real economic concern: power over the port of Assab, the Red Sea trade gateway. Despite international court rulings, the countries consider the border dispute unresolved and may be launched any time (Tareke, 2009); -In Kenya most indigenous tribes lost rights when the British privatized land holdings.
It is believed that when His Ex cellency -Joseph Kenyatta, the first postcolonial president, sought land redistribution, he gave the most fertile to his Kikuyu tribe. In a later backlash, many Kikuyu were pushed off their pastures. This created ethnic land grievances that have inspired violence since the 1990s (Moore, 2010); -the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is believed to have been catalyzed as much by land scarcity as by ethnic tension. The country found itself nearly without enough land to make farmers trust that they and their children could support themselves.
Yanagizawa-Drott (2014) strongly contends that though the slaughter of minority Tutsis was also ethnically motivated, land fears played no small part in the violence; -in Zimbabwe Land grievances helped fuel the 12-year war that led to independence in 1979. In the name of economic fairness, President Robert Mugabe chaotically seized white farms and turned them over to blacks who knew little about farming. Consequently, agricultural production plummeted, food became scarce, and inflation spiked (Polgreen, 2012).
In South Africa land was a key element motivating and fueling the struggle against apartheid. It was a key agenda item of the revolutionary 1955 CoP (Congress of the People), which adopted the Freedom Charter – a blueprint for the democratic South Africa of the future (Vadi, 2015). The Freedom Charter became an integral part of the ANC (African National Congress) identity; historians believe it played a very significant role in the overthrow of the apartheid regime in 1994.
Sadly land disputes are clearly not just a thing of the past in the African continent, past land disputes have overflowed into recent times. Simultaneously, new land disputes seem to be swiftly emerging in most African countries, including those that were historically spared from land disputes. For instance: -in Southern Sudan the 2005 peace agreement that ended a 20-year fight for the south didn't resolve tensions between the nation's two land systems. Private property reform implemented in the north was rejected in the south, which continues to use traditional rules.
Danger of a potential clash between parallel systems is amplified by what's at stake -the south is oil-rich (McNeish, 2013); -peace is finally driving people home in Uganda after 20 years of violence– and disputes are erupting over who owns property (Jonathan, 2014). Eighty percent of Ugandans have property claims based on the traditional land system, but a generation of conflict has weakened the traditional authority to resolve disputes or enforce land rules.
As the government steps in to fill the power vacuum, experts fear a backlash (Moore, 2010). -in South Africa the post-apartheid government had planned to redistribute a good percentage of white-owned farms to blacks within 20 years. Transfers are behind schedule, and more than half have failed (Moore, 2010). After an outbreak of racial violence and establishment of revolutionary movements such as EFF (Economic Freedom Fighters), observers fear the status quo with expectations so high, progress so slow, and livelihoods at stake is explosive (Ramphele, 2013); -white farmers forced off land in neighboring countries, found fertile soils in Zambia, they were initially welcomed by the government.
The tone changed as some immigrant farmers agitated locals by putting down roots on traditional lands. New arrivals, especially those fleeing Zimbabwe, are closely scrutinized. Observers fear deepening tensions (Mbeki, 2011); -in Namibia a youth led EFF replicate was formed in 2015 titled NEFF (Namibia Economic Freedom Fighters). Land is a key priority among NEFF’s founding concerns. They have already staged a massive land grand and illegal land occupation campaign across the country in 2015.
Analysts and commentators fear the 2015 land grabs and illegal occupations are just the beginning of deeper land divisions. In light of this brief historical and contemporary land disputes background, it is clear the land issue was, and is still, one of Africa’s ticking time bombs. It is one of the drivers to what Morton Grodzins -renowned sociology and political scientist, coined as the ‘Tipping Point’ – a point in time when a group, or a large number of group members rapidly and dramatically changes its behavior by widely adopting a previously rare practice. Therefore the Land Issue is a fundamental issue that needs to be swiftly, holistically and systematically addressed or at least managed.
Otherwise it will continue rendering the safety and welfare of African citizen somewhat endangered. Like most continental development headaches facing the Africa continent today, the land issue needs the involvement of young Africans in developing and shaping a swifter and effective way to address it, to avoid the mistakes of the past. Continental Youth structures such as the PYU (Pan African Youth Union) under the auspices of the AU (African Union) hold the best structural and financial capacity to unite young Africans and ultimately deliver this necessary continental and generational reform.
Land State of Affairs: Botswana Context. Paradox
Our beautiful country (Botswana) is internationally hailed as one of Africa’s best governed countries. She is also considered one of the most comfortable, peaceful and fiscally stable African countries. In this regard World Bank’s annual “Doing Business 2016” report considers Botswana one of the best places to consider for investment. Equated to other African countries, I also believe these comparative analyses are spot on. However as discussed in previous installments of this series (Dear African Child) Botswana has not been immune to contemporary African challenges.
She continues to battle a seemingly losing battle against most classic African economic development challenges. For instance Botswana is faced with economic development challenges such as; high under- and unemployment rates, high incidence of absolute poverty and, shocking income inequalities (Gini coefficient 0.6 -considered extremely high for a middle income country). However, today I would like to focus on the issue of Botswana’s Land allocation and access conundrum.
In my conscious this is certainly one of the key and seemingly growing hurdles threating Botswana’s internationally acclaimed and long upheld peace and togetherness. Without any doubt access to land and land allocation/distribution is one of the most devastating challenges most Batswana, especially youth and the economically disadvantaged, face.
Despite key instruments such as: the 1993 TLA (Tribal Land Act), Vision 2016 and the constitution, speaking unequivocally and definitively about making access to and ownership of land democratic and inclusive. The sad reality is many Botswana are still without land, many Botswana are helplessly and desperately looking for residential and at times commercial land in our beautiful country.
Early this year Hon. Prince Malele –minister of Lands and Housing, made it known that there are over 1million Batswana in the land application waiting list. This is half of the country’s population. Furthermore if you wish to practically witness the severity of this matter visit any Land Board during a call for land applications, you are guaranteed to see one of the saddest sights ever in this beautiful country. You will find multitudes of Botswana, young, elderly, male and female, gathered outside the premises.
They actually gather for a ‘Land Night Vigil’ by the gate a day before receipt of applications. This is mainly done on the assumption that Land will be allocated on a ‘first come first serve’ bases, and to avoid spending the next two or three days in the queue because thousands of people will certainly honor the call for applications. Sadly of late these developments have proved to be putting lives of fellow compatriots at risk, in almost all occasions riot police are forced to control the situation.
Actually it is now a norm to engage riot police in the land application process. Correspondently and disturbingly, the land issue is now raising a worrying trend of tribal and racial discrimination among our very citizenry, despite aspiration of our constitution and the revised TLA. Some ethnic groups are now advocating for land quotas in their favor at the expense of other countrymen. Similarly this reality has resulted in sky-high rental and property costs throughout the country, especially urban and semi-urban settlements.
The high rental has made housing access and affordability a nightmare especially for the Youth and the economically unfortunate. This has also made operational costs and working capital for Youth businesses very high and in most cases upsetting the cash-flow-forecast and defying business purpose. These incidents and reality are slowly but surely frustrating and dividing fellow compatriots, it has been going on for a while and it’s not getting any better. It is a widely accepted fact that it can take more than two decades for an applicant to be allocated land in this beautiful country (Mmegi, 2016).
Our fear and priority as a nation, particularly young compatriots, is to constructively and collectively interrogate the Land question with intention of generating a better approach to our Land challenges before the our nation regrettably reaches the ‘tipping point’.
Dear African Child (iv) will focus on the urgency of economic transformation, economic freedom and the search for Africa’s economic prosperity in our lifetime.
*Taziba is a Youth Advocate, Columnist & Researcher with keen interest in Youth Policy, Civic Engagement, Social Inclusion and Capacity Development (7189 firstname.lastname@example.org)
IEC Disrespects Batswana: A Critical Analysis
The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) has recently faced significant criticism for its handling of the voter registration exercise. In this prose I aim to shed light on the various instances where the IEC has demonstrated a lack of respect towards the citizens of Botswana, leading to a loss of credibility. By examining the postponements of the registration exercise and the IEC’s failure to communicate effectively, it becomes evident that the institution has disregarded its core mandate and the importance of its role in ensuring fair and transparent elections.
Incompetence or Disrespect?
One possible explanation for the IEC’s behavior is sheer incompetence. It is alarming to consider that the leadership of such a critical institution may lack the understanding of the importance of their mandate. The failure to communicate the reasons for the postponements in a timely manner raises questions about their ability to handle their responsibilities effectively. Furthermore, if the issue lies with government processes, it calls into question whether the IEC has the courage to stand up to the country’s leadership.
Another possibility is that the IEC lacks respect for its core clients, the voters of Botswana. Respect for stakeholders is crucial in building trust, and clear communication is a key component of this. The IEC’s failure to communicate accurate and complete information, despite having access to it, has fueled speculation and mistrust. Additionally, the IEC’s disregard for engaging with political parties, such as the Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC), further highlights this disrespect. By ignoring the UDC’s request to observe the registration process, the IEC demonstrates a lack of regard for its partners in the electoral exercise.
Rebuilding Trust and Credibility:
While allegations of political interference and security services involvement cannot be ignored, the IEC has a greater responsibility to ensure its own credibility. The institution did manage to refute claims by the DISS Director that the IEC database had been compromised, which is a positive step towards rebuilding trust. However, this remains a small glimmer of hope in the midst of the IEC’s overall disregard for the citizens of Botswana.
To regain the trust of Batswana, the IEC must prioritize respect for its stakeholders. Clear and timely communication is essential in this process. By engaging with political parties and addressing their concerns, the IEC can demonstrate a commitment to transparency and fairness. It is crucial for the IEC to recognize that its credibility is directly linked to the trust it garners from the voters.
The IEC’s recent actions have raised serious concerns about its credibility and respect for the citizens of Botswana. Whether due to incompetence or a lack of respect for stakeholders, the IEC’s failure to communicate effectively and handle its responsibilities has damaged its reputation. To regain trust and maintain relevance, the IEC must prioritize clear and timely communication, engage with political parties, and demonstrate a commitment to transparency and fairness. Only by respecting the voters of Botswana can the IEC fulfill its crucial role in ensuring free and fair elections.
Fuelling Change: The Evolving Dynamics of the Oil and Gas Industry
The Oil and Gas industry has undergone several significant developments and changes over the last few years. Understanding these developments and trends is crucial towards better appreciating how to navigate the engagement in this space, whether directly in the energy space or in associated value chain roles such as financing.
Here, we explore some of the most notable global events and trends and the potential impact or bearing they have on the local and global market.
Governments and companies around the world have been increasingly focused on transitioning towards renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. This shift is motivated by concerns about climate change and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Africa, including Botswana, is part of these discussions, as we work to collectively ensure a greener and more sustainable future. Indeed, this is now a greater priority the world over. It aligns closely with the increase in Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing being observed. ESG investing has become increasingly popular, and many investors are now looking for companies that are focused on sustainability and reducing their carbon footprint. This trend could have significant implications for the oil and fuel industry, which is often viewed as environmentally unsustainable. Relatedly and equally key are the evolving government policies. Government policies and regulations related to the Oil and Gas industry are likely to continue evolving with discussions including incentives for renewable energy and potentially imposing stricter regulations on emissions.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also played a strong role. Over the last two years, the pandemic had a profound impact on the Oil and Gas industry (and fuel generally), leading to a significant drop in demand as travel and economic activity slowed down. As a result, oil prices plummeted, with crude oil prices briefly turning negative in April 2020. Most economies have now vaccinated their populations and are in recovery mode, and with the recovery of the economies, there has been recovery of oil prices; however, the pace and sustainability of recovery continues to be dependent on factors such as emergence of new variants of the virus.
This period, which saw increased digital transformation on the whole, also saw accelerated and increased investment in technology. The Oil and Gas industry is expected to continue investing in new digital technologies to increase efficiency and reduce costs. This also means a necessary understanding and subsequent action to address the impacts from the rise of electric vehicles. The growing popularity of electric vehicles is expected to reduce demand for traditional gasoline-powered cars. This has, in turn, had an impact on the demand for oil.
Last but not least, geopolitical tensions have played a tremendous role. Geopolitical tensions between major oil-producing countries can and has impacted the supply of oil and fuel. Ongoing tensions in the Middle East and between the US and Russia could have an impact on global oil prices further, and we must be mindful of this.
On the home front in Botswana, all these discussions are relevant and the subject of discussion in many corporate and even public sector boardrooms. Stanbic Bank Botswana continues to take a lead in supporting the Oil and Gas industry in its current state and as it evolves and navigates these dynamics. This is through providing financing to support Oil and Gas companies’ operations, including investments in new technologies. The Bank offers risk management services to help oil and gas companies to manage risks associated with price fluctuations, supply chain disruptions and regulatory changes. This includes offering hedging products and providing advice on risk management strategies.
Advisory and support for sustainability initiatives that the industry undertakes is also key to ensuring that, as companies navigate complex market conditions, they are more empowered to make informed business decisions. It is important to work with Oil and Gas companies to develop and implement sustainability strategies, such as reducing emissions and increasing the use of renewable energy. This is key to how partners such as Stanbic Bank work to support the sector.
Last but not least, Stanbic Bank stands firmly in support of Botswana’s drive in the development of the sector with the view to attain better fuel security and reduce dependence risk on imported fuel. This is crucial towards ensuring a stronger, stabler market, and a core aspect to how we can play a role in helping drive Botswana’s growth. Continued understanding, learning, and sustainable action are what will help ensure the Oil and Gas sector is supported towards positive, sustainable and impactful growth in a manner that brings social, environmental and economic benefit.
Loago Tshomane is Manager, Client Coverage, Corporate and Investment Banking (CIB), Stanbic Bank Botswana
Brands are important
So, the conclusion is brands are important. I start by concluding because one hopes this is a foregone conclusion given the furore that erupts over a botched brand. If a fast food chef bungles a food order, there’d be possibly some isolated complaint thrown. However, if the same company’s marketing expert or agency cooks up a tasteless brand there is a country-wide outcry. Why? Perhaps this is because brands affect us more deeply than we care to understand or admit. The fact that the uproar might be equal parts of schadenfreude, black twitter-esque criticism and, disappointment does not take away from the decibel of concern raised.
A good place to start our understanding of a brand is naturally by defining what a brand is. Marty Neumier, the genius who authored The Brand Gap, offers this instructive definition – “A brand is a person’s gut feel about a product or service”. In other words, a brand is not what the company says it is. It is what the people feel it is. It is the sum total of what it means to them. Brands are perceptions. So, brands are defined by individuals not companies. But brands are owned by companies not individuals. Brands are crafted in privacy but consumed publicly. Brands are communal. Granted, you say. But that doesn’t still explain why everybody and their pet dog feel entitled to jump in feet first into a brand slug-fest armed with a hot opinion. True. But consider the following truism.
Brands are living. They act as milestones in our past. They are signposts of our identity. Beacons of our triumphs. Indexes of our consumption. Most importantly, they have invaded our very words and world view. Try going for just 24 hours without mentioning a single brand name. Quite difficult, right? Because they live among us they have become one of us. And we have therefore built ‘brand bonds’ with them. For example, iPhone owners gather here. You love your iPhone. It goes everywhere. You turn to it in moments of joy and when we need a quick mood boost. Notice how that ‘relationship’ started with desire as you longingly gazed upon it in a glossy brochure. That quickly progressed to asking other people what they thought about it. Followed by the zero moment of truth were you committed and voted your approval through a purchase. Does that sound like a romantic relationship timeline. You bet it does. Because it is. When we conduct brand workshops we run the Brand Loyalty ™ exercise wherein we test people’s loyalty to their favourite brand(s). The results are always quite intriguing. Most people are willing to pay a 40% premium over the standard price for ‘their’ brand. They simply won’t easily ‘breakup’ with it. Doing so can cause brand ‘heart ache’. There is strong brand elasticity for loved brands.
Now that we know brands are communal and endeared, then companies armed with this knowledge, must exercise caution and practise reverence when approaching the subject of rebranding. It’s fragile. The question marketers ought to ask themselves before gleefully jumping into the hot rebranding cauldron is – Do we go for an Evolution (partial rebrand) or a Revolution(full rebrand)? An evolution is incremental. It introduces small but significant changes or additions to the existing visual brand. Here, think of the subtle changes you’ve seen in financial or FMCG brands over the decades. Evolution allows you to redirect the brand without alienating its horde of faithful followers. As humans we love the familiar and certain. Change scares us. Especially if we’ve not been privy to the important but probably blinkered ‘strategy sessions’ ongoing behind the scenes. Revolutions are often messy. They are often hard reset about-turns aiming for a total new look and ‘feel’.
Hard rebranding is risky business. History is littered with the agony of brands large and small who felt the heat of public disfavour. In January 2009, PepsiCo rebranded the Tropicana. When the newly designed package hit the shelves, consumers were not having it. The New York Times reports that ‘some of the commenting described the new packaging as ‘ugly’ ‘stupid’. They wanted their old one back that showed a ripe orange with a straw in it. Sales dipped 20%. PepsiCo reverted to the old logo and packaging within a month. In 2006 Mastercard had to backtrack away from it’s new logo after public criticism, as did Leeds United, and the clothing brand Gap. AdAge magazine reports that critics most common sentiment about the Gap logo was that it looked like something a child had created using a clip-art gallery. Botswana is no different. University of Botswana had to retreat into the comfort of the known and accepted heritage strong brand. Sir Ketumile Masire Teaching Hospital was badgered with complaints till it ‘adjusted’ its logo.
So if the landscape of rebranding is so treacherous then whey take the risk? Companies need to soberly assess they need for a rebrand. According to the fellows at Ignyte Branding a rebrand is ignited by the following admissions :
Our brand name no longer reflects our company’s vision.
We’re embarrassed to hand out our business cards.
Our competitive advantage is vague or poorly articulated.
Our brand has lost focus and become too complex to understand. Our business model or strategy has changed.
Our business has outgrown its current brand.
We’re undergoing or recently underwent a merger or acquisition. Our business has moved or expanded its geographic reach.
We need to disassociate our brand from a negative image.
We’re struggling to raise our prices and increase our profit margins. We want to expand our influence and connect to new audiences. We’re not attracting top talent for the positions we need to fill. All the above are good reasons to rebrand.
The downside to this debacle is that companies genuinely needing to rebrand might be hesitant or delay it altogether. The silver lining I guess is that marketing often mocked for its charlatans, is briefly transformed from being the Archilles heel into Thanos’ glove in an instant.
So what does a company need to do to safely navigate the rebranding terrain? Companies need to interrogate their brand purpose thoroughly. Not what they think they stand for but what they authentically represent when seen through the lens of their team members. In our Brand Workshop we use a number of tools to tease out the compelling brand truth. This section always draws amusing insights. Unfailingly, the top management (CEO & CFO)always has a vastly different picture of their brand to the rest of their ExCo and middle management, as do they to the customer-facing officer. We have only come across one company that had good internal alignment. Needless to say that brand is doing superbly well.
There is need a for brand strategies to guide the brand. One observes that most brands ‘make a plan’ as they go along. Little or no deliberate position on Brand audit, Customer research, Brand positioning and purpose, Architecture, Messaging, Naming, Tagline, Brand Training and may more. A brand strategy distils why your business exists beyond making money – its ‘why’. It defines what makes your brand what it is, what differentiates it from the competition and how you want your customers to perceive it. Lacking a brand strategy disadvantages the company in that it appears soul-less and lacking in personality. Naturally, people do not like to hang around humans with nothing to say. A brand strategy understands the value proposition. People don’t buy nails for the nails sake. They buy nails to hammer into the wall to hang pictures of their loved ones. People don’t buy make up because of its several hues and shades. Make up is self-expression. Understanding this arms a brand with an iron clad clad strategy on the brand battlefield.
But perhaps you’ve done the important research and strategy work. It’s still possible to bungle the final look and feel. A few years ago one large brand had an extensive strategy done. Hopes were high for a top tier brand reveal. The eventual proposed brand was lack-lustre. I distinctly remember, being tasked as local agency to ‘land’ the brand and we outright refused. We could see this was a disaster of epic proportions begging to happen. The brand consultants were summoned to revise the logo. After a several tweaks and compromises the brand landed. It currently exists as one of the country’s largest brands. Getting the logo and visual look right is important. But how does one know if they are on the right path? Using the simile of a brand being a person – The answer is how do you know your outfit is right? It must serve a function, be the right fit and cut, it must be coordinated and lastly it must say something about you. So it is possible to bath in a luxurious bath gel, apply exotic lotion, be facebeat and still somehow wear a faux pas outfit. Avoid that.
Another suggestion is to do the obvious. Pre-test the logo and its look and feel on a cross section of your existing and prospective audience. There are tools to do this. Their feedback can save you money, time and pain. Additionally one must do another obvious check – use Google Image to verify the visual outcome and plain Google search to verify the name. These are so obvious they are hopefully for gone conclusions. But for the brands that have gone ahead without them, I hope you have not concluded your brand journeys as there is a world of opportunity waiting to be unlocked with the right brand strategy key.
Cliff Mada is Head of ArmourGetOn Brand Consultancy, based in Gaborone and Cape Town.