An international human rights organization, based in the United Kingdom, which works for the abolition of the death penalty, Reprieve, has written to the African Union Commission asking them to contact the Botswana government and find out why Patrick Gabaakanye was executed “in breach of the provisional measures”.
Gabaakanye, 65 from Marulamantsi ward in Serowe was executed on May 25 at Gaborone Central Prison following a conviction for the murder of a 75-year-old man at Gamosu land in Metsimotlhabe in 2010.
George Havenhand who is a case lawyer (Solicitor of England and Wales) from the international human rights organization stated: “We are looking into what steps to take in respect of our admissibility submissions in light of Patrick’s execution.”
The case work lawyer Havenhand told United Nations (UN) resident Coordinator in Botswana Anders Pedersen in a confidential e-mail seen by this publication, that “in particular, we are very concerned that Patrick appears to have been executed without a mental health assessment in circumstances where there were serious concerns about his mental health and intellectual functioning; that no decision appears to have been made on Patrick’s mercy petition; that the execution, like all executions in Botswana, was shrouded in secrecy, without prior notification given to family or lawyers, and in violation of international law; and that the execution was in breach of the African Commission’s provisional measures.”
Another casework lawyer (Solicitor of England and Wales), at Reprieve Zoe Bedford, wrote to Pedersen through e-mail on the African Commission proceedings.
She stated: “we have raised a number of issues, including the way in which executions are carried out by Botswana (addressing the secrecy, lack of notice and failure to allow access to the body), the execution method (hanging), the failure to conduct a mental health assessment and consequent risk of executing the mentally ill / intellectually disabled and the lack of due process (including not allowing sufficient time to prepare a clemency petition, the absence of rules governing the clemency process and the refusal to confirm that it will provide a copy of the clemency decision with reasoning).”
Weekend Post has established that through his attorneys, Gabaakanye had repeatedly made the Botswana authorities particularly President Dr. Lt. Gen. Seretse Khama Ian Khama aware that he will pursue his complaint before the AU Commission and requested that his execution be ‘stayed’ pending the resolution of the issues, in accordance with the provisions of the African Charter and international law.
However, he received no response from the government on his requests, until he was executed. His attorney Martin Dingake of Dingake Law Partners had made multiple requests for a mental health assessment for Gabaakanye, all of which have either been denied or ignored.
“As you may recall from your meeting with Martin and Harriet, there are real concerns about Patrick’s mental health and intellectual functioning, supported by a preliminary report from a forensic psychologist conducted on the basis of interview transcripts tests administered by Harriet and Martin,” Bedford highlighted to the UN Resident Coordinator in Botswana.
However, she said that there were no assessment of Patrick’s mental health carried out by the Botswana authorities and as such, that there is a real risk that his execution was in violation of international law.
However in terms of clemency procedure in Botswana, she said, there was a ruling which established various procedural rights which did not previously exist in Botswana, marking a positive development in capital jurisprudence in Botswana.
Among other things, she stated that the ruling established that: it is obligatory for the Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy to meet to consider every clemency petition and there is a constitutional right to petition for clemency and have his petition considered. She added that in order for the prisoner to exercise this constitutional right, it is necessary to provide prodeo counsel to advice on and prepare the clemency petition.
Indications suggest that domestic court rulings and rulings by the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights indicate that in Botswana, courts must consider mitigating and aggravating circumstances relevant to an offender’s culpability and moral blameworthiness in committing the specific offence.“This indicates some discretion in sentencing.”
According to a Deputy Director, Death Penalty Team (Solicitor of England and Wales) Harriet McCulloch, who is also placed at the human rights organization Reprieve reminded Pedersen; “international law requires that clemency procedures should adhere to minimum due process requirements but in Botswana, there were no due process protections provided in law or practice.”
In 2001, a South African national Marriette Bosch was also executed for murder by hanging for the murder of Maria Magdalene Wolmarans while her petition for clemency was pending with the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
Meanwhile, in the classified e-mail, Pedersen who is also United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Resident Representative in Botswana also expressed shock to the developments that Botswana’s death row inmate Gabaakanye eventually was executed.
“We are certainly aware of the fact that the execution most ‘unfortunately’ did take place,” he stated in the e-mail conversation on Friday, May 27, 2016 just two days after Gabaakanye’s execution.
Pedersen was responding to Havenhand as they were having an exchange at the (then) impending execution of Gabaakanye.
The confidential long e-mail communication was between Reprieve Casework lawyers, local human rights organization Ditshwanelo, Dingake Law Partners and Pedersen. They were assisting to facilitate Gabaakanye’s petition for clemency and/or pardon under “provisional measures”.
Professor Babcock who is an international expert on the death penalty, Bedford, Ditshanwelo, Doughty Street chambers and Christof Heyns, worked on the complaint to the African Commission on various issues, including the failure of the State to conduct a mental health assessment at any stage of the proceedings.
The Constitution of Botswana establishes an Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy, which advises the President to pardon or commute death sentences. It is understood that the Committee may only be summoned by the President, but the President is compelled to summon the Committee for every sentence of death.
The Constitution and the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act both state that the President may pardon any offense. Before anyone is executed, the President must approve the death sentence.
Gabaakanye was convicted for murder in 2010 and his appeal against conviction and sentence was dismissed by the Court of Appeal on July 30 last year.
Capital punishment is commonly used in Botswana, one of a few democracies which continue the practice. The nation debate on death penalty will continue to occupy the national discourse for a long time to come as citizens are evidently torn apart – some support the practice while others abhor it.
The Human Rights Committee has previously observed that Botswana should ensure that the death penalty is applied for only the most serious crimes, with an eventual goal of “abolition”.
The Committee recommended that Botswana make available complete information on the application of the death penalty, such as “the number of convictions for murder, the number of and reasons for the courts’ findings of mitigating circumstances, the number of death sentences imposed by the courts, and on the number of the persons executed year by year.”
The European Union has also called on Botswana to “rethink” death penalty.“Following the recent execution of Patrick Gabaankanye, in Gaborone, Botswana, the European Union recalls its opposition to the use of capital punishment which can never be justified. The European Union believes that the death penalty is a cruel and inhumane punishment and has consistently called for its universal abolition,” the EU said through a statement.
Stanbic Bank Botswana Quarterly Economic Review indicates that Botswana will fail to meet some of its Vision 2036 targets, particularly unemployment reduction and reaching high-income status.
The report says this is mainly due to the slow economic growth that the country is currently experiencing. This Quarterly Economic Review focuses on the 2020 Budget Speech.
The first paper reviews the entire budget with its key observations being that this budget is prepared as prescribed by the Public Finance Management Act; the priorities it seeks to address are drawn from Vision 2036 and the eleventh
The 2020 budget Speech, which was the maiden speech by the Minister of Finance and Economic Development, Dr. Thapelo Matsheka, and the first after the 2019 general elections, was delivered to Parliament on the 4th of February 2020.
It has been well received by the labour unions, business community, and the public at large as well as international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
It mainly derived its support from key facets including, emphasis on changing the business-as-usual approach to development; outlining the transformation agenda; fiscal reform that minimizes the negative impact on economic development and human welfare, competiveness and the decision to implement the 2019 negotiated and agreed public sector.
The budget’s progress review shows that economic growth was consistent with the NDP 11 projections, with growth of around 4 percent. At this growth rate, the country would neither ascend to a high-income status nor reduce unemployment towards the Vision 2036 target of a single digit.
Simple calculations of this review confirm that the economy will need to grow the Vision 2036’s target of 6 percent over the next 16 years for per capita income to increase from around USD 8,000.00 to above USD 12,000.00 in current prices.
Further, the population is anticipated to grow by only 2 percent per annum.
For this reason, the focal areas for the forthcoming FY’s budget include measures to increase economic growth towards an average of 6 percent per annum.
Economic diversification is reportedly progressing fairly well. The report says, the share of the non-mining private sector in value added has risen to 66 percent in 2018 from to 63 percent in 2015.
The sectoral pattern of growth showed that the performance of services sector (particularly transport & communications, trade, hotels & restaurants, and finance & business services) has been the silver lining and that of mining sector was subdued whilst the utility sector disappointed.
The drive towards the service sector of the economy, especially to low-productivity activities (tourism, public administration, wholesaling and retailing) does not bode well for the country’s development aspirations.
In the previous versions of this Quarterly Review, it was noted that there is need for the rethinking of economic diversification. Since the country’s domestic market is small, it is inevitable that economic diversification not only focus on broadening the product mix, but also the composition of exports and markets.
This understanding of economic diversification has not been embraced by this year’s budget. Consequently, Botswana’s exports are still overwhelmingly diamonds, which means that the rest of economic sectors are still highly dependent on foreign-exchange earnings from diamonds. Thus, “the transformation programme requires a review of the country’s entire ecosystem”.
The budget review of the economic context also depicts that an economy with positive medium-term prospects, with growth expected to recover to 4.4 percent in 2020 from the expected growth of 36 percent in 2019 largely due to faster growth of services sectors and, thereafter, to slow-down to 4 percent in 2021.
These projected growth rates are comparable to those of the IMF staff’s baseline scenario of 4.2 percent in 2020 and 4 percent in 2021. Thus, the business-as-usual scenario produces growth rates that are still too low to achieve Botswana’s development objectives and create enough jobs to absorb the new entrants into the labour market.
Trade tensions between the two major markets for diamond exports, viz., the United States of America and China, is one of the factors that are cited as contributing to, indeed, undermining not only the domestic growth, but also the fiscal position.
Another notable downside risk to both global and domestic growth is outbreak of the coronavirus in China around January 2020. This has been declared as a global health emergency. In an attempt to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus pneumonia, the Chinese authorities have ordered city lockdowns and extended holidays, of course, at the expense of near- term economic growth, according to the new Stanbic Bank Botswana report.
According to Nomura Holdings Inc., fewer migrant workers returned for work than in previous years and business activities have been slow to pick up. The havoc wreaked by the virus on the world’s second largest economy is likely to spill over to the global economy. In fact, it has resulted in a glut in crude oil and, thereby placed oil markets into a contango, i.e., a market structure where near-term prices trade at a discount to future contracts.
It also presents significant risks one of Botswana’s main drivers of economic growth, diversification and foreign exchange earnings. According to the Financial Times (February 13, 2020), Chinese tourists spent $130 billion overseas in 2018. Regardless of whether the growth materializes, the projected domestic growth rate would not transform the economy to a high-income one.
Progress towards reduction of unemployment, to a target of single digit, and poverty and achieving inclusive growth has also been relatively slow, the Stanbic Bank Botswana Review says.
Ministry of Presidential Affairs, Governance and Public Administration (MOPAGPA) has through the Office of the President (OP) proposed to avail Orapa House for use by private training institutions as well as research institutions involved in the area of technology development.
For a very long time the monumental building located in the heart of the city has been a white elephant, despite government purchasing it for nearly P80 million from De Beers in 2012.
However, government has now identified a productive use for the iconic building. “The overall vision is for the building to be transformed into a hub for digital technology research and development to be carried-out by institutions, such as; Limkokwing University, BIUST, BITRI and other relevant stakeholders.”
The decision was taken as government traverse a new path of transforming the economy from a mineral led economy to a knowledge based economy through the promotion of research and innovation. However, the facility will need major maintenance to be carried-out in order to meet the requirements of the proposed change in use.
“The work will include provision of laboratories, work stations, production areas and seminar rooms; audio visual centre, high speed internet connectivity, exhibition areas and offices,” reads the proposal note for the development.
These developments will be done through the refurbishment and maintenance of the main building, workshop, and ablution block, gate house, parking area, grounds, and access control and security service.
“There will be minimal modifications to the structure as it stands. The project is estimated to cost approximately P50, 000, 000,” says the report. In this regard, it is said, the initial scope of the OP facility will be modified to accommodate the envisaged digital technology research and development hub.
With funds needed to improve the building, OP has requested that; “the 2020/21 annual budget provision for Orapa House will need to be increased by P37,500,000 from P2,500,000 to P40,000,000 to kick start the maintenance works.” Funds will be sourced from the projects that have been delayed due to Covid-19 protocols during the 2020/21 financial year.
The building has been a thorny issue for government for years. Initially, OP was expected to move there but the move never materialised. At one point it was a question of whether the Office of the President and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development were planning to override a decision by Parliament which rejected the proposal to buy Orapa House under the belief that government may be buying its own property. The building was to be bought at a negotiated cost of P79 million.
Again in 2012, Government had wanted to buy Orapa House for a negotiated P79m but the Finance and Estimates Committee of Parliament had rejected the request because of the inconsistencies realised in the supporting documents of the proposed procurement. The valuation of the building was put at P74 million.
The Ministry of Lands and Housing had initially offered De Beers P73, 000,000 as the purchase price. However, De Beers countered with P85, 000,000. On negotiation and converging of the minds, the selling price was finally agreed at P79, 000,000.
Auditor General, Pulane Letebele, has expressed discontentment at the worrying and deteriorating state of brigades in the country.
In an audit inspection which was carried out at Tshwaragano Brigade in Gabane, a number of observations showed weaknesses and shortcomings in the conduct of the financial affairs of the institution.
According to Letebele’s report, former students of the brigade had been engaged to carry out maintenance works on the school premises, comprising of painting, tiling, plumbing and electrical works, which covered the period from July 2017 to June 2018.
Although the agreed maintenance period had elapsed, the works had not been completed because of unavailability of funds and this situation had persisted up till the time of inspection in November 2019.
Auditor General says arrangements should have been made in time for funds to be available to complete these relatively minor works even before the works commenced.
Various contractors had been engaged for clearing the bush and for the supply of concrete stones, pit and river sand and hiring equipment for digging the trench towards the construction of an auto mechanics workshop, the report said.
It stated that the cost of services and supplies provided totalled P117 949.80. However, despite the services and the supplies having been paid for, the construction works had not commenced for a long period afterwards, resulting in the trench filling back in.
The audit inquiries had not elicited satisfactory responses as both the institution and the Ministry had not accepted the responsibility for the project, although orders for the provision for the supplies had been made. For their part, the Ministry had stated that they had sub warranted funds for the purchase of porta cabins.
Letebele indicated that it is therefore confusing that a project which is critical to the functioning of an institution such as this one would commence without a well-defined plan.
Furthermore, the accounting and maintenance of records for the supplies items were not of the standard prescribed by the Supplies Regulations and Procedures in that the supplies ledger cards, the main accounting records for Government assets, were not properly maintained for the recording of receipts and issues.
This had resulted in significant discrepancies between physical and ledger balances, while in other instances the supplies items had not been recorded at all.
The report says 24 of the 91 new computers found in the computer laboratory at Kumakwane ABC campus were not recorded anywhere, as were the other computers in the storeroom which could not be counted due to the disorderly storage conditions.
The institution had entered into a contract agreement with a security company for the provision of security services at Tshwaragano Brigade, ABC and Horticulture campuses at Kumakwane for a 2-year period which ended in June 2018, WeekendPost learnt.
After the contract expired in June 2018, an extension was granted till the 30th September 2018. Since then, there has been no security service coverage for the institution to-date. According to Auditor General, in the face of prevailing crimes, it is of paramount importance that government properties be protected by provision of security services at all times.
At Tlokweng Brigade, it was noted that the kitchen staff were working under difficult conditions as the kitchen facilities and equipment, such as the cold room, tilting pot, food warmers and solar power for hot water were dysfunctional. The kitchen roof was leaking and men’s restrooms was not working. All these need to be brought to a reasonable and functional state of repair.
The kitchen staff should use a purpose-designed Rations Ledger for the recording of receipts and issues of foodstuffs to reflect the usage of those items. As far back as 2014 the Department of Buildings and Engineering Services had found that the house occupied by the bursar was uninhabitable on account of structural defects, the report said.
A site visit during the audit had established that the house was indeed unfit for occupation as there were cracks on the walls, power switches were not working and the roof was leaking. On a sadder note, there were a number of finished items of clothing, such as dresses, shirts, and jackets from students’ practical exercises from the Fashion Design Textiles Workshop.
Auditor General shared her take on this, saying: “I have not been able to ascertain the policy on the disposal of products from these practicals. A trace of 103 green acid-proof overalls which had been purchased in August 2018 had indicated that there was no record of these items having been recorded or issued, nor were they available in stock. I was not able to obtain any explanation for this situation.”
Kgatleng brigade was also audited and inspected by Auditor General who observed that the brigade has 26 institutional houses at Bokaa, both old campus and new campus. Some of these houses are very old and dilapidated, with two declared uninhabitable. The condition of the houses is a clear indication of lack of care and maintenance of these properties.
At the time of the audit, there was no contractor engaged for the provision of security guard services at the new campus, after expiry of the previous one in July 2019. It is hoped that steps would be taken to safeguard the security of the premises and government properties against any acts of hooliganism.
In August 2019, there was a break-in at the electrical and at the plumbing maintenance workshops and a number of high value items, such as drilling machines, bolt cutters, spanners and cables, were stolen. The break-in and theft were reported to the police.
“However, at the time of writing this report I was not aware of the outcome of the police investigation, nor of any loss report submitted in terms of the Supplies Regulations and Procedures,” Letebele said.