The Minister of Minerals Energy and Water Resources, Kitso Mokaila could find himself between a rock and a hard place as he is likely to make a decision on whether he takes up a proposed Water sector ministry or he shafts himself to the back bench.
Early indications are that the hard working minister is not a fan of the proposed breakaway Ministry because of its plethora of problems with the compounding nag being lack of financial resources.
With President Lt Gen Dr Ian Khama expected to announce a cabinet reshuffle soon after the adoption of proposed names of two additional Members of Parliament, Mokaila’s current Ministry is expected to be one of the major catalysts in the reshuffle as it will be split.
According to information gathered by this publication Mokaila is not interested in leading a broke Ministry. With the latest budget strategy paper released by the Ministry of Finance and Development Planning painting an unfavourable budgeting environment, and projecting a deficit, cash injection into the financially limping Water Utilities Corporation (WUC) is almost a nullity. WUC is expected to the anchor parastatal of the newly proposed Ministry.
Close associates of the Minister have revealed that he would rather be a member of the ruling Botswana Democratic Party’s back bench. “The lack of financial resources to support some of the envisaged projects in the water sector seems to be a stumbling block for him. He prefers the minerals and energy sector, which he believes have gone through teething problems but prospects for financing some projects in this sector are promising. The lack of financing in the water sector is almost a setup for failure,” said a BDP Member of Parliament who sympathises with Mokaila.
Another Ministry which will carry the cash loaded sectors of mining and energy is likely to be given to one of the two people who will be adopted by Parliament as additional Specially Elected legislators. The capitalisation of projects under the two sectors is known to be steep but prospects for success in securing funders are always positive. Mokaila, should he take up the Water Ministry will also be tasked with dealing waste water issues, and currently the WUC needs serious capitalisation to effectively carry out the function.
THE CONUNDRUM FACING WUC
WUC needs a whopping P170 billion to contain the water crisis threatening Botswana. This is contained in a report from a study that was sanctioned by President Lt. Gen. Ian Khama that WUC carry out a “comprehensive assessment of water and wastewater situation” in the country.
According to the report, which was presented to not only Minister of Minerals, Energy and Water resources (MMEWR) but also to a full cabinet last year, WUC conceded that “the water situation requires immediate attention with huge resources.” The total amount of P170 billion is divided between water and wastewater interventions as well as among short, medium and long term.
For water, the government will need P165 billion while for waste water a total of close to P5 billion will be required. Botswana’s budget as presented by Minister of Finance and Development Planning Kenneth Matambo last year stood at a sum of P11 billion and it remains to be seen where government will source out the P170 billion to totally control the water situation in the country. The latest projection by the Ministry of Finance predicts a deficit as well.
Some sources in the top management at WUC had told this publication that efforts will be made to rope in private sector to contribute in the water security as a development process of the country. Some of the top priority projects North-South carrier scheme upgrading works estimated at P1.53 billion (funding available) and to be implemented from now till February 2017.
There will also be a North-South carrier 2.2 pipeline and associated works, Gaborone Wastewater reclamation plant, and Chobe Zambezi water transfer scheme at 66 billion and to take close to 7 years but funds are not available. Other projects include Gaborone master plan, Lobatse Masterplan, refurbishment of Mambo wastewater treatment works as well as Boteti southern and central cluster which will cost around 4 billion and 3 years.
According to the report, some projects include national water loss control project, Letlhakane wastewater, north East and Tutume sub district, and Selibe Phikwe Serule Transfer Scheme which are scheduled to take around 3 years at the cost of 3 billion – are also in the plan of the projects.
The executive was also reminded that some of the action points should be to “develop and enhance water governance – development of trade effluent agreement, development of the regulator, enhancement of institutions.” The report suggests that there is need to profile consumers against water quality required, citing Agriculture and mining requiring less potable water for their operations.
“Reinforcing the culture of conversation and demand management emphasising on huge consumers recycling water – this include institutions such as BMC, boarding schools, and, build water efficiency into building codes with all households urged to have rain water harvesting.”
The report analysed the 16 management centres across the country, national surface and groundwater sources versus demand clusters prior to the 2008 water sector reforms. Cabinet was told that “only 2 management centres of Kanye and Lobatse are in a bad situation whilst Ghanzi, Tsabong and Masunga require closer monitoring – as their situation is also undesirable. Generally the country reflects a healthy view with regards to water sources.
Through the map, WUC illustrated that the Maun, Ghanzi, Lobatse and Kanye management centres have acute water supply deficit of more than 30%. “Basically the picture reflects extreme infrastructure deficits generally throughout the country.
It was also highlighted that many parts of the country experience serious water loss ranging from 16 – 58% and these include parts of Tsabong, Kanye, Lobatse, Molepolole, Ghanzi, Maun, Kasane, Masunga, Serowe and Mochudi. The only areas that have acceptable water losses are Gaborone, Palapye, Francistown, Selebi Phikwe and Letlhakane management centres.
The report further states that areas currently with conventional sewerage system are: Maun, Gaborone, Kasane, Ghanzi, Francistown, Selibe Phikwe, Tonota, Palapye, Serowe, Mahalapye, Shoshong, Bobonong, Mochudi, Mogoditshane, Tlokweng, Gabane, Lobatse, Goodhope, Jwaneng, Ramotswa and Orapa.
“Out of these only Gaborone, Francistown, Jwaneng and Selibe Phikwe have huge potential for reclamation.” However they need to be refurbished and upgraded to improve efficiency, report says.
The study found that Trade Effluent Agreements need to be put in place to ensure pre-treatment prior to discharging into the system – Botswana Meat Commission (BMC), tannery, poultry, textiles are cited as examples in the report. Effluent currently being discharged into the environment should be further treated for re-use.
It is understood that the total quantity that can be reclaimed from these systems is 50% as minimum of treatment plant capacity.
An international report complied in South Africa dubbed ‘Legal Gender Recognition in Botswana’ says that the transgender and gender non-conforming people in Botswana live a miserable life. The community experiences higher levels of discrimination, violence and ill health.
In this report, it has been indicated that this is because their gender identity, which does not conform to narrowly define societal norms, renders them more vulnerable. Gender identity is a social determinant of health, which means that it is a factor that influences people’s health via their social context, their communities and their experiences of social exclusion. The Ministry of Health and Wellness has recognized this, and transgender people are considered a vulnerable population under the Botswana Second National Strategic Framework for HIV and AIDS 2010-2017.
In a recent study that shed light on the lived experiences of transgender and gender non-conforming people in Botswana, transgender persons often experience discrimination because of their gender identity and expression. The study was conducted by the University of Cape Town, LEGABIBO, BONELA, as well as Rainbow Identity Association and approved by the Health Ministry as well as the University of Botswana.
Of the 77 transgender and gender non-conforming people who participated in the study, less than half were employed. Two thirds, which is approximately 67% said that they did not have sufficient funds to cover their everyday needs. Two in five had hidden health concerns from their healthcare provider because they were afraid to disclose their gender identity.
More than half said that because of their gender identity, they had been treated disrespectfully at a healthcare facility (55%), almost half (46%) said they had been insulted at a healthcare facility, and one quarter (25%) had been denied healthcare because of their gender identity.
At the same time, the ‘Are we doing right’ study suggests that transgender and non-conforming people might be at higher risks of experiencing violence and mental ill-health, compared to the general population. More than half had experienced verbal embarrassment because of their gender identity, 48% had experienced physical violence and more than one third (38%) had experienced sexual violence.
The study showed that mental health concerns were high among transgender and gender non-conforming people in Botswana. Half of the transgender and gender non-conforming study participants (53%) showed signs of depression. Between one in four and one in six showed signs of moderate or severe anxiety (22% among transgender women, 24% among transgender men and 17% among gender non-conforming people).
Further, the study revealed that many had attempted suicide: one in three transgender women (32%), more than one in three transgender men (35%) and three in five gender non-conforming people (61%).
International research, as well as research from Botswana, suggests that not being able to change one’s gender marker has a negative impact on access to healthcare and mental health and wellbeing. The study further showed that one in four transgender people in Botswana (25%) had been denied access to healthcare. This is, at least in part, linked to not being able to change one’s gender marker in the identity documents, and thus not having an identity document that matches one’s gender identity and gender expression.
In its Assessment of Legal and Regulatory Framework for HIV, AIDS and Tuberculosis, the Health Ministry noted that “transgender persons in Botswana are unable to access identity documents that reflect their gender identity, which is a barrier to health services, including in the context of HIV. In one documented case, a transwoman’s identity card did not reflect her gender identity- her identity card photo indicated she was ‘male’. When she presented her identity card at a health facility, a health worker called the police who took her into custody.”
The necessity of a correct national identity document goes beyond healthcare. The High Court of Botswana explains that “the national identity document plays a pivotal role in every Motswana’s daily life, as it links him or her with any service they require from various institutions. Most activities in the country require every Motswana to produce their identity document, for identification purposes of receiving services.”
According to the Legal Gender Recognition in Botswana report, this effectively means that transgender, whose gender identity and expression is likely to be different from the sex assigned to them at birth and from what is recorded on their identity document, cannot access services without risk of denial or discrimination, or accusations of fraud.
In this context, gays and lesbians advocacy group LEGABIBO has called on government through the Department of Civil and National Registration to urgently implement the High Court rulings on gender marker changes. As stated by the High Court in the ND vs Attorney General of Botswana judgement, identity cards (Omang) play an important role in the life of every Motswana. Refusal and or delay to issue a Motswana with an Omang is denying them to live a complete and full-filing life with dignity and violates their privacy and freedom of expression.
The judgement clarified that persons can change their gender marker as per the National Registrations Act, so changing the gender marker is legally possible. There is no need for a court order. It further said the person’s gender is self-identified, there is no need to consult medical doctors.
LEGABIBO also called on government to develop regulations that specify administrative procedure to change one’s gender marker, and observing self-determination process. Further, the group looks out for government to ensure members of the transgender community are engaged in the development of regulations.
“We call on this Department of Civil and National Registration to ensure that the gender marker change under the National Registration Act is aligned to the Births and Deaths Registry Act to avoid court order.
Meanwhile, a gay man in Lobatse, Moabi Mokenke was recently viciously killed after being sexually violated in the streets of Peleng, shockingly by his neighbourhood folks. The youthful lad, likely to be 29-years old, met his fate on his way home, from the wearisome Di a Bowa taverns situated in the much populated township of Peleng Central.
CEO of Khato Civils Mongezi Mnyani has come out of the silence and is going all way guns blazing against the company’s adversaries who he said are hell-bent on tarnishing his company’s image and “hard-earned good name”
Speaking to WeekendPost from South Africa, Mnyani said it is now time for him to speak out or act against his detractors. Khato Civils has done several projects across Africa. Khato Civils, a construction company and its affiliate engineering company, South Zambezi have executed a number of world class projects in South Africa, Malawi and now recently here in Botswana.
About ten (10) Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) parliamentary candidates who lost the 2019 general election and petitioned results this week met with UDC Vice President, Dumelang Saleshando to discuss the way forward concerning the quandary that is the legal fees put before them by Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) lawyers.
For a while now, UDC petitioners who are facing the wrath of quizzical sheriffs have demanded audience with UDC National Executive Committee (NEC) but in vain. However after the long wait for a tete-a-tete with the UDC, the petitioners met with Saleshando accompanied by other NEC members including Dr. Kesitegile Gobotswang, Reverend Mpho Dibeela and Dennis Alexander.